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Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Archive 3169

 

“DON’T TOUCH THAT DIAL!”

                 THE NEW AGE PRACTICE OF CHANNELING

 

copyright 1988 by Eric Pement

Nov. 28, 1988

 

 

 

They close their eyes and lips. For a minute or two, sitting with

quiet focus, they breathe in great volumes of air, sucking up strength

for a momentous journey. Suddenly, another personality takes over and

an alien voice speaks.

 

Channeling has become one of the paramount landmarks of the New Age

movement, eclipsing herbal cures, mundane astrology, and flotation

tanks. Now an integral part of the Aquarian scene, channelers seem to

have multiplied geometrically in the past fifteen years.

 

Trying to monitor this wave is an incredible task. Its influence is

propagated through multiple avenues — radio and TV interviews, private

channeling sessions, cassette distribution, videotape sales and

rentals, newsletters, magazines, mass seminars, conferences, and an

endless stream of channeled literature. (They don’t call it “automatic

writing” for nothing.) Net profits on all this have been estimated at

from 100 to 400 million dollars annually.[1]

 

Exactly what is it? Jon Klimo, author of a sympathetic yet thorough

survey of channeling, says it “is a phenomenon in which otherwise

ordinary people seem to let themselves be taken over by, or in other

ways receive messages from, another personality who uses them as a

conduit, medium, or channel for the communication — hence the term

medium or channel.” [2]

 

One of the more popular channelers is J.Z. (Judy Zebra) Knight. She

channels Ramtha, also known as “the Ram,” supposedly a 35,000-year-old

being from Atlantis who invented the practice of war. I like Martin

Gardner’s summary of Ramtha’s story: “Slowly he came to realize that he

himself was part of the God he hated. After 63 OBEs [out-of-body

experiences], his body vibrating faster than light, he became one with

the wind. On the side of Mount Indus, in Tibet, free of weight, he

ascended into the Seventh Heaven, where he and God became one. He is

now part of an ‘unseen brotherhood’ of superbeings who love us and hear

our prayers.” [3] Ramtha has made Knight a millionairess several times

over; she, in turn, has had Ramtha’s name copyrighted to prevent anyone

else from channeling him.

 

Penny Torres and Jach Pursel are the two most popular rivals to J.Z.

Knight. Penny channels Mafu, “a highly evolved being from the seventh

dimension, last seen on earth when he incarnated as a leper in

first-century Pompeii.” [4] Mafu, like Ramtha, speaks with a Slavic

accent. Meanwhile, Jach Pursel channels Lazaris, a “group being” from

beyond time and space who has (have?) never been embodied in our

dimension. Lazaris speaks with a lisp.

 

The range of “entities” supposedly being channeled today is

virtually unlimited. Spirit Speaks, a bimonthly magazine from

California, is a Reader’s Digest of messages from various channeled

entities. Some of its regular contributors include Dong How Li (a

Tibetan monk last incarnated 2600 years ago), Gabriel (an angel), Dr.

Peebles (a Scottish physician from the 1800s), and Zoosh (“a

non-physical being from Alpha Centauri”).

 

An excellent survey of the channeling scene (from a Christian

perspective) is provided in a recent book by John Ankerberg and John

Weldon. They note that the personalities being channeled “claim to be

various aspects of the human mind or the ‘collective’ mind of humanity

. . . They also claim to be the Holy Spirit, troubled ghosts, the

spirits of animals and plants (dolphins, trees, flowers), multiple

human personalities, the inhabitants of mythical cultures (Atlanteans,

Lemurians), and even a possible alien computer that exists in the

future. Critics, realizing that some people are claiming to channel

dolphins, others the spirits of fruits and vegetables and still others

computers from the future, have come to conclude the sanity of the

nation is at risk.” [5]

HISTORICAL AND BIBLICAL BACKGROUND

 

Channeling activity, understood in its wider sense to include spirit

possession in general, can be traced back to the earliest times and

civilizations. The acceptance of animism (the belief that spirits are

present in all of nature, including plants, inert objects, and seasons)

or the practice of ancestor veneration have provided primitive cultures

with sufficient groundwork for the rise of spiritism. Certainly,

spirit mediumship, as well as attempts at spirit-control, can be seen

in shamanism (the activities of the tribal witchdoctor, magician, or

healer in controlling the forces/spirits of nature).

 

Channeling can be traced back to the ancient religions of Egypt,

India, and the Near East; thus, we should pay special attention to the

Biblical injunctions on this topic.

 

The commandments given to Moses after the Exodus from Egypt (about

1400 B.C.) expressly forbid communication with “spirit mediums” (Lev.

19:31) [6], or going to one who “inquires of the dead” (Deut. 18:11).

Mosaic law prescribed the death penalty both for the medium and for the

person who sought out the medium for advice (Lev. 20:6, 27). Indeed,

one of the chief reasons that King Saul, the first king of Israel, was

slain was for “going to one who had a familiar spirit, to inquire of

it” (1 Chron. 10:13). Seven hundred years after Mt. Sinai, in the days

of Isaiah, the prohibition still remained. Those who sought

information from “mediums and wizards” were to be answered brusquely:

“Should not a people seek their God instead? Should they seek to the

dead on behalf of the living?” (Isa. 8:19)

 

In New Testament times, possession and control by discarnate spirits

were accepted realities. The actions of Jesus in casting out “demons”

and “unclean spirits” are mentioned repeatedly in the New Testament

(Matt. 8:28ff, 9:32ff, 12:22ff, 17:14ff, etc.). Jesus likewise

commissioned his apostles to cast out demons (Matt. 10:1) and gave this

authority to others not numbered among the Twelve (Luke 10:17). The

early church continued to conduct exorcisms (Acts 8:7, 19:12).

 

An interesting incident regarding a channeler appears in the

sixteenth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. While Paul and Silas

were evangelizing in Philippi, a city of western Greece, they were

persistently followed by a slave girl “with a spirit of divination”

(Acts 16:16). The Greek text literally reads a “python spirit” [Gk.

pneuma puthona], a reference to an entity named The Python, which

inhabited the high priestess of the temple of Apollo at Delphi.

(Remember hearing about “the oracle of Delphi” in school? That was

her.) “The Python” or “python spirit” later became a generic term for

a discarnate entity which predicted the future. The apostle Paul

finally “turned and said to the spirit, ‘I command you in the name of

Jesus Christ to come out of her.’ And he came out that very hour.”

(Acts 16:18)

 

It bears noting that this spirit of divination evidently could

provide some genuine information (verse 16). This was not a natural

ability, nor was the woman using methods of fraud or “cold reading,”

because when Paul cast out the spirit, she lost her powers and the

ability to make money for her owners (v. 19). If the woman had been

drawing upon a natural talent or using a swindle technique, she should

still have been able to earn money by deception, as previously. In any

case, this was not a power the Lord wanted in her life, and through the

authority of Jesus Christ it was cast out.

 

CHANNELING IN MAJOR RELIGIONS

 

For centuries, among monotheistic cultures spirit communication was

usually limited to spirits of divine origin (God, Jesus, one of the

angels, etc.). Muhammad claimed multiple encounters with the angel

Gabriel, whose messages are preserved in the Qur’an. In the Middle

Ages, Roman Catholic mystics were permitted visions and appearances of

Jesus or the Virgin Mary.

 

Emmanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), the brilliant metallurgist,

inventor and scientist of the eighteenth century, abandoned his career

for spiritism. Claiming to be in contact with angels, he wrote

prodigious treatises and commentaries based on these visions and

communications, and founded a major cultic movement influential among

European and American intellectuals. In nineteenth-century America

several cults, such as the Mormons and the Shakers, claimed communion

with angels or spirits of the dead.

 

Mary Baker Eddy often attempted to distinguish Christian Science

(which she founded) from spiritualism. Yet she herself acted as a

trance channeler briefly before “discovering” Christian Science (1866).

In The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian

Science, Georgine Milmine describes the experiences of Mary Baker

Patterson (who later became Mrs. Eddy). Mary Baker Patterson channeled

the spirit of her dead brother Albert in 1864 (or claimed to, anyway).

Milmine’s book reproduces a photograph of automatic writing,

purportedly from Albert, in Mary’s hand. [7] Two years later, in the

company of other spiritualists, Mrs. Patterson [Eddy] acted as a trance

medium, this time claiming to channel only the spirits of the Apostles

and of Jesus Christ. [8]

 

The channeling floodgates opened in this country in the

mid-nineteenth century with the advent of spiritualism, the attempt to

communicate with spirits of the dead. Historians almost universally

trace the origin of the spiritualist movement to 1848 in Hydesville,

New York, with the Fox sisters, Margaret and Kate.

 

Margaret was 14 and Kate was 11 when they first heard the sounds of

knocking, furniture being moved, and other sounds in various rooms of

their home, in late 1847. [9] At these times, their beds would vibrate

and shake without any reason. The children were terrified and Mrs.

Fox’s hair turned white through this ordeal. [10]

 

On the night of March 31, 1848, 12-year-old Kate challenged these

unseen powers to repeat the snaps of her fingers, which they did. Each

number of snaps would be followed by the same number of raps, and thus

the girls began to communicate with the spirits. News spread rapidly,

and the family home was visited by interested writers and curiosity

seekers. The sisters began to hold seances, communicating with the

spirits by means of a simple code. In mid-April, Kate’s parents sent

her away to live with her older sister Leah in Rochester, N.Y., hoping

to quell the disruption it had caused the family. (The spirits were

usually more active in Kate’s presence.) The rappings immediately

spread to Leah’s house, and Leah also became a believer.

 

The first message the Fox sisters received was this:

 

Dear friends, you must proclaim these truths to the world.

This is the dawning of a new era, and you must not try to conceal

it any longer. When you do your duty, God will protect you and

good spirits will watch over you. [11]

Fascination with spiritualism spread like wildfire, and within 30

years there were tens of thousands of spiritualists in the U.S.,

England, and across Europe, and national organizations were formed. In

1855 the first national spiritualist newspaper was issued in England;

in 1866 a national conference was held in Rhode Island, where

resolutions were passed that citizens should abandon all Christian

ordinances and worship and close down all Sunday schools. In 1870, Sir

William Crookes, famed British scientist who invented the Crookes tube

(forerunner of the modern picture tube), called on the nation’s

scientists to investigate spiritualism. Seeking to contact his dead

daughter, Crookes was convinced of spiritualism’s validity.

 

Queen Victoria consulted several mediums, hoping to speak with her

late husband Prince Albert, who died in 1861. Seances were held at the

White House under Lincoln’s presidency. British prime minister William

  1. Gladstone, Canadian prime minister MacKenzie King, and Sir Arthur

Conan Doyle (creator of Sherlock Holmes) were all converts to

spiritualism.

 

Famed magician and escape artist Harry Houdini tried to prevent

Conan Doyle from being duped by crank mediums, but Doyle remained

convinced that the spiritualists had true supernatural powers. He

believed spiritualism was “a new revelation” to mankind.

 

“Christianity must be modified by this new revelation,” Doyle wrote,

referring to spiritualism and psychic phenomena generally. “One can

see no justice in a vicarious sacrifice, nor in the God who could be

placated by such means. Above all, many cannot understand such

expressions as the ‘redemption from sin,’ ‘cleansed by the blood of the

Lamb,’ and so forth.” [12]

 

Houdini’s 1924 autobiography, Houdini: A Magician Among the

Spirits, is a fascinating account of the origins and numerous frauds

connected with nineteenth-century spiritualism. After over thirty

years of research, he wrote, “I have accumulated one of the largest

libraries in the world on psychic phenomena, Spiritualism, magic,

witchcraft, demonology, evil spirits, etc., some of the material going

as far back as 1489, . . . but nothing I ever read concerning the

so-called Spiritualistic phenomena has impressed me as being

genuine.” [13]

 

It was not Houdini, however, who struck the greatest blow against

spiritualism. A shattering revelation had come a generation earlier,

from Margaret and Kate Fox themselves.

 

Forty years after the Fox sisters told the world of the spirit

rappings, both confessed they were frauds. On October 21, 1888,

54-year-old Margaret Fox gave a public confession at the New York

Academy of Music, before an audience of over two thousand people.

Standing in her stocking feet on a small pine table on the stage, she

produced loud, distinct raps which could be heard throughout the

building. Her sister likewise gave consent. That same year, she told

a crowd, “I am here tonight, as one of the founders of Spiritualism, to

denounce it as absolute falsehood . . . the most wicked blasphemy the

world has ever known.” [14]

 

One year later, they changed their minds, and both recanted their

previous confessions! They claimed the spirit manifestations had

always been genuine, and they had never tricked anyone with false

knocks or raps, retracting all they had said in 1888. The Fox sisters

had become alcoholics in the 1860s, and fellow spiritualists claimed

their confessions had been bought off. The last years of their lives

were spent in drunkenness, and their public speech now contained little

more than profanity. Both died as alcoholics, Kate in 1892 and

Margaret in 1893, both cursing God as they died. [15]

 

CHANNELING IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

 

Spiritualism by no means disappeared with the death of the Fox

sisters. In fact, it diversified into spiritualist sects which

could be rationalistic (strongly anti-Christian), average (mildly

anti-Christian), and strongly religious, complete with sacraments and

baptism. The spiritualist movement also provided the impetus for the

study of psychic research and parapsychology.

 

The early quarter of the twentieth century witnessed the epiphany

of a few shining stars in the astral firmament. Two of these were

channeled books, the other was the so-called “sleeping prophet,” Edgar

Cayce (1877-1945).

 

Cayce was raised in rural Kentucky. His parents were Campbellites.

He claimed to see “little people” as a child. The turning point in his

life occurred in 1901, at the age of 24. Cayce had been suffering from

a chronic case of laryngitis and voice loss after contracting a cold a

year earlier. In desperation, he turned to a hypnotist, Al Layne.

After Cayce had entered a deep trance, Layne asked him to diagnose the

cause of his hoarseness.

 

“Immediately the fateful words came forth: ‘Yes, we can see the

body.’ The voice diagnosed the problem as insufficient circulation.

Layne gave a suggestion that the body cure itself. Cayce’s neck grew

pink, then bright red. Twenty minutes later, it became normal again.

Layne told Cayce to wake up, and when he did, his voice had returned.”

[16] So goes the story in the Cayce biographies.

 

Cayce’s life was changed permanently. News of this story spread,

and Cayce’s neighbors asked him to diagnose their diseases for them.

Cayce learned how to put himself in a trance state fairly quickly, and

after he appeared to fall asleep, the voice would take over and

prescribe various unorthodox cures which always seemed to work.

Eventually, the questioners began to ask him about spiritual matters,

and from then on Cayce channeled metaphysical “truths,” promoting

reincarnation, monism, astrology, gnosticism, Atlantis, mediumship,

etc. Cayce’s followers were devoted to these “readings,” and over

14,000 trance sessions have been transcribed, cataloged, and indexed

since his death. This material forms a vast body of occult reference

material which has been used for decades.

 

Equally potent has been The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ,

published in 1907, channeled through Levi Dowling, who was purportedly

empowered to read the “Akashic Records” (a scribal form of the

Universal Mind, containing all the history of the universe). Levi’s

Aquarian Gospel has provided a mythical history of the life of Christ

picked up by many cults and New Age devotees. It describes a

reincarnated Jesus, who attained Christ consciousness after visiting

Egypt, Greece, and India, during the so-called “silent years” before

his public ministry in Palestine. [17]

 

For a book supposedly transcribed from the Akashic records, The

Aquarian Gospel is riddled with error, beginning from its first verse.

It says “Herod Antipas was ruler of Jerusalem” when Jesus was born.

That should have been Herod the Great, not Herod Antipas. It has Jesus

visiting Lahore in Pakistan (31.1); Lahore didn’t historically exist

until 600 years later. It shows Jesus visiting magicians in Persepolis

(39.1); Persepolis was destroyed by Alexander the Great in 330 B.C. and

was never rebuilt. Nonetheless, this book has been adopted by many

unwitting readers as “proof” of a secret occult past for Jesus Christ.

 

The Urantia Book was also obtained through trance channeling. Its

unknown author served as a medium for dozens of extraterrestrial

intelligences, beginning in the early 1900s. (“Urantia” is the name

these space beings give to the planet earth.) Ironically, it was a

Seventh-day Adventist minister and physician, who had spent over a

decade debunking and refuting spiritualism, who was ultimately

responsible for the publication of the Urantia papers. Dr. William

Sadler finally found a channeler he couldn’t expose as a fraud, whose

entities were utterly inexplicable.

 

Beginning in 1923, Dr. Sadler invited a group of friends, informally

known as The Forum, to examine and question these intelligences, which

were rapidly becoming more numerous. The channeler began producing

automatic writing in response to their questions, and eleven years

later these papers were completed. The entities asked Dr. Sadler, by

now a true believer, that the work be published, though it wasn’t until

1955 that the 2100-page volume made it into print. [18] The Urantia

Book has influenced thousands of people, and is fully consistent with

New Age ideology.

 

THE ADVENT OF MODERN CHANNELING

 

It would be hard to say just where “modern” channeling practices

should be dated from, but I’m inclined to point to the Seth material,

channeled through the late Jane Roberts (died 1984). Jane, a housewife

and would-be writer, first encountered “Seth” through a spontaneous

experience in September 1963. Jane said “a fantastic avalanche of

radical, new ideas burst into my head with tremendous force,” not

unlike an LSD trip. [19]

 

Jane transmitted this material for over twenty years and, like most

channeled writing, it is amazingly consistent with New Age philosophy

(reality is a construct of our minds, etc.). Jane Roberts was the

first contemporary channeler to gain widespread acceptance in the

1970s, and since then the volume of channelers and channeled writings

has fallen on our society like a deluge.

 

How does channeling fit in the larger picture? We interviewed Joel

Bjorling, author of a forthcoming bibliography on channeling. Since

he’s up to his eyeballs in studying channeled writings, we asked him

how contemporary channeling differs from its nineteenth-century

predecessor. He pointed out that in terms of content (i.e., what is

taught), both have the same philosophy and share a common root. The

outward phenomenon is also similar — in both cases, a disembodied

entity speaks through the channeler, usually in a trance state.

 

One difference this author has observed is that the spiritualist

movement focused on seances (dim lights, formal invocations, etc.) and

supernatural manifestations — table lifting, “direct voice” phenomena,

ectoplasm, materialized writing or faces, etc. By contrast, today’s

channelers do everything under bright lights, usually on stage, and the

only visible event is when an alien personality takes them over. The

channelers usually don’t exhibit the powers or physical phenomena, such

as levitation, that were present in spiritualism. (This may be due to

the development of infrared photography, but that’s another matter.)

 

The basic themes have also differed. In spiritualism, the emphasis

was on “proof of survival” after death, and the public largely sought

reassurance that their deceased loved ones were happy in the Great

Beyond. In modern channeling, the focus is on “higher intelligences”

who have come to teach us Truth, showing us how to alter reality and

achieve self-fulfillment.

 

Modern channeling centers around certain themes: (1) we are all

God(s), (2) there is no death, (3) reality is a product of the mind,

(4) prosperity is our right and “we can have it all,” and (5) we must

preserve the earth from nuclear or ecological catastrophe. This last

point is especially prevalent among UFO contactees, who communicate

telepathically with various “space brothers” (their term). The UFOs

generally warn that continued testing of nuclear weapons will disturb

the earth’s rotation or cause some kind of interplanetary disaster.

The space brothers are also concerned about environmental pollution on

our own planet.

 

Despite the differences between the two movements, both

spiritualists and channelers are agreed that the traditional Christian

concept of God is false. Consider the following statement:

 

Agreement [among channelers] can be said to exist on one

point only, namely, that the historic Christian doctrine

respecting the nature and character of the Deity is an

imposition, the fabric of an artificial scholastic

philosophy, and contradicted by sound reason as well as

by the unanimous testimony of the spirit world. It is

certainly a remarkable fact that on this point the

higher intelligences are strangely unanimous and emphatic

in their statements, and all spiritualists are agreed. [20]

 

Though this observation seems strikingly contemporary, it was

actually written over 80 years ago, in an analysis of the spiritualist

movement. We believe the parallels are too close to be coincidental.

 

CONCLUDING REMARKS

 

Is all channeling Satanic? In the direct sense, no. Many

channelers are not communicating with any spirit, but are simply

hucksters who have “learned the rap” and are capitalizing on the

current fascination with discarnate intelligences. J.Z. Knight may be

one such person — former followers testify to having seen her practice

Ramtha’s mannerisms, speech patterns, and accent.

 

Personally, I have adopted Occam’s Razor when dealing with most

supernatural claims. Named after William of Occam, this principle of

logic states that when several explanations or solutions to a problem

are possible, the simplest is to be preferred to the more complex. As

he phrased it, “Entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity.”

William was undoubtedly using “entities” as a synonym for explanations,

but in this context I find the phraseology excruciatingly apropos.

 

Some channelers may not be intentional fakers, but self-deceived

instead. I have known individuals who couldn’t tell the difference

between their own wayward thoughts and the voice of God. Stream-of-

consciousness musings and personal urges have been mistaken by some for

divine revelation. Self-deception of this sort can range all the way

to outright mental illness.

 

I also don’t discount the possibility that some trance channeling

may arise from a one’s own unconscious self-will. For instance, a

voice which claims to be Sushi from Napaj, a deity of great power and

pomp, may simply spring from the inner fantasies of the unregenerate

mind. Those who believe in man’s depravity should consider that man’s

own evil heart may well be the source of the channelers’ vulgar

pronouncements.

 

Yet we cannot deny the reality of the spiritual realm. Both

Scripture and experience show that certain phenomena can only be

accounted for by demonic spirits. History records intrusions of the

demonic throughout all times and cultures, and we have no less an

authority than the Lord Jesus Christ himself who testifies to the

reality of this fact — and to his own power to save men from the

powers of darkness.

 

In the preceding discussion, though Satan need not be the immediate

source of a channeled message, he may be the remote cause behind it.

Jesus called Satan “a liar and the father of it” (John 8:44) and

Satan’s parentage to occult sin is sure even though it may not be

immediate. On one level, whether channeling is “real” or “faked” is

immaterial; the person who seeks after “mediums and spiritists to

prostitute himself by following them” will be alienated from the

presence of God and subject to judgment (Lev. 20:6).

 

A man may forfeit his soul for counterfeit money just as surely as

for “real” money. But the effect of each loss will be the same,

regardless of the currency used. And in like manner, ultimately it’s

not the medium of exchange which matters but the consequences of the

transaction.

 

 

 

REFERENCES:

 

  1. 1. Katharine Lowry, “Channelers,” OMNI, Oct. 1987, p. 50.

 

  1. 2. Jon Klimo, CHANNELING: INVESTIGATIONS ON RECEIVING INFORMATION FROM

PARANORMAL SOURCES (Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc., 1987), p. 1.

 

  1. 3. Martin Gardner, THE NEW AGE: NOTES OF A FRINGE WATCHER (Buffalo:

Prometheus Books, 1988), p. 195.

 

  1. 4. Brooks Alexander, “Theology from the Twilight Zone,” CHRISTIANITY

TODAY, Sept. 18, 1987, p. 22.

 

  1. 5. John Ankerberg and John Weldon, THE FACTS ON SPIRIT GUIDES (Eugene,

Ore: Harvest House Publishers, 1988), p. 16.

 

  1. 6. The Hebrew word here translated “mediums” (NASV) or “them that have

familiar spirits” (KJV) is the Hebrew word ‘obh. It appears 16 times

in the OT and was used to indicate both spirits and spirit mediums.

 

  1. 7. Georgine Milmine, THE LIFE OF MARY BAKER G. EDDY AND THE HISTORY OF

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE (1909: rpt. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1971),

  1. 64-68.

 

  1. 8. Milmine, pp. 111, 115-116.

 

  1. 9. The exact year the raps began is dispute (1846-48); 1847 seems most

accepted and the birthdates of the sisters is not certain.

 

  1. 10. This account of spiritualism has been taken from several reliable

sources and reference books. The reference to Mrs. Fox’s hair turning

white comes from Raphael Gasson, THE CHALLENGING COUNTERFEIT

(Plainfield, NJ: Logos, 1966), p. 47.

 

  1. 11. Gasson, p. 48; also cited in Klimo, p. 98; and in Nandor Fordor,

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PSYCHIC SCIENCE, London, 1934, ad loc.

 

  1. 12. Arthur Conan Doyle, THE NEW REVELATION (London: Hodder and

Stoughton, 1918), pp. 70, 71.

 

  1. 13. Harry Houdini, HOUDINI: A MAGICIAN AMONG THE SPIRITS (1924: rpt.

New York, Arno Press, 1972), p. xix.

 

  1. 14. Gasson, p. 48.

 

  1. 15. Gasson, p. 49.

 

  1. 16. Gary North, UNHOLY SPIRITS: OCCULTISM AND NEW AGE HUMANISM (Fort

Worth: Dominion Press, 1986), p. 198.

 

  1. 17. See Per Beskow, STRANGE TALES ABOUT JESUS (Philadelphia: Fortress

Press, 1985), for good summaries of this “gospel” and other

pseudo-scriptural forgeries.

 

  1. 18. Steve Cannon, “Evaluating the Urantia Book,” PFO NEWSLETTER

(quarterly newsletter of Personal Freedom Outreach, St. Louis, Mo.),

vol. 7 (Oct.-Dec. 1987): pp. 4-6.

 

  1. 19. cited by Klimo, p. 30.

 

  1. 20. J. Godfrey Raupert, MODERN SPIRITISM (London: Sands & Co., 1904),
  2. 210-211.