FROM THE WAYBACK MACHINE
The Atlantis-Genesis Connection—Parallel Memories of a Forgotten World?
- Synopsis of Plato’s description of Atlantis in his Timaeus and Critias
- Overview of the Book of Genesis’ portrayal of the Antediluvian world of Eden and the land of Nod
- A comparison between the two geographies and histories
- Correlations of the Greek names of the ten kings of Atlantis and the ten pre-Flood patriarchs from Adam to Noah
- Further correlations with Berosus’ prediluval history and Sanchuniathon’s mythic folklore lineage
- Are all these different memories of a single prehistoric lost civilization?
In Plato’s account of Atlantis, in his Timaeus and Critias, the philosopher described the once powerful and prosperous prehistoric island kingdom in great detail.
He claimed, first of all that the destruction of the lost civilization amid tremendous earth cataclysms occurred nine thousand years before his ancestor Solon’s time, or sometime between 9500 to 10,000 B.C.E. This places the catastrophe at the very end of the last Ice Age and the termination of the Pleistocene period.
Plato said that Atlantis was a very large island situated in the Atlantic Ocean directly in front (westward) of the Pillars of Hercules (the Straits of Gibraltar), and was larger than Libya (North Africa adjacent to Egypt) and Asia (or what was known as Asia in Solon’s and Plato’s time, i.e., Asia Minor, the area of modern Turkey) combined. Its total area was thus about 400,000 square miles in size. Beyond Atlantis to the west were other islands—the Caribbean—and from these one could reach the “opposite continent”—the Americas.
On the side toward the Ocean (in the east) extending toward the center of the island was a broad and fertile plain, comprising 77,000 square miles, and crossed by many rivers, plus irrigation systems built by the Atlanteans. Near the center to the south of the plain eastward on the island was a low mountain, out of which the capital city of Atlantis was constructed. Low mountains surrounded the plain on the coasts, and high mountains—some higher than any known to the Mediterranean peoples—existed in the north of the island, protecting the island from the harsh boreal winds (which, twelve thousand years ago, would have originated out of glacial-covered northern Europe of the last Ice Age). The rocks of the land were predominantly red, white and black in color, and hot and cold springs abounded.
The first inhabitants “sprang from the earth” (were indigenous) and lived in a cave on the future site of the Atlantis metropolis, were Evenor, his wife Leucippe, and their daughter, Cleito. In the division of the Earth by the gods, Atlantis fell to the deity of the sea, Poseidon. Visiting the island, he took Cleito as his lover and she bore him five sets of twins. The god and the earliest Atlanteans together constructed the great walls and canals of Atlantis City. This was done at a time, according to Plato, when there were not yet ships or navigation.
The city Poseidon made capital of the island, and gave it and the immediate surrounding region to his eldest son, Atlas, after whom the city, the island and the Ocean encompassing the land were named. The rest of the island, and the rest of the kingdom (which eventually included parts of the Americas, Europe and Africa) were portioned to the other nine sons: Eumelus, Ampheres, Euaemon, Mneseas, Autochthon, Elasippas, Mestor, Azaes and Diaprepes. Each established their own family rule in their own countries, lasting over many generations. But these kings always remained subservient to the royal line of Atlas. As time went by, the Atlanteans—originally a virtuous and highly evolved spiritual people–fell into material greed, and attempted to expand their empire by conquest and slavery. The gods finally destroyed the race and their island because of their growing aggressiveness.
The Atlantis island was rich in many metals, which the Atlanteans mined extensively: gold, silver, tin, copper—and a mysterious substance called orichalcum. This the Atlanteans valued next to gold; it was reddish-orange and bright in appearance. Concerning iron metal, Plato’s narrative mentions that it was not used in Atlantean religious ceremonies, which would indicate its utilization for everyday purposes, though not to an extensive degree.
Animals of all kinds flourished on the island in its rivers, lakes, marshes, forests, mountains and on the central plain. Included in the indigenous wildlife were a large number of elephants (being the Pleistocene era, these would have included mammoths and mastodons). Some animals, Plato emphasized, were larger and more voracious than known in the Mediterranean (again, very likely representative of Pleistocene mammals and other larger now extinct fauna). Bulls (aurochs) were also present, which the Atlanteans held sacred to Poseidon, and were used in sacrificial services and games. The horse (Pleistocene equine forms) also abounded, likewise a sacred animal to the patron god (bull and horse images were the most numerous images portrayed in Paleolithic cavern art in Cro-Magnon Europe at this time). The Atlanteans possessed well over 80,000 horses for use in war and in racing contests.
The climate (greatly affected by the Gulf Stream which at that time was diverted by the presence of Atlantis in the middle of the Atlantic, and flowed along its southern coast) was conducive to the growth of many temperate and even semi-tropical plants: all manners of grain, fruits, of the hard rind (citruses), the mild fruits (bananas), the dry fruits (dates, figs), the legumes, those which supply ointment, juices and meats (the coconut), chestnuts, exotic plants (some now extinct species of Pleistocene vegetation), and sweet-smelling roots and herbage (plants of perfume and incense).
The city of Atlantis was fifteen miles in diameter, composed of alternating rings of land and canals, all of human construction. A larger canal crossed through the rings to the center, and was bridged over by huge bridges connecting the rings of land. Each bridge was mounted by towers and possessed gates. The outer wall surrounding the entire city was made of stone; the wall of the first land ring was covered with brass; the next ring was covered with tin; and the most inner wall—surrounding the citadel island—was of orichalcum.
On the citadel island, three miles in diameter, were temples dedicated to Poseidon (god of the sea and earthquakes) and Cleito (Mother Goddess), encompassed by a wall of gold. Poseidon’s sanctuary measured 600 feet long and 300 feet wide (a double cube configuration), was covered with silver and gold spires, an ivory ceiling, and an orichalcum floor. The design was totally foreign to both Greek and Egyptian religious concepts, who described it only as “outlandish” and “barbaric.” Inside was a statue of the god riding a chariot of six winged horses, in the midst of a hundred neriads or water-spirits riding on dolphin backs. There were also therein many other fabulous works of art. In the sanctuary gardens were gold statues of all the original ten kings of Atlantis and their sister-wives, and columns of orichalcum on which were written the laws and histories of the Atlantean rulers.
Close by was the royal palace, and hot and cold springs, around which the Atlanteans constructed baths and cisterns for libation and healing (the presence of hot as well as cold springs, and the general circular nature of Atlantis City, suggests that the original “mountain” out of which the City was formed was probably a dormant volcanic ringed crater. During the final destruction of the island, if this volcano became active once again, it meant that Atlantis City would have been suddenly and totally destroyed).
Looking at an overview of Atlantean cultural traits, we find: large stone-cutting, hauling and construction, architecture, engineering, ship-building, navigation, commerce, spoken and written language, extensive irrigation, agriculture, animal husbandry, metal-mining, metal-working and casting, weaponry, religion of the sea, mother-goddess worship, bull worship, sacrifice, monarchial government, written oaths, codes and laws.
The outermost wall of the city, of stone, met the Ocean coast facing Europe and Africa, and there carved out of the rock were built harbors, crowded day and night with merchants from many foreign nations. For protection (and later involved in military conquest) the island had 1,200 warships manned by 200 men each (240,000 sailors); it also had a standing army composed of 10,000 war chariots, 60,000 light chariots, 160,000 men manning the chariots, and 480,000 foot soldiers—or a total of a million men under arms.
The kings of Atlantis ruled over all Atlantis, over the other Atlantic islands (the Caribbean, Britain, and the northern European coasts), part of the opposite continent (the Americas), and within the Pillars of Hercules (east of Gibraltar) as far as Libya in Africa and Tyrrhenia (Etruscan Italy) in southern Europe. Toward the end of their existence, the Atlanteans threatened the eastern Mediterranean in a single combined attack against Egypt and the powers confederated with prehistoric Athens.
During a major battle between the Atlanteans and Athenians, both armies were destroyed by a major earth cataclysm, which at the same time completely overwhelmed and submerged the island of Atlantis in a single day and night. Plato records that the planetary disaster not only affected Atlantis and its empire, but also severely damaged lands far removed. Cities were swept away, coastal lands were submerged, former cultivated lands became barren, and in many places only a few survivors managed to escape on high mountains. Thereafter they made no signs—that is, they built no civilization or communicated with other inhabitants. The people were left destitute of letters and education. Plato further noted that the Ocean in those parts where Atlantis had existed for a long time was impassible for shipping, because of the quantity of shallow mud in the waters.
Having now looked at a short synopsis of Plato’s account of the history and destruction of Atlantis, let us examine another source which offers a number of interesting parallels to Plato’s descriptions.
In the Hebrew Book of Genesis, chapter 2 verses 8-15, we read these words: “And the Lord planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put man whom he had formed. And out of the ground made the Lord God every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden and thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first was Pison; that is it which encompasseth the whole of the land of Havilah, where there is gold; and the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and onyx stone. And the name of the second river is Gihon; the same is it that encompasseth the whole of Ethiopia. And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it that goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth is Euphrates. And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress and keep it.”
Other geographical details are given in Genesis 3:23–24 and 4:16: “Therefore the Lord God sent him (Adam) forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. And Cain went out from the presence of the Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, to the east of Eden.” Later, it is in this land that Cain built the first city, and named it after his son, Enoch.
There have been many attempts at applying these Biblical elements of geography to modern geography, but with little success. It is true that the texts refer to such familiar names as “Ethiopia,” “Assyria” and “Euphrates,” but these locations, in coordination with the rivers and directions given in Genesis, can in no way be made to fit modern geography. The reason for this is simple: The names in the texts apply to a different place and time, which no longer exist. Genesis portrays the Deluge as a global catastrophe of such magnitude that it completely reshaped many surfaces of the Earth—and destroyed many others. It would have been natural for survivors of the Flood disaster, those who reached the Middle East, in surveying the new lands before them, to name rivers and regions that reminded them of similar locations they had known from their lost homeland.
Reconstructing the geography given to us in the Genesis texts, we find these elements: First, we are told of a land called Eden. In the eastern portion of Eden was the “garden” of Paradise. A river flowed through the land of Eden, passed through the garden, and from the outer edge of the garden parted into four “heads” or source rivers. The language of the text indicates that the direction the descriptions take us is upriver, and the direction of the flow was from east to west.
Beyond the garden, to the east, were the four rivers—the Pison, Gihon, Hiddekel and Euphrates. The first two are associated with the names “Havilah” and “Ethiopia.” In present-day geography, these are the names of ancient southern nations, from a central Middle Eastern perspective, where Genesis was written. The latter two rivers—the Hiddekel and Euphrates—are associated with “Assyria,” an ancient northern nation.
It is very possible that these rivers and locations had similar connotations in Edenic geography. In other words, the Pison and Gihon originated to the south of Eden, and the Hiddekel and Euphrates had their sources to the north of Eden.
In Genesis 3:23-24, we are told that when Adam and Eve were driven from the garden of Eden, the direction of their flight was eastward. When Cain was later driven out from the presence of his family according to Genesis 4:16, he fled farther eastward, to the land called Nod, which means “exile, banishment.” There he began building a great city.
As to the topography—the lay of the land—of this pre-Flood world of Genesis, we can learn many interesting details from the meanings of the geographical names in the Hebrew as they are given in the account.
The name Eden has the connotation, “delightful, a place hedged about.” The Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures) uses the word Paradise, which also means “hedging around.” There thus appears to have been a natural barrier of some sort surrounding the land of Eden from the neighboring territories, perhaps a forest of heavily wooded area. Another explanation is that this is a general description of the entire region: a central flat river valley “hedged about” by hills and mountains.
The first river mentioned, the Pison, has a name which means “current, to increase, multitude, overflow, that which makes flax to grow.” It “encompasseth” (encircled) the land of Havilah, which means “a circular district, sandy land.” From these two descriptions, the picture emerges that the Pison was a large, winding river that appears to have been fed by several smaller tributaries. This is also borne out by the sandy nature of Havilah’s soil, which would have been the result of heavy silting. The river is also associated with growing flax. This area, then, was a low, flat plain where various grasses and grains grew, perhaps not unlike the Argentinian pampas or African veldt. It is interesting that the name Havilah was once given to southern Arabia. We know from the paleontological record that Arabia was once very fertile before the end of the Ice Age, and bore the characteristics of its name: it was sandy, flat, and full of tributaries.
The text also mentions that the Pison circled Havilah, and Havilah itself bears the connotation, “a circuar district.” This might imply that Havilah was a flat plateau, with the Pison valley surrounding it.
The next river is the Gihon, and it is described as encompassing “Ethiopia.” Ethiopia was the Hebrew Cush, and the African region was only one of several locations that had been given that name. Cush appears in Cappadocia in Asia Minor, and Kusu is found in the Taurus range. In each case, Cush is associated with a mountainous or hilly terrain. This is indicated in the name Gihon itself, which means “a stream bursting forth;” that is, a river of great velocity. The only way a river gains speed and energy is by dropping in elevation over a short distance, and through a narrow passage—which is exactly what it would have done if it had originated in a mountainous or hilly area with restricted valleys. Two other points to be noted: Cush also means “black,” and may refer to the color of the land and its soil. Black soil is a very rich and fertile soil, and may thus have been cultivated. Second, the name Gihon also has the connotation, “that which arises from the east;” in other words, the Gihon stream originated in the east of the land of Ethiopia/ Cush.
The Pison and Gihon, we noted, were probably rivers to the south of Eden; to the north, the first river mentioned is the Hiddekel. The name Hiddekel is a two-part word: the first part, hid, means, “activity, rapidity, vehemence;” the second part, dekel, means “velocity.”
The fact that both parts means the same gives a double emphasis to their combined connotations. In this case, we are told that the Hiddekel was a very swift and violent river. Again, like the Gihon, the swiftness of current tells us the river originated in a mountainous area, and from its emphasized speed, the river’s source was in a terrain characterized by tremendous elevation differentials, greater than that of the land of Cush. Hiddekel also has the meaning “sharp, arrow,” which suggests the course of the river was straight and narrow—perhaps through a canyon or alpine valley. Its route through the land was thus very different from the first two rivers mentioned, which were both pictured as encompassing or encircling streams.
The Hiddekel was located as flowing to the east of “Assyria.” Assyria is a name which is derived from Asshur, which means “boxwood.” The pre-Flood “Assyria” may thus have been a heavily forested region.
The last river named is the Euphrates, and no land name is given with it, thus it was probably also associated with the land of “Assyria,” even as the present river by the same name was in more recent history. Euphrates means “the great river, sweet waters, long river, good to cross over, flowers, good and abounding river.” Like the Pison, the Euphrates appears to have been a large, shallow stream that flowed across a flat plain filled with fields of flowers. The fact that it was a long river suggests that its hinterlands were more distant than the other rivers. Yet it had sweet waters, which means they were not silt-filled, indicating a lack of tributaries.
If we put this geographical and topographical data together, we can compose a simple map, with all the elements tied together, giving us a logical picture, with believable drainage patterns, changes in elevation, and co-consistent environments. We are thus not dealing with a mythic landscape, but with the geography of a very real world that once existed in the past but which exists nowhere in the world today.
Comparing this Genesis “pre-Flood” geography with Plato’s description of Atlantis, we find these striking parallels: Both had a very fertile garden and/ or plain in its center, watered by several streams, the major rivers being four in number; both had farmlands, fields and forests; both had mountains situated in the north, and along the coasts, surrounding the central garden/ plain; and both had a major city located toward the east (Atlantis’ capital was located in the east and south of the great plain). The only difference between the two accounts is that Genesis offers more geographical details, but not any distances or dimensions, as Plato does.
The Genesis account of the history of the pre-Flood or Antediluvian people takes the form of a genealogy, tracing the family line from Adam through his two sons, Cain and Seth, down to Noah, the patriarch of the Deluge. The names of the Antediluvians listed in Genesis have meanings and connotations in the Hebrew language, and when we discover these, and associate them with other cultural elements described in the texts, what we have is the story of the development of a civilization from simple to complex levels:
*Language, Conceptual Analysis, Observational Articulation—Adam gives each animal a name—Gen. 2:19
*Fire— Adam’s making of bread—Gen. 3:19
*Orchard Agriculture, Food Gathering—Adam’s tending the garden—Gen. 2:15
*Field Agriculture—Adam ate herbs of the field, separated thorns and thistles—3:18
*Simple Tools—Cain, a tiller of the soil—4:2
*Animal Domestication and Husbandry—Adam clothed in skins, Abel a keeper of sheep—3:21, 42
*Astronomical Observation, Mathematics and Calendar System—First offerings brought “in the process of time,” seasonal sacrifices—4:3–6
*Writing, Books, History—Adam kept records (toledoth, “generations”) of events—5:1
*Religious Sacrificial System—Offerings of Cain and Abel—4:3–6
*Geography, Territorial Distinction—Cain and his family flee to Nod, to the east of Eden—4:16
*Higher Math, Architecture, Engineering, Political and Social Organization, Cultural Development—Cain’s building of Enoch City—4:17
*Mysticism, Religious Symbolism—Enoch the Cainite (“devoted, the initiated into secret knowledge, a teacher”)—4:17–18
*Health, Physical Biology—Enos (“weakened, mortal man”)—5:6
*Absolute Political Power—Irad (“a townsman, a prince of a city”), the first king of Enoch City—4:18
*Advanced Tools, Crafts, Metallurgy—Cainan (“an industrious man, a craftsman, a forger and artificer”)—5:9
*Theocratic Society, Judicial System—Mahaleel (“renowned judge, the praise of God”)—5:13
*Medicine—Mahujael (“one of God who is cured”)—4:18
*Mining, Scientific Inquiry—Jared (“to descend into, to search the earth”)—5:18
*Large-scale Work Projects—Mathusael (“a renowned worker before God”)—4:18
*Mass Communications, Education—Enoch the Sethite (“a preacher, teacher”) giving his message to all generations of Antediluvians—5:19–23; Hebrews 11:5; Jude 14–15
*Combat, Arts of Defense—Lamech’s slaying of a young man—4:23
*Poetry, Songs—Lamech’s lyric boasting—4:23–24
*Art, Ornamentation, Design—Lamech’s first wife, Adah (“ornament, decoration, elegance”)—4:19
*Drama, Theatrics—Second wife, Zillah (“a shadow figure, maker of sound, a player”)—4:19
*Transportation, Navigation, Cartography, Economic Expansion—Jabal (“wanderer, adventurer, one who is productive”)—4:20
*Advanced Animal Husbandry—Jabal, a keeper of cattle—4:20
*Music, Harmonics, Pythagorean Numbers—Jubal (“the harper”), inventor of the harp, organ, scales of music—4:21
*Advanced Metallurgy, Alloy Production, Metal Hardness Refinement—Tubalcain (“a weapons’ smith”), a forger and artificer of brass and iron—4:22
*Systematic Education, Guild Apprenticeship—Tubalcain “an instructor of every artificer”—4:22
*Art of Warfare, Projectile Weaponry, Rocketry—Methuselah (“man of war, man of the arrow, man of the flying dart”)—5:21, 25–27.
*Military Honor, Apocalyptic Consciousness—Lamech (“a strong young man, a hero”) predicts his son will see the end of the world—5:25–29
*Advanced Mathematics, Construction—Noah building the Ark—6:14–16
*Chemistry—Ham (“heat”), later Kham, chemia, basis of chemistry, heat, chemical reaction—5:32
What we find here is a logical sequence of events and developments leading up to the creation of a full-scale Antediluvian civilization. We may also note with great significance that the cultural and technological progessions given in the Genesis account matches point for point with the very same achievements Plato outlined for the Atlanteans.
We can also observe that within the last pre-Flood generations there was a growing preoccupation with war, militarism, and even an anticipation in the final generation of a coming cataclysm. Genesis 6:5 and 13 observes that by this time, “the wickedness of man was great in the earth,” and “the earth is filled with violence through them.” In Plato’s history of Atlantis, the Atlantean civilization was established as an inheritance from the gods, but eventually deteriorated into a militaristic empire, threatening conquest of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond. Mirroring each other, both the Antediluvians and Atlanteans are described as having been destroyed by a major natural catastrophe, as a result of being out of balance with God (the gods) and the Earth.
In the Genesis account, Adam had three sons—Abel, Cain and Seth—the first of whom died at an early age, and the other two divided the Antediluvian world between them. In Greek legend, supported in Plato’s narrative, the three divine brothers—Hades, Poseidon and Zeus—also divided the Earth, with the first becoming ruler of the underworld of the dead.
As a further parallel, we may note this comparison between the names and their meanings of Poseidon and his ten sons in the Greek language, and Adam and his descendants in Hebrew:
Poseidon (founder of the “red land”) = Adam (“red soil”)
Atlas (first king of Atlantis City) = Irad (“prince” of Enoch City)
Eumelus (“sheepherder, fruit grower”) = Cain, Abel (shepherd and fruit tender)
Ampheres (“drinking cup”) = Cainan (“craftsman, metal worker”)
Euemon (“discernment”) = Jared (“to descend into, to search”)
Mneseus (“the meditator”) = Enoch (“initiate into secret knowledge”)
Autochthon (“from the soil”) = Methuselah (“a renowned worker”)
Elasippos (“horse driver”) = Jabal (cattle herder)
Mestor (“an advisor”) = Mahalaleel (“a renowned judge”)
Diaprepes (“shines brightly”) = Tubalcain (“metalworker, forger”)
Azaes (“the parched one”) = Ham (“heat”)
Another remarkable parallel with both the Genesis and Atlantean histories was preserved by the Sumerians and Babylonians. The Graeco-Babylonian historian Berosus—basing his study on older cuneiform royal lists which have since been unearthed—gave these names of ten primeval kings: Alorus, Alapurus, Amelon, Ammenon, Amegalarus, Daonus, Aedorachus, Amempsin, Otiarties, and Xisuthros.
Notice the similarities between: Alorus/ Atlas, Alapurus/ Elasippos, Amelon/ Eumelus, Ammenon/ Eumon, Aedorachus/Autochthon, Amempsin/ Mestor
Comparing the Babylonian names with the Genesis list of the Adamic line through Seth, we find:
The third king, Amelon (or Amelu in the Weld-Blundell cylinder seal) means “a man;” the name of the third patriarch, Enos, means “mortal, weakened mankind.”
The fourth name on Berosus’ list—Ammenon (or Ummanu)—means “craftsman;” Cainan, the fourth Sethite patriarch, also means “a craftsman.”
Aedorachus, the seventh Babylonian listing, has the connotation, “bearer of divine revelations, he to whom the secrets of heaven and earth are revealed;” he corresponds to Enoch, whose name means exactly the same.
The eighth name, Amempsin, is given in the original Sumerian as Sukar-lam, a name which, in part, bears a resemblance to Lamech.
Finally, the tenth name, Xisuthros, is the name of the Babylonian Flood hero. In the older king list he is called Utnapishtim, also mentioned in the Gilgamesh Epic, and after his name it is recorded: “And then the Flood overwhelmed the land.”
Yet another parallel can be observed in the mythic folk-hero lineage of the Phoenicians, recorded by Sanchuniathon and preserved by Eusebius. In parenthesis are the Genesis equivalents:
*Kolpa and Bau—first man and woman (Adam and Eve)
*Protogonus and Aeon—food gathering (Cain, Abel gathering food offerings)
*Genos and Genea—worship of the sun, astronomical observations (calendar for offering times)
*Phos, Phur and Phlox—use of fire (Adam’s fire)
*Cassius, Libanus, Antilibanus and Brathu—men of vast bulk and height (pre-Flood giants)
*Memrumus, Hypuranius and Usorous—construction from reeds; use of papyrus, wood rafts (craftsmen, and diversification of labor)
*Agreus and Halieus—hunting and fishing (more crafts development)
*Chrysor—metal casting in iron; divination; use of sails (eighth generation, Tubalcain and Jabal)
*Geinos, Aulochthon and Technites—art, brick-making and tiling (Lamech’s artistic family)
*Agroueros and Argus—architecture; husbandry (Jabal, and continued construction)
*Amynus and Mazus—village construction; flock tending (expansion beyond Enoch City)
*Misor and Sydyk—use of salt and other chemicals (Ham, chemistry)
*Dioscuri and Taatus—preservation of knowledge, shipbuilding (Noah’s Ark)
*Elion and Beruth—use of medical herbs (advanced sciences, Mehujael)
*Epigeous—chaos, watery destruction (the Flood)
*Oranus and Ge—new creation (post-Flood era)
Notice again the similarities between many of the Phoenician names and the names of the sons of Poseidon: Phos and Phur/ Ampheres, Memrumus/ Emelus, Aulochthon/ Autochthon, Amynus/ Eumon, Mazus/ Azaes, Misor/ Mestor, Dioscuri/ Diaprepes. Elion/ Elasippos
It is clear from all these similarities in names and their meanings that a consistent memory was preserved not only by the Greeks and Hebews, but also by several other ancient civilizations as to the existence and inhabitants of a former world age that has since become lost and forgotten to history.
[Copyright 2009. Joseph Robert Jochmans. All Rights Reserved.]