An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis
Search

Recent Updates

Archive 2427

Plato and Atlantis: the beginning of the greatest archaeological enigma of humanity

of

Axel Famiglini

 

Plato was one of the greatest philosophers of antiquity, along with Aristotle, and perhaps even the whole of humanity. And Plato was the one who broke the case Atlantis. Plato (whose real name was Aristocles – the name derives from the greek Plato platos which means that the amplitude and seems to have been given or his physical strength or amplitude of the forehead or the elegance of the style), born in Athens in 428/427 BC, was of noble origin: in fact the father Ariston claimed to be a descendant of King Codrus and mother Perictione was said related to Solon. From a young age he was interested in politics and because of his kin (Critias himself, the famous Athenian politician, was the maternal uncle of Plato), he found himself close to the government of the Thirty Tyrants, but he remained disappointed as soon as he saw absolutely rise to the the new system according to the principles of justice and fairness that he hoped they did so as a thread in the new government. Plato so even before the fall of the government of the Thirty Tyrants (401 BC) is separated from the political and the death of his teacher Socrates in 399 began to take study trips, as was the custom at the Greek scholars, in the most refined culturally the then known world. Left for the mysterious Egypt, where he remained for about three years, then went to Cyrene, and in Ancient Greece, where he met the Pythagorean Archytas. After many vicissitudes in Syracuse to create his famous “government of the philosophers” and after the establishment of the equally famous Academy in Athens, Plato, now old, spent the last years of his life in his hometown, where he died at the age of 81 years in 348/347 BC Plato wrote many philosophical works which expounded his theories on many aspects of man and the universe. In two of his dialogues also spoke of an extraordinary and mysterious myth that would have fascinated hundreds of scholars since our days that regards the origin of mankind. It ‘just the myth of Atlantis.

Charles Berlitz, noted scholar of the mystery of Atlantis, said: ” Atlantis is one of the most well known of the mysterious stories of the world. The name of the lost continent evokes in us a strange familiarity, almost lost memories, and it is not surprising For thousands of years our ancestors have speculated on this issue . ”

So I think there is no need to dwell on. So we enter the two dialogues that laid the foundations of the age-old quest for Atlantis, the “Timaeus” and “Critias”.

The Timaeus

The part of the Timaeus that Atlantis is short and covers only introduces the most comprehensive speech that is done later on this island of Atlantis in the Critias. So in the Timaeus presents a preview of the story of Atlantis, explaining, as we read, how the myth has passed from Egypt to Greece and to the narrator.

Here’s what it says in the Timaeus, Chapter III:

I will tell an old story, as I heard from a young man. Why Critias was then, as he said, already at the age of ninety, and I about ten years old. We were celebrating the day of cureotide Apaturia: and that every time the party is commonly done by children, even then it was done, and our fathers proposed premiums of poetic declamation. They were then recited many poems by many poets, and many of us sang the poems of Solon boys, because they were new at the time.

He who speaks is Critias the Younger. In his speech the narrator is Critias the Elder, who refers to Critias the Younger, his nephew, the story of Atlantis. In turn Critias the old man had learned the story from Dropide, his father, who in turn had learned the story from Solon, who was his relative. Solon was a great Athenian politician who lived between 630 and 560 BC. He made many important reforms in administrative and social and reorganized the constitution. Having reformed the state, Solon went to many Mediterranean countries, including Egypt and Lydia. The trip to Egypt will affect us later. The Apaturia are an ancient festival ion Phratrios dedicated to Zeus, Athena Phratria and later to Dionysus.

Now one of our tribe, or so he thought at that time, and also to please Critias, said that Solon seemed to have been not only the most knowledgeable in other things, but also in poetry the most noble of all poets. Then the old man, because I remember it well, much rejoiced, and said with a smile: << But if he or Amynander of Athamania, had not occupied the surface of the poem, but seriously, as others had done, and the story that brought her here from ‘Egypt, and had not been forced to neglect it for sedition and other evils, which he found on his return here, or Hesiod or Homer or any other poet would have been, as I think, more glorious than he >>. << And what was asked << >> to that story, or Critias? >>. The story << >> << Critias said the company’s largest and most worthy of being celebrated by all, this city worked, yes, but fame did not come to us for the time and the death of those >> the time came. And that: << narrates from the beginning that never told Solon, and how and from whom he learned how to >> true.

As we know, Solon wrote several poems, but such a poem you no trace. Most likely the poem is entirely lost even in the title because it appeared unfinished.

 

There is in Egypt << >> << Delta said Critias, whose top divides the Nile, a province that Saitic, and the largest city of this district is Sais, the birthplace of the king Amasis. According to locals, the origin of the city is due to a goddess, who is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, and in Greek, as they say, Athena: and they are very good friends of the Athenians and claim that they are somehow the their own bloodline.

Plato compares the goddess Neith with Athena. Plutarch in “De Isis et Osiris, 9, 32 and 62” identifies with Isis Neith. However Neith was worshiped in the very Saite branch of the Nile delta, and then Isis does not seem to be involved in the pre-dynastic cult of the goddess Neith. Cicero, in his “De Natura Deorum,” he says about the “De Natura Deorum, 23.59”: << The first Minerva (Athena), as mentioned above, is the mother of Apollo, the second daughter of the Nile and is worshiped in Sais … >>. Interesting is the fact that his name Tehenut , the Libyan indicates its foreign origin from Egypt. It ‘a warrior goddess and probably this was associated with the Greek goddess Athena. Amasis was a king of the XXVI Dynasty (569 BC)

Now Solon said that, now there, I was received with great honor, and who, having questioned the facts ancient priests most learned of the matter, he found that neither he nor any other Greek knew, so to speak, nothing of such things. And once, wanting to provoke them to talk about old facts, began to speak of the events here think they are the oldest, and fabled of Phoroneus, which is called the first man, and Niobe, and after the flood of Deucalion and of Pyrrha, they were survivors, and mustered their descendants, and remembering the times he tried to calculate the date of the events of which he spoke.

According to tradition, contains the name of the priests he spoke to Solon in Plutarch’s biography of Solon (Life of Solon, 26) says that the Athenian legislator had with Psenopi Sonchi of Heliopolis and Sais. Plato says Proclus, philosopher who lived in the fifth century after Christ, his teachers Pateneit the high priest, the priest at Heliopolis and the Hierophant Ochlapi Ethimone to Sebenyt.

Phoroneus was considered the first man in the main Peloponnesian legends. Son of the river-god Inachus and the nymph Melia, had two brothers and Aegialeus Phegeus. Phoroneus was chosen by Hera and Poseidon as arbitrator in the dispute over the possession of the Peloponnesus between these two, and he opted in favor of Hera. It is said that Phoroneus has taught men to meet in the city and to use fire. Niobe was the daughter of the nymph and Phoroneus Teledice (or Peito or Cerdo). It would be the first mortal to be united to Zeus. It generated Argos and Pelasgus.

But one of those ‘priests, who was very old, he said: – O Solon, Solon, you Greeks are always children, and an old Greek does not exist! And having heard, Solon asked: – How? What is this you say? – You, filming that, you are all young soul, because in it you have not placed any old opinion of an ancient tradition, no teaching hoary with age. And the reason is this. Many and many ways have been and will be the extermination of men, the largest for the fire and water, other children for many other reasons.

Here Plato refers to the tradition of many cultures the world of cyclical destruction of the world, which can be found mainly in the pre-Columbian cultures.

Because what also with you, it is said, that when Phaethon, son of the Sun, having yoked the chariot of his father for not being able to lead him to the path of his father, burnt everything on earth and himself perished electrocuted, this the appearance of a fairy tale, but the truth is the deviation of the bodies moving around the earth and in the sky, and the destruction by fire and very long intervals of all that is on earth.

Phaethon, who was a son of the Sun, he was raised by his mother, not knowing who the father was. When Phaeton became a teenager, his mother revealed the true identity of the father. Then he asked his father a sign of his birth and Elio, after some hesitation, allowed his son to drive the chariot of the sun by making a number of recommendations. Phaeton left following the path followed by the sun, but he was scared by the height and the figures of the zodiac animals, brought the chariot too close to the ground, burning it and then headed too high arousing complaints of the stars. Then Jupiter was forced to throw a lightning bolt to avoid a universal conflagration and precipitated Phaeton in the river Eridanus.

The interpretation of the myth of Phaeton in the Timaeus is awesome! In fact, the Egyptian scholar claims to know the effects that the planets orbit the comet and in truth it can happen (as has happened recently in Jupiter) that the orbit is thus diverted from one planet to cause the fall of the meteorite on the planet itself or the planet’s orbit can intersect the orbit of the asteroid. Probably, as will be argued later, Atlantis was destroyed just after the fall of a meteorite.

So therefore the inhabitants of the mountains and high places, arid die than those who dwell by the rivers and the sea. And the Nile, as our savior in other things, so spreading saves us time from this calamity. But when the gods, purifying the land with the water, the flood, the peasants and shepherds who inhabit the mountains are saved, but the inhabitants of your cities are carried by the rivers into the sea. Now in this region then or ever the water flows from the heights on the field, but on the contrary soles emerge from the earth. So for these reasons, therefore, it is said that here are more laid up those old memories, but in truth, in all places, where neither cold nor hot to prevent immoderate, when there is always more and less when the human race.

This theory is also found in Plato’s “Laws”:

<< Athenian: Come on, let’s consider one of the many destructions, such as that which once was because of the flood. Kleinias And what consideration we do about it? Athens: We have to think that those who then escaped to the destruction had to be shepherds of the mountains, past and little sparks of humanity that are being saved on the highest places. >>

And how many things have happened or with you either here or in another place, which we know by reputation, if any there be good or great or otherwise distinguished, were all written from the age old temples here and so preserved . But to you or other people not just every time you establish the use of letters and all that is needed for the city, again in the usual interval of years as a disease breaks the rushing flood heavenly and leaves you gl’ignari only of letters and muses, so come back again as young men, not knowing anything about what happened here or at your location in the old days .. Therefore Codest your genealogies, which thou, O Solon, now esponevi little different by the tales of children, because first of all remember a single deluge the earth, whereas before it took place many, and then you do not know who lived in your land the most beautiful and good generation of men, from which you and the whole city, which time is yours, you are descended, being left Piccol seed, but you ignore this, because for many generations the survivors died of silent letters.

Egypt has always been the seat of ancient traditions. We know from archaeological findings and the testimony classic recorded the history since ancient times, from 10,000. BC to 23,000. BC!

In fact, at one time, or Solon, before the great destruction of the water, this republic of the Athenians was great in war and in everything, and especially ruled by good laws, and it will give wonderful deeds and institutions the most beautiful of how much we have known to fame under heaven -. Thus Solon said that much marveled at hearing these things, and that the priests prayed with great fervor to tell the exact order and the whole history of its former citizens. And the priest said to him – I have no difficulty, or Solon, but speak and for you and your city, and especially in honor of the goddess, who once had the luck in your city and this, and brought up and instructed, your a thousand years ago, getting your seed from Gaia and Hephaestus, and after this. And this our system is written in the scriptures, the number of eight thousand years. So your citizens lived nine thousand years ago, ‘I’ll tell you in short the laws and the most beautiful of the acts performed by them: then again thoroughly expose all orders at ease with the help of the same scriptures. Consider therefore their laws looking to our own; and now here you will find many examples of those that then existed at you, and above all, the class of priests separated from the others, and after this the craftsmen, as each exercise by itself without mixing their job to another, and so those of shepherds and hunters and farmers. And you’ve also learned that the warrior class is here separated from all classes, and that they were required by law to not concern themselves with anything, except the things of war. Add the shape of their armor, shields and spears, of which we are armed with the first of the peoples of Asia, having shown us the goddess, as in those ‘places you first. In terms of science then you see how much care has separated you from the beginning place here now the law, and with respect to the whole world order to divination and medicine for health care, with the result of this divine science that it can benefit the human affairs, and procuring all the other disciplines related to these. And the goddess, who was then assigned to you first, all this set up and available, you settled here, after choosing the place where you were born, seeing the happy temperance of his seasons produce very wise men. So the goddess of war and as a scholar of science together, and chose first populated the place that was to produce men more like it. And indeed you were living with such laws and even the best governed, surpassing all men in all virtue, as became the children and students of the gods. But being many and great are your works done by the city, that we admire here written, but one surpasses them all for greatness and virtue.

Plato, describing the prehistoric Athens, takes us through a great city very similar to that theorized in the “Republic”. A question may arise spontaneously. Plato theorized his ideal republic independently or was inspired by the legend of Atlantis and dell’Atene prehistoric to formulate its policy options? As the myth of Atlantis, or at least an island blessed is clearly older than Plato, it seems that Plato was inspired by the Egyptian legend. After Plato’s myth serves greatly to prove his philosophical thought. Is alleged here, Athens was founded 9000 years before Solon and Sais 8000 years ago. Perhaps after the great destruction, inhabitants Athenian empire moved to Egypt, the site of Sais, where they founded a new city.

Because the scriptures say how your city destroyed a large army, which insolently invaded at the same time throughout Europe and Asia, moving out of the Atlantic Ocean. This sea was then navigable, and had an island before that mouth, which is called, as you say, the Pillars of Hercules. The island was larger than Libya and Asia combined, and navigators could then switch from one to the other islands, and from the islands to the whole opposite continent, which skirted the real sea. Why is this sea, which is this side of his mouth I said, it looks like a narrow harbor entrance, but the other could rightly call it a real sea, and land, which embraces the whole, a true continent. Now in this island Atlantis there was a great and wonderful royal power, which owned the entire island and molt’altre islands and parts of the continent. Also on this side of the narrow dominated regions of Libya to Egypt and Europe to Tirrenia. And all this power having gathered together tried once with a single impulse to submit your and our region, and how many lie on this side of the mouth. So now, O Solon, the power of your town appeared conspicuous for virtue, and to force all nations because all moving forward in magnanimity and in all the arts of war, leading the side arms of the Greeks, partly forced to fight alone for the defection of others, addressed the extreme dangers and defeated the attackers, settled trophies, and field from bondage peoples not yet enslaved, and generously liberated all the others, those who live this side of the Pillars of Hercules. But next time, great earthquakes and floods that occurred in the space of a day and a tremendous night, all your warriors together sank into the earth, and the island Atlantis disappeared similarly absorbed by the sea; yet the sea is so impractical and unsearchable, being prevented from attending the great slums of mud that formed the island nell’inabissarsi.

Here the talk is about the island of Atlantis. Located in front of the Pillars of Hercules, was a sort of maritime empire that had territories in both the Mediterranean basin, both in the Atlantic and is the opposite continent. But what was the opposite continent? America? It seems that Plato knew the American continent! However, the belief that the ocean was no longer navigable must have been created after the destruction because of the debris and the upheavals in the bottom of the Atlantic. Perhaps the Strait of Gibraltar was captured from the slums or some kind of obstruction caused by the destruction. The maritime empire of Atlantis extended up to Etruria (modern Tuscany) and Egypt. So here we learn that the mythical and mysterious Egypt was a colony of Atlantis! The Athens described by Plato seems paragon of virtue and morality, almost certainly Plato described his town of about patriotism. When Plato says that Atlantis is ” larger than Libya and Asia combined, “ the philosopher refers respectively to the coasts of North Africa and Asia Minor (now Turkey).

We thus examined the “Timaeus” Plato’s trying to highlight the most salient points.

However, the most interesting part is yet to come! Indeed, it is in the Critias that describes the island of Atlantis itself, geography, administration and customs of the lost continent par excellence.

The Critias

In this dialog, you enter the full description of the island of Atlantis. Critias, this time the young man took the floor and tells in detail the laws, customs and geography of the two major contenders: Athens and Atlantis. About Athens we have several doubts about the veracity of the description, although I believe that leaves a glimpse of a geographical description of Greece glacial period, which corresponds to the period of the end of Atlantis. Plato speaks of un’Attica much larger than at present. In fact, Otto Muck in “The Secrets of Atlantis” gives us confirmation that Plato was referring just to the Ice Age ” If your dating some 9,000 years before Solon’s journey to Egypt to be precise, Atlantis would have thrived in the late Quaternary, then in a period in which huge masses of water were turned into ice sheets and sea level where it was down to about 100-200 meters. Plato could not have known quell’abbassamento “eustatic”. In this context it is important the pace of the report where it is stated that once would include mountain ranges, towering citadels and fertile plains. […] At that time (Attica) was much larger, especially in the region of the future in Athens, and connected through some isthmuses with Euboea and the Peloponnese. And thanks to the lowering of eustatic sea level, the mountains then appeared 100 meters higher than today, and the citadel of today measure 156 meters above sea level, at the time, instead , was 250 meters and it looked higher. The slums of today were the fertile plains mentioned in the report of Plato, without the author could know this time, and still could not guess .

As for Atlantis, its size does not seem very high. Someone even said that it was as large as Australia, but we feel that it was very large. The futuristic architecture of Atlantis might give the impression of a complete fabrication of the story, but by analyzing more deeply the myth of Atlantis and the structure does not seem so impossible. But now we enter the text and try to understand what Plato says about this mysterious island.

Critias: […] First of all, remember that they are complex to nine thousand years you ‘to the war took place between those who dwelt outside the Pillars of Hercules’ and those inside, and now you have to tell it. The former, he says, were led by the city ‘, which were complete, the entire war: the other by the kings of Atlantis, which, as we have said, was larger than Libya and Asia, and now submerged by earthquakes, and ‘impassable mud, which prevents our ships advancing to the sea. The more ‘barbarous nations and peoples of the Greeks of that time appear then, as we present’ on the occasion, later in my speech. But the Athenians of that time, and of the opponents, with whom battled and ‘need to expose to the principle respective power and forms of government. And they must give priority to our narrative.

So, according to Plato, are about 9000 years that separate his time and that of Solon since the war between Atlantis and Athens. However, the city of Athens alone does not address the war on Atlantis, but it is at the head of a coalition Mediterranean. In fact, as we shall see later, the war was between the civilizations of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. In the Timaeus says:

“- I have no difficulty, or Solon, but speak and for you and your city, and especially in honor of the goddess, who once had the luck in your city and this, and brought up and instructed, your a thousand years before receiving your seed from Gaia and Hephaestus, and after this. And this our system is written in the scriptures, the number of eight thousand years. So your citizens lived nine thousand years ago ‘[…] “So it is assumed that the war has coincided with the founding of Athens. Probably the goddess Athena / Neith (which we interpret as a symbol representative of a Mediterranean civilization), founded Athens and munendola of a vast empire, it became immediately hostile to Atlantis and soon came into conflict with it. However, we should not completely fossilize on the date given by Plato.

The gods once divided the various places all over the earth according to fate, not to quarrel, because it would not be reasonable to say that the gods they did not know what he was up to each of them, it ‘knowing that they wanted to get with the contention that rather belonged to others. Got so ‘with the tide of justice as it was their welcome, populated the land, and after they have been populated fed us, their possessions and children, like the shepherds cattle: but’ not forcing their bodies with the power of the shepherds, who make the grazing cattle with blows, but, as a man docile animal, directing almost from the stern of a ship, according to their will ‘, and employing as a rudder persuasion to move the soul, holding up well’ around the usually fatal.

This is the description legendary, according to Plato, the birth of peoples and nations. Perhaps the gods were actually representatives of a superior civilization that “ministered” the man and took him by the feral life to civilization? Some myths suggest this, but for now we can not give a complete answer.

So the gods, who got allotted a place, some another, governed them, but Hephaestus and Athena, having a common nature, as they were sons of the same father, and equal tendencies for the love of wisdom and the arts, They received both as the only fate, this region, because ‘own and capable of virtue’ and intelligence, made good men natives it turned men’s minds to the political order. The names of these people you are preserved, but the works for the death of their heirs, and the length of time disappeared. Why ‘, as was’ told you before, it was still surviving mountain race and illiterate, who had heard only the names of the princes of the earth, and very little of their works. And gladly posed these names to their children, but, ignoring the virtues’ and the laws of the ancestors, except for a few obscure traditions, and they and their children remain in poverty for many generations the necessaries, were turning attention to the things that were missing only spoke of this, and they were intrigued ancient precedents and the facts. Indeed, the mythology and the pursuit of antiquities’ enter the town ‘together with idleness, when they see that it is already done to the needs’ of life, not before. So ‘you are saved the names of the ancients without works.

According to Plato, the Attica and its population was given to Athena and Hephaestus who led the people of these lands to “political order”. Plato explains that only the names of these famous men of antiquity have been preserved, but their works have been forgotten either because of the death of those who made up the civilization to which they belonged and because of the antiquity of the facts. Plato adds that this historical amnesia was due to the fact that after the flood had survived only the most uneducated part of the population that is primarily concerned with their own needs first and then could not remember and cherish the memory of the past. In fact, only in the cities, where they meet the basic needs of man, preserved the ancient historical sites. With the flood, as mentioned in the “Timaeus”, were destroyed cities and culture went irretrievably lost.

And I say this to conjecture, because ‘Solon said that the priests told that ancient war, citing the more’ part of the acts of Cecrops, of Erechtheus, Erichthonius, of Erisittono and others, and also how much they remember of each hero even before Theseus and so ‘well women. And the figure and the statue of the goddess, being then the common occupations of war on women and men, so ‘, according to the suit, the army represented: which shows that, by joining together female and male, can all exercise in common virtue ‘discount each sex.

Cecrops was a mythical king of Attica, the first monarch according to most traditions. This king was born in Attica, which then took the name of Cecropeia. Before this king, the Attica was called Acte. Cecrops married Aglauros, daughter of Atteo, which according to other traditions, was the first king of Attica. The union of the two were born a son and three daughters Erisittono. Just under the reign of Cecrops was going dispute between the possession of the land. Both Athena Poseidon wanted to have Athens. Poseidon came to Attica and with his trident did result in the Acropolis a salty sea. Athena planted an olive tree instead of taking a witness Cecrops. Zeus then appointed as arbitrators or Cecrops and Cranaus or twelve of. However, the officials entrusted Athens to Athena, through the witness of Cecrops. Then Poseidon, in anger, flooded Attica, covering it with water. It is said that Cecrops has taught men to build cities, to bury the dead and perhaps even write and to do the census. You probably remember the flood of Attica from Poseidon (symbol of Atlantis) can remember the consequences resulting from the destruction of Atlantis. Erechtheion was another Athenian hero who joins in the history of the legendary king of Athens. Considered the son of Pandion I and Zeusippe, brother of Bute, and was a sister Philomela and Procne. When he died Pandion, Erechtheus divided the inheritance Bute to Erechtheus was the legal power to Bute the priesthood of the major deities of Athens: Athena and Poseidon. The legend also says that while Egypt was Erechtheion in Attica the plague infested and that the amount of wheat cultivation. The grateful people elected him king. Erechtheion married Prassitea, by whom he had several children. During the war between Athens and Eleusis, the latter called for help Eumolpus, son of Poseidon and Chione. Erechtheion then asked the oracle of Delphi how to act in order to win Eleusis and the oracle replied that he had to sacrifice a daughter. In Athens sacrificed a daughter (or chthonic Protogenia) and the other sisters of the victim is killed in turn by the pain or with other traditions in the country. At the end of Eleusis Athens won in battle, in which he was killed Eumolpus. Poseidon, to avenge his son, Erichthonius electrocute him by Zeus. This myth always remember the fighting between the Athenian empire Mediterranean and the Atlantic Atlantis. In fact, the hero Eumolpus, son of Poseidon, is the city of Atlantis and Erichthonios the Athenian king. However, in this myth refers to military confrontations during the great war between Atlantis and Athens. It may be that the myth hides later traditions about the war for the conquest of historic Athens Attica. Erichthonius was another of the early kings of Athens. The story of his birth is disputed. In fact, is said to be the son of Attide or generated by a desire to Hephaestus to Athena. However, as it happened, Erichthonios received power from Cecrops and became king. Erichthonios married a Naiad, Prassitea (the same name of the wife of Erechtheus). He had a son, Pandion, who took the throne in turn from his father. It is said that Erichthonius invented the chariot, he spread the money in Attica and established the Panathenaic, festivals of Athena: These festivals are attributed by some to Erechtheus. There are two Erisittono, the first is a Thessalian hero, son of King Triopa. The second one, referred to by Plato, is the son of Cecrops and Aglauros. Erisittono and soon died without heirs, while returning home from Delphi.

They lived in this region, therefore, then the other classes of citizens employed in the trades and in asking the board to the ground, but the military class, which from the beginning, divine men were separated from the others, lived apart, equipped with all necessary things to the board and education of children. No one of these warriors had nothing of his own, but was estimated to be around them in common, it ‘over the board believed enough to accept anything other citizens, and exercised all occupations described yesterday, which are the guardians of the republic, such as we have conceived.

The society described by Plato here clearly reflects the ideas of the philosopher about the organization of the state and the population. The question is this: Plato created independently of his theories on the state or was influenced by this myth describing an Athens efficient, as opposed all’Atene of his time?

And so ‘well of our land was said that then he’s probably really the limits outlined in the isthmus and in the rest of the continent to the top’ of Cithaeron and Parnitha, and that falls right down to the sea and to the left all’Oropia and all’Asopo, and that the whole world was surpassed in fertility ‘in our region, and that therefore’ this would then feed a large army of perieci. And it ‘s great topic of her fertility that what now remains of it can contend with any land to produce fruits of every kind and good and provide good grazing all animals. That was then, beyond beauty, her fertility. How, then, this is credible and what evidence this earth can rightly say that the residue of that time? It extends across the continent for a long stretch in the sea like a cape: the shelter of the deep sea around it on all sides. So many great floods occurred and for nine thousand years (many of them are classes from that time until now), the earth, that in these times and events coming down from the heights, not heap ‘as elsewhere in mounds worthy of mention, but always flowing disappeared in the depths of the sea: therefore, as happens in small islands, are left in comparison to those of the body then these bones almost sick, being cast away the fat and soft earth and remaining only the body fat of the land. But then that was intact, as he mounts the high hills, and plains now known to Felleo were full of rich earth, and the mountains there was a lot of wood, which still remain manifest signs. And the mountains there are now only hold out feeding the bees, but not ‘a very long time that they were cut trees to cover the most’ great buildings, and these roofs still exist. There were also many high crops and extensive cattle pastures. And every year they collected water from the sky, I ‘, as now, the one that was lost from flowing into the sea dry land, but the land, ricevutane much, kept it in her bosom, and carried her back into the cavities’ argillacee, and from the heights of the spread in the valleys, forming everywhere large eddies of sources and rivers, which in the ancient sources are still remained sacred signs which bear witness to the truth ‘in my words. Thus, ‘so it was arranged by nature the remaining region, and cultivated, it is convenient, real farmers, dedicated to their craft, love of good, with good quality’ and possessors of a land good and copious water and favored by the climate very well tempered.

The geography of the area and the abundance penthouse there is neither Platonic nor Attica Attica modern. As mentioned earlier, the Attica described in this dialogue could easily traced back to the period when the last glacial sea level was much lower of today and the surface above the sea level more extensive. In addition, the climate was very different and the Mediterranean climate of the time allowed vegetation and fauna richer than at present. In addition, the Attica Platonic extended to territories belonging to Boeotia and Megaris.

And the city ‘was so’ inhabited at that time: first, the Acropolis was not as now, because in one night torrential rains, having melted around, stripped of all the earth, in the midst of earthquakes and a ‘ huge flood, which was the third before the flood of Deucalion. But before any more time in extended sizes up to all’Eridano and all’Illisso, and included the Pnyx, and had to limit the Lycabettus from the opposite side to the Pnyx, and was all over zollosa and flat, except for a few places.

The Acropolis, as Plato says, was much more extensive and much of the rich fertile lands. According to Plato, there were four floods and then five eras, like already said Hesiod.

The exterior parts, under her hips, were inhabited by workers and farmers, who cultivate the fields nearby. The tops had occupied the military class for itself ‘at the time of Athena and Hephaestus, after being surrounded in a single city, such as the garden of one family: she lived in the northern parts of the Acropolis common houses, since I prepared the salt, where winter dined all together, and anything else required living together for the buildings of the warriors and priests, but senz’oro nor silver, because ‘nowhere were using these metals but, looking for a happy medium between the splendor and squalor, built modest homes, where they were and children’s children grew old, and always handed down to their other similar. In the summer let free their gardens, gymnasiums and halls, where they dined together, and instead occupied the southern parts of the Acropolis. There was only one source in the place where now the Acropolis, and died out for earthquakes, there are now few remaining streams around, but then gave plenty of water at all and was of equal temperature in winter and summer. So they lived in this way, the guardians of their citizens and captains without contrast of the other Greeks, and cared for, as far as possible, remain at all times the same multitude of men and women, able to fight and then the number of about twenty thousand. These, therefore, as these men and administering always thus their city ‘and Greece in justice, they were highly respected throughout Europe and Asia for the beauty of the body and by the power of’ mood, and celebrated more ‘than lived then.

Plato always refers to his idea of ??fair and balanced society. So the question of the origins of these theories of Plato remains the same. We have also confirmed that Athens was the undisputed capital of Greece.

But time will tell what they were from the beginning the conditions of their antagonists to communicate to you, my friends, if there is less memory than what we heard from the children. But before the speech should be a short description, so ‘do not be surprised, often hearing Greek names of men barbarians. I will tell you ‘why. Solon, thinking of the use of narrative for his poem, he wanted to know the meaning of the names, and I find ‘that those Egyptians who first wrote this story, had them translated into their language, and he in turn took the meaning of the individual names, translating them reported in our language. These manuscripts were at his grandfather and now I’m at home, when I was a child and studied them carefully. Therefore, if you hear these names, I said, you will not be surprised, because you know why.

From here on begins the story of Atlantis.

As for the names of the characters, we do not have the original names of the characters of Atlantis, but only translation of Solon from the Egyptian to the Greek, which could also be imprecise. In addition, the Egyptian names in turn have been translated and then the names may not conform to the originals.

This story began long time more or less so ‘. How and ‘mentioned earlier, the gods were divided by lot the whole earth, getting those big, some small parts, and established itself’ temples and sacrifices. So ‘Poseidon, having had the island Atlantis, I place’ in a place the island’s children by a mortal woman. This was the place: from the sea, but in the middle of the island, see ‘was a plain which is said to have been the most’ beautiful of all plains and fertile enough. At the plain, in the middle, at a distance of about fifty stadia, there was a low mount on all sides. We lived in one of those men, runny ‘from the beginning were born from the earth, a Evenore with his wife Leucippe. They begot one daughter, Clito.

In the beginning the island of Atlantis seems to be inhabited by a primitive pair, but you can not rule out that there were other men, as Plato does not specify.

When she was of marriageable age, her mother and father died, and Poseidon, taken by love, he lay with her: and for the well-fortified hill, where one lived, he broke it on every side, and there he put alternating minor and major belts of sea and land, two floor and three of sea, described the almost circle from the center of the island, placing them at an equal distance to each side, so that ‘there was no access for men: because that time there were still ships it ‘trolling.

Here we describe the emergence of the capital of Atlantis, whose name actually is unknown. However, the tradition would call Posedia or Poseidon or even Cerne. Here we are referring to ancient times, when civilization did not exist yet. We live at a time when men and gods lived together. And ‘the beginning of the Golden Age!

He, as God, adorned easily the new island formed in the middle: there I derive ‘from the ground two sources of water, one that ran hot, the other cold flowing, And made the land produce varied and sufficient nourishment. Having fathered five pairs of male children, the breed ‘and divided the whole island Atlantis into ten parts, die’ the first of the sons ‘great and the maternal home ownership surroundings, who was the’ largest and most ‘beautiful, and made him king of the others stable’ as sovereign the other brothers, and each gave the empire of many people and a lot of land.

The hot spring surely comes from volcanic activity on the island. Furthermore, the fact that Atlantis would produce a large amount of food through agriculture might suggest a volcanic soil, rich in nutrients for plants.

And he gave names to all, and first at the ‘great and the king, from whom the whole island and the sea, known as the Atlantic, was named, because what was then the kingdom’ for the first one was called Atlas. His twin was born after him, to which he had touched the far side of the island towards the Pillars of Hercules, in that region at that time and stretch ‘said Gades, had the greek name for Eumelus, which in their language is said Gadeirus: and his name could be called that country. Those of the second birth, I call them ‘one Anfere, the other Evemone; those of the third, the first born Mneseo, one born after Native; those of the fourth, the first Elasippo, the other Mestor: those of the fifth, the first name was called Azae the second Diaprepe.

Atlas is not to be identified exactly with the giant namesake son of Iapetus and Clymene (or Asia), but some aspects of the hero’s life are interesting: according to mythology is located in the far west, in the land of the Hesperides. Zeus condemned him to hold up the heavens on his shoulders, after the victory over the Giants. From this legend were called the Moroccan mountains of ‘ Atlas (Herodotus was the first to give this name to the mountain range).

As for the other children, except Azae and Diaprepe, can be found in the mythology of Homer and Greek, but refer to other characters. However, we know that after Diaprepe was approached by the myth of the Hesperides, which are close to the myth of Atlantis. We also know, thanks to Pliny the Elder and Avieno that there is a town called Gadir Africa.

All these and their descendants for many generations lived there, dominating many of the other islands of the sea, and also to the Gentiles reigning here, as was said earlier, to Egypt and to Tirrenia. The lineage of Atlas was large and honored, and passing on more and more the king ‘old kingdom to the eldest son, kept them for many generations, and possessed such an abundance of wealth, than it was for the first ever under any rule of king, nor ever will be easily ‘in the future, and everything that had accumulated in the city’ and in the remaining region it was necessary to accumulate.

 

The island then stands in the right way and has a very extensive maritime empire. This policy allows power to Atlantis to be a very rich country and no need to import raw materials. So the ten kings of Atlantis is passed from father to son the power, but the king was always the main descendant of Atlas.

Fun fact: Claudius Aelian in his work “The nature of the animals’ describes a particular clothing of the kings of Atlantis:

According to a rumor spread among the people who inhabit the shores of the ocean, the ancient kings of Atlantis, born of the seed of Poseidon, wore bandages on his head that can be seen around the head of rams marine ( perhaps identifiable with the Orca Gladiator ): they were the symbol of their authority, their wives, that is, the queens, wore the curls on the other hand as a sign of the command.

Many things in favor of their power came to them from the outside, many of them gave the island itself to the necessities’ of life, and first of all solids and fuses, which are dug from the mines: and that metal now appointment only, then it was more ‘than a name, orichalcum, which in many places on the island is dug from the earth, and it was at that time the most’ valuable after the gold.

The island was rich in metals and there were all kinds, but the most famous and mysterious was the Orichalcum. It is not known exactly what type of metal it is, but some hypotheses have been advanced. According to a passage Philoponus, the Orichalcum was actually brass. According to other was a bronze alloy similar to gold, copper and formed by small pieces of tin, lead and zinc.

And as for preparing the wood work of the carpenters, all produced in abundance on the island, and so ‘fed sufficiently tame and wild animals. There was in it too large amount ‘of elephants because the other animals, those who graze in the marshes, lakes and rivers, and many of the mountains and fields, for all there was abundant pasture, and so’ for this animal, which is the most ‘largest and most’ voracious.

The island also has a large amount of wildlife. It ‘made mention of the elephant: we therefore assume that in the era of the island of Atlantis there could be mammoth (who lived in the period of the last ice age at the time of Atlantis) rather than elephants.

In addition, many perfumes the land now provides roots or grass or wood or juice distillates from the flowers or fruits, all of these then produced and provided good. Thus the fruits soft or hard, we need of nourishment, and the ones we use for food and we call legumes, fruits and wood, which give us drinks, food and ointments, and the fruits scorzuti that used to play and delight, it is difficult to are placing, and those who like exciting satiety against ourselves in the second canteen to please the stomach tired all the fruits that sacred island, which was then under the sun, producing beautiful and wonderful and infinite in number.

The same vegetation Atlantean provided all kinds of food for sustenance. In conclusion we can say that under such optimum conditions, the civility would easily thrived in such an island, having most of the resources necessary for humans.

Taking all these things are from the earth, they built temples, palaces, ports, arsenals, and embellished the remaining region in that order. First, the round-the sea, they were around the old city, the conjoined with bridges, forming a path between the outside and the palace. They had built the palace immediately from the beginning here of God and the ancestors, and the king, receiving it from each other, more and more ‘adorned, and each tried to always exceed, for, so far as possible, the predecessor until ‘was formed’ beautiful house to see the greatness and beauty of the works.

The wealth and power of Atlantis had allowed the islanders to grow tremendously and allow the construction of imposing buildings. The same palace must have been an ongoing project, as every king wanted to leave his mark as evidence of your glory. The palace was the center of where gravitated Atlantean society as a whole, and so was the best building to leave a tangible remembrance of themselves.

In fact, starting from the sea, led to the last belt ( the first coming from the sea), a large pit three picks, a hundred feet deep, fifty long stages, and it gave him access to ships from the sea to the city, as in a port, enlarging the mouth so that they could enter the ships’ large. And the belts of land separating the sea, pierced along the decks so that he could spend a trireme at a time, and actually covered with roofs so that the navigation below might be fulfilled, because the edges of city land were lifted enough above the sea. But the greatest of city, with giving notice of the sea, was a large three-stage ( 532.8 meters) , and the next land was equal to it: the two circles below, the sea was a large two-stage (355.2 meters) , the earth was equal to the maritime previous: finally of a stadium (177.60 meters) was that which surrounded the island in the middle.

A plectrum (= 100 feet) corresponds to 29.60 meters, and a stage equivalent to 177.60 meters. The city of Atlantis was organized rings of land and water on which the trade took place and all major business and meetings. The port must have been attended by thousands of sailors from the Americas, from the other islands of the Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Africa. Atlantis was a lot of commercial bridge between the territories bordering on the west coast of the Atlantic and those who live in the east. The pit into which boats had passed the 8 km long and 880 meters wide, 88.8 meters and 29.60 meters deep!

The island, where was the royal palace, had a diameter of five stages (888 meters) . This round about, and the belts and the bridge off a pick (29.60 meters) overlaid them on the one hand and on the other with a stone wall, imposing towers and gates on the bridges along all the steps of the sea. And round about beneath the island, which was in the middle, and below the round-off and cut into the stones, some white, some black, some red, and so ‘two basins dug into the interior of the island deep with the same rock to cover. And the buildings, some of them formed simple, others for pleasure with varied mixture of stones, giving each one its playfulness’ natural.

The city was well fortified with towers. This is well understand that it was not a true paradise on earth, but Atlantis was constantly at war for political and economic dominance. The white stones, black and red colors are typical of volcanic rocks that are abundant in Atlantis, being volcanic island. We know that thanks to Berlitz: this particular mention of the stones with which the buildings were built of Atlantis is an unexpected confirmation in the prevailing colors of the rocks present in the Azores: also white, black and red.

In addition, the island abounded greatly of these stones, which were the main building materials.

And bronze clothed in the guise of paint, the entire route of the wall of the city outward, and smeared with molten tin that of the inner city, and of Orichalcum fiery hues that of the Acropolis itself. But inside the palace acropolis was built so ‘. In the middle of the temple sacred to Poseidon Clito and you were left inaccessible, surrounded with a wall of gold: in this temple had at first created and brought to light the descendants of the ten rulers, runny ‘every year from all the ten kingdoms we were making to each of them the sacrifices ordinary. The Temple of Poseidon was a long stage (177.60 meters) wide three picks (88.8 meters) , height proportional to this size, and with something barbaric appearance. Overlaid silver around the temple outside except ‘acroteria, and gold acroteria: inside the time you could see it all in ivory and it was streaked with gold and orichalcum, and the rest of the walls columns, and actually covered the floor of Orichalcum. There they placed statues of gold, and the god stood on the chariot, charioteer of six winged horses, so big that his head touched the vault, and around a hundred Nereids on dolphins because ‘then he believed he had many. And there were many other statues dedicated by private individuals. Outside around the temple were the images of all the gold, women and every descendant of the ten kings, and many more great offers from kings and private persons and the same cities’ or foreign ones, who held sway. The altar for the greatness and art fitting for this device, and similarly the palace was consistent with the size of the empire and the ornament of the temple.

The description of the temple at first glance looks fabulous. In fact, the temple might look like a greek temple even if the measures and the materials are not present in such proportions in Greek. The abundant use of precious metals and the size of the statue of Poseidon, god of the sea, is the wealth and grandeur of the empire of Atlantis. Moreover, the attempt to describe the temple could not have hit its target precisely descriptive. In fact, the man described by the objects and materials that knows and compares them to things unknown to him. For example, if a Babylonian saw a plane, it could represent it as a “flaming bird,” “a celestial chariot” or more. Then the materials to be otherwise, the statues of other characters, and so on. This talk about the description applies to any text that you consult.

With regard to the Nereids, Pierre Grimal says: The Nereids were sea gods, daughters of Nereus and Doris, and grandchildren of the ocean. […] Their number is usually fifty; but sometimes go up to one hundred. The list of Nereids Grimal that are full of 77 Nereids, which is closest to the number of Plato. In addition, the author adds that even the paintings of the vessels still appoint other Nereids.

I wanted to clarify the issue of the number of the Nereids, as some scholars had criticized Plato, claiming to enlarge their number on purpose. Although tradition says that there are 50, Plato, rightly, wanted to go beyond tradition and personally control the real number of the Nereids, which, as we have seen more. This will ensure more authenticity to the text of Plato, as the author seems to be quite critical of the tradition.

They had two sources, one cold and one hot, plentiful and very admirably suited to each use for pleasure and virtue ‘of water. And I settled around homes and plantations of trees, humidity loving ‘, as well as tanks, such as in the open air, such as winter blankets to warm baths, on the one hand those of the king, by another those citizens elsewhere than women elsewhere still those of horses and other beasts of burden, giving each ornament suitable. The running water led into the woods of Poseidon, for the fertility of the land had trees of all kinds, of marvelous beauty and height, and it caused in part encircled by canals along the outer decks.

Here Plato continues the description of the beauty of the city that has become so rich as a result of struggles and wars for the development of the empire of Atlantis.

There were built many temples dedicated to many gods, many gardens and gymnasia, some for men, some for the horses apart in each of the two circles that formed as the islands: and there was more than the others in the middle of the largest of islands racecourse chosen for them off the stage, and its length all the way round the island was left to race horses. Around this, on the one side and on the other there were barracks intended for the multitude of armed: the most ‘faithful had been assigned to the garrison of the city more’ smaller and more ‘close to the Acropolis, but the most’ famous in all faith had been given housing in the Acropolis at the same king. The arsenals were full of triremes and all necessary equipment to galleys, all in good order. And so ‘the house of the king was willing.

What Plato says the Atlanteans were polytheists or otherwise henotheistic. More inclined in favor of a hypothesis henotheist. In fact, the main god Poseidon (not be said that the chief god of the Atlanteans was the god of the sea. See the discussion on the description.) And the other gods could only be the manifestations of the gods (as a kind of saints).

The fact that there are barracks and arsenals confirm the hypothesis of an Atlantis constantly at war. In addition, such a multitude of armed men in the city could suggest a tyrannical regime.

But the ‘three external ports from the sea began a circular wall, that is for each part fifty stages (8880 meters) from the more ‘big city and the most’ great port, and back in the same place at the mouth of the pit located at the sea. This site contain many homes and frequent, and the channel and harbor more ‘big were filled with ships and merchants coming from all over the world day and night and raised the clamor and tumult and clamor for their diverse large numbers.

Then the radius of the city of Atlantis was about: 11 km and 278 meters! This concludes the description of the city. Now we pass to that of the remaining region of the island of Atlantis.

So now I have told more or less as it was then called the city ‘and the old house, but we need to keep remembering what was the nature of the rest of the region and its legal system. It was said that primamente all over the place were very high and steep from the sea, and all around a plain to surround the city ‘, and this plain, surrounded by mountains around descending to the sea was smooth and uniform throughout and oblong, three thousand stages of the one part and two thousand from the sea up to the center.

2000 stadiums = 355200 meters = 355.200 Km

Stages = 3000 meters = 532.800 532 800 Km

Area of the plains: 189,250.56 km 2

This part of the island was aimed at noon ‘and protected from the north winds. The mountains that girded it was said that exceed in number, size and beauty all those now existing, and closed many of their villages, full of people, and rivers and lakes and meadows, which provided sufficient nourishment to all domestic and wild animals and forest abundant and varied, that he offered plenty of material to all work in general and each one in particular. So ‘So this plan was done by nature and work of many kings in a long time. It was a quadrangle for most rectum and oblong, and where it was less, made ??him a straight pit dug around. It ‘s not credible that which was passed on the depth and width and length of this ditch, that is, as a human endeavor, he that size as well as the remaining work; but ‘we must say that we have heard. She had been dug with the depth ‘of a plectrum (29.60 meters) with a width of one stage (177,60metri) at each point, and being carried out for all the plain it followed that it had a length of ten thousand stages (1776Km ) . He received the streams which came down from the mountains, turning around and reached the plain on both sides of the town ‘, from which he went to pour into the sea. From the top of this pit wide channels about a hundred feet (29.6 meters) , after cutting in a straight line the floor, returning to it at the sea, and were close percent stages (17,76 Km) from each other. For it carried material from the mountains in the city and other products of the seasons on ships, because digging across navigable passages were put into communication channels between them and the city. And twice a year they gathered the fruits of the earth, benefiting the winter rainy and wet summer the fruits of the earth with the waters of the canals.

Atlantis was protected by a massive mountain range from north winds which made the climate so mild. Atlantis possessed a highly efficient system of irrigation canals and so large that even Plato can not believe it! Atlantis could be called the Venice of the past!

As for the multitude of men in the plane were useful to the war, it was established that each division presented a garment, and the size of each division was a hundred stages (3.15 km 2 around) , and all divisions were sixty (189000 km 2 around) . But the number of mountaineers and those of the rest of the region was said to be infinite, and according to the towns and villages they were distributed in all these divisions and aggregates their leaders. It was agreed that each leader would provide for the war the sixth portion of a war chariot formarne up to ten thousand, and two horses with riders, and also a pair of carriage without horses, they had a fighter armed with a small shield and a charioteer over the rider of each horse, and then two hoplites, two archers and two slingers, three lightly armed, three stone flaking and three javelins, and four sailors to fill twelve hundred ships. This was the sort of military forces in the province of the king supreme in each of the nine was different, but it would be a long report it.

The surface of Atlantis, at the time of destruction (because Plato was intended to refer to the period when the great battle took place in Athens), in our opinion, should not be much higher than the surface of the plain. We think therefore that it was about two-thirds of the Italian (301 277 km 2 ).

The military organization is quite old and close to ancient times of Plato. However, it may relate to the same address in the description.

The magistracy and the charges were so ‘ordered from the beginning. Each of the ten kings in his province and city ‘towered over the men and as many of the laws, punishing and killing anyone he wished.

Plato confirms here the tyrannical regime that prevailed in Atlantis.

But the government and the general relations between the kings were adjusted according to the orders of Poseidon, as they had them handed down to them the law and the letters written by the first kings on a pillar of orichalcum, which was situated in the center of the island in the temple of Poseidon. There, gathered alternately every five and every six years, giving the same round at even-numbered and odd-numbered and assembled discussing common interests and sought if anyone had transgressed the law and judged.

Atlantis was then a sort of federation of states ruled by absolute monarchies.

And when they had to judge before they gave each other this faith after having vacated the bulls in the temple of Poseidon, the ten kings left alone prayed to god to choose the victim which was acceptable, and they began to drive it without iron, but with woodwind and strings, and one of the bulls that got caught, they led him to the column and sacrificed on top of this over the letters. The column was no more than an oath swearing to the great curses disobedient. How then, after making the sacrifice according to their laws, had consecrated all the limbs of the bull, poured into a cup a drop of blood each, and purified the column threw the rest into the fire. By then drew with golden cups from the cup and Libando on the fire, they swore to judge according to the laws written in the column and to punish those who first had transgressed the laws, and not to transgress voluntarily in the future and not to govern them themselves and not to obey those who govern, except in accordance with the laws of the father.

The strange and violent sacrifice of the Bull inspires awe. The sacrifice of the bull was typical in the worship of Poseidon in Mediterranean cultures. However, it was present in other cultures of the world. For example, as we are reminded Ennio La Malfa “Traveling in search of lost civilizations,” we find the worship of the bull in pre-Aryan, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Atlantis, according to Plato, in Crete, and in particular in the worship Dionysus and the mystery religion of Zoroaster and Mithra.

Santorini = Atlantis ?!

Some archaeologists have speculated that Atlantis was also to be placed precisely on the island of Santorini in the Aegean. In fact, we know that circa 1640 BC (or 1400 BC – about the exact date, there are still problems) Santorini (Thera in greek) exploded in a frightening volcanic eruption, destroying the Minoan town on the island and covering it with debris. The city was discovered by Spiridon Marinatos, an archaeologist greek, in the late 60’s and proved to be a real “Pompeii of the Aegean”.

Although the catastrophe of Santorini has been truly devastating, absolutely can not pull over to the myth of Atlantis and now we will show why.

Here’s what archaeologists say to try Santorini = Atlantis:

– The cult of the bull of Atlantis is found in Minoan culture.

It ‘s true that in Crete there was the cult of the bull, but as mentioned earlier the culture of the bull was common in many parts of the world and then Atlantis could be placed anywhere.

– The great catastrophe of Thera is due to that of Atlantis.

Throughout the history of the world there have been major disasters then Atlantis could have existed and destroyed even when the dinosaurs became extinct!

– The error of ten times.

It seems that the end of Thera took place 900 years before Solon and according to seismologist Galanopoulos the Egyptian scribe would confuse the symbol of 100 with that of 1000. This is impossible because the two symbols are so different that it would be impossible to confuse them. It would be like confusing the A with C!

– Rocks like this

The island of Santorini is composed of white rocks, red and black, like Atlantis.

This proves that Santorini is Atlantis. In truth, this kind of rocks are found in the Azores and the Canary Islands.

– Pillars of Hercules

According to scientists Pro – Thera = Atlantis, the claim that the island of Plato was beyond the Pillars of Hercules would have to be reinterpreted. In fact, archaeologists say, As the geographical knowledge of the Greeks and Egyptians were increasing, they were also moved the boundaries of the known world. This is out of the question since the Greeks and the Egyptians knew very well that the Pillars of Hercules were where they always were, and that in the present Straits of Gibraltar. Egyptians and Greeks were well aware of the Phoenicians, who traded with the people who were beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and even came to Sidon from 1300 BC to northern Europe (England) and the Canary Islands, Azores and Madeira. Furthermore, the same King Solomon of Israel traded with the famous city of Tartessos, which everyone knew was positioned close to the Strait of Gibraltar into Spain. In addition, all the measurements and the same geographical location that Plato gives us the land of Atlantis absolutely not allow to place Atlantis in the Aegean!

So ‘begged each of them for himself and his seed, and after drinking the cup dedicated in the temple of God, and waiting for the meal and other necessities. Coming darkness and the fire consumed the sacrifice, all wore the most ‘beautiful blue robes, and they sat on the ground in the ashes of the sacrifice, and at night, turned off all the fire in the temple, they were judged and judged if anyone had experienced a other of violating the laws. Made the judgment, the return of the light writing on a golden table, and dedicated as a souvenir along with their clothes. And they had many other more specific about the responsibilities of each king, and above all do not ever fight each other and help of all, if you ever tried any of them drive off in some cities the royal blood, and to deliberate in common, such as their ancestors, what they should believe about the war and other matters, leaving the supreme command of the Atlantic race. It ‘the king could be sentenced to death some of his relatives without the consent of most’ half ‘of the ten kings. Such and such was then in those ‘places this power, that God, according to tradition, collected and directed against our country for the following reason.

In conclusion, the king formed a kind of administrative council, in which it decided the most important political and administrative issues. It seems that the formation of Atlantis was located on one column and the fate of Atlantis is decided only in this assembly and in the palace of every king. Perhaps the lineage Atlantic belonged to another most ancient civilization that conquered and subdued the ancient Atlanteans. The myth of Poseidon and Clito could be interpreted as the arrival of a maritime civilization of Atlantis more powerful that eventually mixed with a small group of Atlanteans who became the ruling class of the state. We could talk about the meeting of two human races, as at the time of the dawn of Atlantis there were still outstanding Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons. Maybe Atlantis was born from the encounter of the human race sort these two races; perhaps between the intelligence of Neanderthals (remember that the brains of these men was more developed than Cro-Magnons) and excellent physical capabilities of the Cro-Magnon? Maybe new digs will light on this fact.

During several generations, until ‘enough’ to them the divine nature, the men were obedient to the laws and animated amicably to the deity of their lineage. Why ‘fed sincere feelings and across large, used in moderation and wisdom in all the cases that occur and their relations: but’ despising everything except ‘virtue’, considered little things present and patiently endured as a liability the amount of ‘ gold and other possessions. And not ‘allowed themselves to become intoxicated by luxury, it’, lost control of himself ‘for wealth, were in ruins, but in their wisdom acutely observed that all these things s’accrescono for the friendship shared with virtue’, whereas if you are looking for with ardor and zeal too, they perish and so ‘well under’. Till ‘then, well reasoned’ and kept the divine nature, expanded with numerous to them all that before we have enumerated. But when the divine essence, having blended often very deadly nature, was settled in them, and the mortal nature prevailed, then, unable to bear the present prosperity, degenerated, and those who could see ugly appeared to have lost the most beautiful of most precious things; but those, who could not see the real life than happiness, then judged them especially beautiful and blessed, mentr’eran full of unjust arrogance and arrogance. But Jupiter, the god of gods, who rules according to the laws, understanding, such as who can see these things, the degeneration of a race already good, he thought to punish them, so chastened would become better; and summoned all the gods into their most august seat, which is in the center of the universe and see all that has had to be born; and convocatili said …

 

Here is interrupted the narrative of the “Critias” and modern historians have long debated how to explain this interruption. Probably the last part was destroyed during the burning of the Library of Alexandria (Egypt-640 d. C) or in the medieval period. Other historians think that Plato stopped writing to devote himself exclusively to “the third book of the Laws,” which tells the story more ‘old man.

If we had had access to the final part of Critias by now we would have learned much more about the lost continent. However, the story of Atlantis was towards the end and, with the help of the “Timaeus”, pretty much know how it ended. In fact, Jupiter, because of the corruption of the Atlanteans decided to destroy them plunging the island as a result of earthquakes. But how exactly was destroyed Atlantis?

The end of Atlantis

And ‘now certain that with the end of the last Ice Age, which occurred suddenly in the eleventh millennium BC, there were many upheavals of climatic and geographical nature of the whole earth. In fact one of the most striking evidence of these changes is the extinction of the mammoth, which died in Siberia, all within a few hours due to a sudden freezing of their bodies (you can find it still frozen day in the stomachs of these animals that they had eaten before his death, by which we know that before the last Ice Age Siberia was much warmer). In addition, the melting of ice must have submerged many lands in many places on the planet and caused the emigration of hundreds of thousands of people to other areas not flooded (for example, once the British Isles, Scandinavia and Europe were one body . Sicily was united Calabria and the Po valley stretched to about Pescara, the Bahamas were made up of a large land mass, in Polynesia and Oceania was a series of very large islands, etc …). In my opinion, this great melting ice, this huge increase in water and these apocalyptic floods have been remembered as the man-made flood. In fact, the legend of the flood is present in almost every culture in the world and is told in much the same way in almost all myths. But what triggered the rapid melting of ice? (In fact, the myths speak of the flood rains and floods so powerful that they have “flooded the whole earth”). The myths tell us that before the flood, “the sky fell to earth,” and that “the earth was tilted.” It is also said that a large object fire has crossed the sky bringing great disaster and destruction. All this can be assumed that about twelve years ago, a meteorite fell on the ground that shook the planet. What caught my attention and prompted me to investigate this matter has been the “Timaeus” of Plato, we have analyzed before. As you can read in the “Timaeus,” the priest of Sais Solon and discussed the myth of Phaethon and the first to Solon said that this myth just wanted to explain how a comet, deviated original orbit, had fallen on the ground. Since the presence of an object in the sky fell to the earth is also demonstrated by other myths of the world, I felt it was a case that Plato spoke of this very myth. That is: Plato entering this myth, he wanted to show us how Atlantis and its civilization were destroyed. So, in my opinion, some in ‘XI millennium BC, an object in the sky fell to the earth and destroyed the earlier civilizations to the present, including Atlantis, although it can be assumed that the deal with the destruction of this was inclusive of the end of any other. The meteorite, according to my interpretation of the myths that point to this fact, it should be dropped in the northern hemisphere, probably in the North Atlantic (Eridanus is located by the ancient nell’nord Europe, or identified with the Danube or the Rhone and the Po or the Atlantic Ocean) and would cause the end of the last ice age with all the consequences, including the end of the Atlantean civilization. The meteor impact with the ocean would have to create a huge tidal wave and the heat of that would have to vaporize millions of cubic meters of water causing disturbances violent and devastating that should have been breaking down all over the world. Certainly for those who lived in the islands of there was no escape. But some survived and kept the memory of the last antediluvian civilization and its destruction. They went to Central and South America, West Africa and the Mediterranean, where he probably gave the first impetus to the future Egyptian civilization. These descendants of the Atlanteans, carrying the last elements of the ancient civilization of the peoples seemed imbarbariti the destruction brought by this disaster because they possessed objects and knowledge that no one held for a long time and were only in the memories and legends of events past. These holders of civilization probably tried to retrain people to agriculture, science and other disciplines relevant, but because of their small numbers and impossible to rebuild civilization for too many destructions, the ancient knowledge was lost and handed down in a piecemeal fashion and fantastic. Perhaps the same local population rebelled against the civilizing or the latter exterminated each other for the control of power. However it seems that the last Atlanteans would have left some vestiges testify to their presence in a certain period of earth’s history. The monuments were built using a symbolism can be understood as long as man can watch the sky and understand its laws: astronomy. It seems that the last survivors of the last civilization we have wanted to warn you about in the ‘eleventh millennium BC there was a serious disaster that befell humanity and that their civilization was wiped out by a serious danger from the sky, warns us against the that such a disaster could destroy our civilization. In fact, many archaeological sites in the US, Europe and Africa seem to be astronomically aligned to a certain date that roughly corresponds to the period of the destruction of previous civilizations. In recent years, a group of independent scholars such as John A. West, Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval argue in their books that the plateau of Giza, Egypt, is actually a great timepiece indicating also the Zep-Tepi: the ‘golden age of Egyptian (about 10,000 BC). This period corresponds exactly to the period we have mentioned several times. There remains another important question, which is indeed the basis of a whole new science of archeology (the atlantologia, is now considered by mainstream science like ufology!) That could arise with the discovery of the civilization of Atlantis. The question is: Where is Atlantis? To those who ask me this question I always answer like this: “This is a great question, but you can not give an equally great response.” The lost continent was placed a little ‘everywhere, and one can only speculate. I think Atlantis was in the area that is currently occupied by the Azores, the Canaries, Madeira, Bermuda and Iceland. Most likely he had possessions in the Mediterranean, the Americas and Africa, and was one of the major powers in the world. You can not leave out the theory of Flem-Ath (which derives from Hapgood) who say that the civilization of Atlantis has been housed in the Antarctic during the period when, as they say, a part of the continent was ice-free (about 13,000 years ago). There is a hypothesis to be underestimated because the theory was established primarily by the pilot book Piri Re’is of the sixteenth century, and other pilot books describing the coast of Antarctica perfectly before the continent was discovered using spherical trigonometry. In fact, the Piri Re’is claims to have built its maps using maps very old. It seems that the pirate turkish, which could have the library of Constantinople, has copied his maps from copies made during the greek-roman period. In my opinion, Antarctica could be a small colony of Atlantis, but I highly doubt that would be inhabited by some kind of civilization. Does not convince me the possibility of partial thawing of Antarctica as it does not seem surrogate scientific data corrected.

In conclusion, the culture of Atlantis, according to Plato, was very advanced compared to the degree of civilization that would be expected following the studies of archeology official, even a kind of Atlantean culture should not even be possible according to official studies. However, at first glance (or as you may read in Plato) the degree of civilization is similar to that of the classical greek. However you have to make some considerations: 1) the size of the city and the structural complexity of its architecture require a large engineering expertise, at least a great experience 2) Atlantis entertained business relationships, political, and military and with the peoples of Europe and Africa and with those of the Americas through a fleet sufficiently advanced for ocean crossings 3) the Atlantean army was to be organized to the point of permanently controlling vast areas of land. All this may suggest that Atlantis was more organized and developed the Greek civilization, but certainly there is evidence (in Plato) that the Atlanteans possessed a technology equal (if not better) than ours. This idea of ??a ” hyper Atlantis “there was dangled from various mediums and theosophists who would come into contact with” entities “lived in the time of Atlantis.

 

<img src=”http://omniture.virgilio.it/b/ss/tivirgilioglobalprod/1/H.22.1–NS/0″ height=”1″ width=”1″ border=”0″ alt=”” /> <img src=”http://b.scorecardresearch.com/p?c1=2&c2=13259779&cj=1&name=virgilio.community.xoom.xoomer&ns_site=virgilio” />

Original text

Platone così ancor prima della caduta del governo dei trenta tiranni ( 401 aC) si distacca dall’ambiente politico e con la morte del suo maestro Socrate nel 399 iniziò a compiere viaggi di studio, come era usanza presso gli studiosi greci, nei luoghi più raffinati culturalmente del mondo allora conosciuto.

Contribute a better translation