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Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Archive 2218

 

The pictograms and symbols of the Cave of Pedra Pintada (Pará, Brazil), evidence of the ancient Amazonian culture

Today academic-archeology supports migrations through the Bering Strait, as the only route used by the ancient Homines Sapientes to populate the New World. Usually academic-archeologists mention two paleo-Asian immigration: one dating to 40 thousand years ago, and the second dating back to 14 thousand years ago, which gave rise to the Clovis culture (New Mexico, United States of America). This theory has, however, large gaps: how is it possible that archaeologist Niede Guidon has found the remains of Homo Sapiens in Piauí (Brazil), dating back to 12,000 years ago? How is it possible that the same Brazilian scholar has found and documented remains of hearths dating to 60,000 years ago? How is it possible to explain the findings of Monte Verde (Chile), dating back to 33,000 years ago? The reality is that the theory of Bering must be complemented by other theories, such as the polygenetic, supported by the eminent French scholar Paul Rivet, the “Antarctic” supported by the Portuguese Mendes Correa, the theory of the Brazilian archaeologist Maria Beltrao, and especially that of Brazilian Niede Guidon. According to these theories, scientifically proven as in the case of Niede Guidon, South America was initially populated by Homo sapiens, and only later North America was populated. Based on the theory of archaeologist Niede Guidon we can formulate this hypothesis: limited groups of Homo Sapiens, who occasionally came from Africa, were the first human groups to enter America, 60,000 years ago. It is estimated that their number did not exceed 1,000. Because they had no rivals for food, their evolution was slow. These Homines Sapientes were those who founded the first, and the oldest American culture, that of Piaui. Over the millennia, their numbers began to grow, and some of them began to emigrate. The Piaui society began to stratify, and was heading towards an evolution of the civilization. As early as 40 thousand years ago others Homines Sapientes (paleo-Asian), had entered the continent from Bering, and others (paleo-Polynesian), had arrived to the American coast, in a period between 30 and 15 thousand years ago. Around 12 thousand years ago the “Amazonian Sapiens” or the natives of the area that we know today as the Amazon River Basin, had developed a complex knowledge that we can identify today as the “primitive Amazonian culture”. Some of them remained in Piauí, while others, around 10,000 B.C., did emigrate to the Amazon River, and settled at the place which is now called “Cave of Pedra Pintada” (not to be confused with the huge Pedra Pintada, located in Roraima State, or “Painted Rock”). The Cave of Pedra Pintada, located near the town of Monte Alegre (State of Pará), was studied in detail by archaeologist Anna Roosevelt, in 1991 and 1992. The researcher, found 20 layers of earth that were dated using 56 radiocarbon tests and 13 thermo luminescence tests. The oldest stratum, where she found stone tools and quartz was dated 9300 B.C. Later on were studied other more recent layers, such as those corresponding to the Paiyuna (5500 B.C.), Aroxí (1000 B.C.) and Paricó (1400 A.D.) cultures. In 2009, during a long trip to Brazil, I was able to reach the town of Monte Alegre and study in depth the Cave of Pedra Pintada. It is possible that the authors of the pictographs and symbols of the Cave of Pedra Pintada, were descendants of the Sapiens of Piaui? In any case, the fundamental event that happens around 12 thousand years ago (10,000 B.C.), was the arrival of the paleo-Asian and Paleo-Polynesians to South America (and therefore also in the Amazon River Basin), and coincide with a catastrophic event. In the 10,000 B.C. In fact, did happen a terrible climate change, causing not only the sudden dissolution of glaciers around the planet (which corresponds to the end of the Wisconsin-Wurm glaciation), but also the massive extinction of countless species of animals, the so-called megafauna (megaterium, saber-toothed tiger, Macrauchenia, etc.). In my opinion this global event could corresponds to the “Great Flood”, which is mentioned in the books of the major religions of all peoples of the Earth. In the Cave of Pedra Pintada anyway, I got to enjoy a multitude of symbols, some zoomorphic and others anthropomorphic, as well as various representations of the Sun. Over the millennia ancient Amazonian colonized vast territories and around 6000 B.C., they began growing corn and cassava, as well as producing ceramic containers, for utilitarian or ritual reason. There are a lot of signs of their presence in the so-called “terra preta” (“black earth”, in Portuguese language). It is a type of soil in which there are remains of food (fish flakes), and residues of charred wood and ceramics. Other evidence of ancient human presence in the Amazon River Basin are the so-called sambaquis, mounds of shells, polished stones and shells of turtles. At Tapeirinha (Pará), some scientists found the remains of ancient sambaquis with an antiquity of 7000 years ago. During the millennia other important cultures developed in the Amazon River Basin. One of them was the Guarita culture, but was not advanced from a social point of view, infact was not differentiated (there were no dominant classes). Then there were the Tapajoara and Marajoara cultures. At the same time we must not forget that South America was known by some people of the Middle East starting from 9000 B.C. due to occasional trips (see my articles on Petroglyph of Ingá, Cromlech of Calcoene and the lost City of Ingrejil) and after some expeditions (the Sumerians in the New World, see my article on the Fuente Magna and the Monolith of Pokotia). These limited groups of Caucasoid contributed therefore to modify the genetic heritage of the peoples of the Amazon River Basin and the Andes, over the centuries. The melting pot of peoples that was slowly forming began the great cultures of Paititi and Moxos, and the great megalithic Andean cultures (Sacsayhuaman, Tiahuanaco and Marcahuasi, all pre-Incan). Only in-depth study of the various archaeological sites in the Amazon River Basin, as the Cave of Pedra Pintada of Pará, the Pedra Pintada of Roraima, the pictograms of Piauí, the petroglyph of Ingá, the Cromlech Calcoene, the Cave of the Roncador, the petroglyphs of Pusharo, Jinkiori and Quiaca, and the amazonian geoglyphs near the Brazil-Bolivia border, will get closer to the truth of the fascinating prehistory of South America.

YURI LEVERATTO Copyright 2011

Partial bibliography: Roosevelt, Anna C. et al. (1996) “Paleo-Indian Cave Dwellers in the Amazon: The Peopling of the Americas.” Science 272

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A colossal Pedra Pintada, emblema da antiga civilizaçao amazónica

Na minha recente viagem a Roraima teve a oportunidade de conhecer e estudar a famosa Pedra Pintada, uma enorme rocha que se ergue imponente na savana da Boa Vista. É cerca de 100 metros de comprimento, e tem uma altura e largura de aproximadamente 30 metros. Vista de longe parece um elipsóide estranho, ou um ovo, quase como o ovo primordial a partir do qual a vida se originou na Terra. A Pedra Pintada é, ao mesmo tempo, uma biblioteca de pedra muito antiga, um mausoléu, porque havia vários crânios e talvez um templo, lugar de adoração dos antigos habitantes da Amazônia. Na frente da pedra existem muitas pinturas. Imediatamente vi duas grandes cobras de duas cabeças, desenhados muito altas, cerca de quatro metros de altura. A serpente, em grande parte das culturas americanas, é o símbolo do mundo subterrâneo, e a doble cabeça significa, de acordo com minha interpretação, o eterno retorno, ou a vida após a morte. Note-se que a Pedra Pintada área foi longo no centro do famoso lago de Manoa, cuja existência real foi comprovada por uma expedição científica conducida por Roland Stevenson, com a ajuda de geólogos Federico Cruz, Cruz e Woeltye Gert Salomão. Segundo Stevenson, o lago secou de 1300 AD. É provável que muitos pictogramas foram feitas utilizando canoas. Há também algumas representações do sol com oito raias, além de muitas linhas paralelas e pontos, na minha opinião, são conceitos numéricos. Olhando atentamente a parede principal podem ser vistos pictogramas que alguns pesquisadores tem interpretado como carros dirigidos por cavalos, mas ambos carros e os cavalos (que foi extinto na América cerca de 12.000 anos atrás), não houve no Novo Mundo, no passado pré-colombiano recente (10.000 aC – 1492 dC). Tudo isso poderia sugerir que os artistas antigos que fizeram esses desenhos foram relacionados com mitos que podem ser originários de outras partes da Terra. No entanto, a Pedra Pintada continua escondendo outros segredos. No lado esquerdo por cima do muro principal há uma rocha, onde há pictogramas descrevendo cobras e pontos alinhados. Para alguns pesquisadores, é um menir, uma pedra monolítica, cuja função pode ser a adoração do sol. No lado direito por cima do muro principal, existem varias cavernas que foram interpretados pelo estudioso francês Marcel Homet, como urnas funerárias. O professor Homet(1897-1991), que estudou a Pedra Pintada em 1950, também encontrou alguns ossos humanos e vários crânios pintados de vermelho. Em sua opinião os crânios encontrados pertenciam ao atlantes e indicaram uma clara origem Cro-Magnon. Algumas lendas dizem que, sob a Pedra Pintada há uma grande caverna conectada à cavernas externas através de uma estreita passagem. Acredita-se que os antigos habitantes celebraram secretamente cerimônias esotéricas para manter viva as tradições antigas. Na verdade, vigorosamente batendo no chão com o calcanhar se sente um baque e um eco particular, instigante que a existência da caverna subterrânea é verdade. Usando uma corda e uma lanterna tentei entrar no fundo da caverna, mas a passagem está bloqueada e exigiria o trabalho de muitas pessoas para remover as pedras e lama endurecido ao longo dos anos. Nas proximidades da Pedra Pintada há muitas outras rochas, alguns dos quais contêm pictogramas, na minha opinião, mais recentes que a Pedra Pintada. Uma, chamada Pedra de Pereira, é muito interessante. Acho que há algumas representações de quipus dos Incas. Os Incas viajaram freqüentemente para a área de Roraima, o longo do grande camino pré-colombiano chamado Nahanimi-Wi, que vai de Pasto para Roraima, recentemente descoberto e documentado pelo pesquisador chileno Ronald Stevenson. Provavelmente o quipu foi muito interessante para os povos amazônicos que viviam perto da Pedra Pintada, que representavam na rocha de Pereira com seus ídolos, como a serpente. Hoje você não pode dizer com certeza se a Pedra Pintada foi também um centro cerimonial ou local de culto. Até o momento os estudiosos não encontraram nenhuma evidência arqueológica necessária para apoiar essa tese. A verdade é que o lugar onde há o monólito é mágico. La Pedra Pintada é um lugar onde vocé pode respirar um ar cheio de lendas e hipóteses fantásticas. Espera-se que este monumento maravilhoso são preservado no futuro, como prova de conhecimentos antigos, agora perdidos.

YURI LEVERATTO Copyright 2011

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