An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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2011 Atlantis Conference

Bremer, Dieter

Dieter BremerDieter Bremer (1952- ) is a German researcher, who has written two Atlantis related books[1022/3]. Unfortunately, he has a number of strange beliefs that cast doubts on his ability to engage in critical thinking. For example, he contends that Schiller’s Ode to Joy contains references to Atlantis(a) and also claims that the winged disks found in Sumerian art represent a space station, which crashed! In brief he proposes that Plato’s Atlantis was a prehistoric space station(b). Bremer also provides a spirited defence of The Manna Machine[0755] by George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, combined with some bizarre theories regarding Christ. Incredibly, Bremer was invited to deliver a paper to the 2011 Atlantis Conference on the concentric circles of Plato’s Atlantean capital.

*In February 2018, Bremer published the third volume in his Atlantis series, which is entitled Die Lokalisierung von Atlantis (The localisation of Atlantis) [1552] with an English translation in the offing.*

Some of Bremer’s ideas regarding Atlantis were apparently preceded by those of Jakob Vorberger(c). 

(a) http://www.atlantisbremer.de/dieter-bremer

(b) http://www.atlantisbremer.de/wp-content/uploads/Kurzzusammenfassung-der-Atlantis-Hypothese-von-Dieter-Bremer3.pdf

(c) http://www.atlantisbremer.de/atlantis-in-der-mythologie/atlantis-in-mesopotamischen-ueberlieferungen

Cahill, Michael A.

Michael A. Cahill (1961- ) is an Australian Lecturer in Biochemistry & Cell Biology, author of multiple patents, and scientific cofounder of the biotechnology company ProteoSys AG. He is also the author of an extensively researched two-volume work(b)(c), published in 2012, entitled Paradise Rediscovered: The Roots of Civilisation[818/9]. This offering of over 1100 pages is, by the author’s own admission, controversial. In it he puts forward the radical idea that “the long forgotten high society of Atlantis existed in the pre-Diluvian Stone Age at the mouth of the Black Sea [the location of present day Istanbul] and that its legends have come down to us in Indo-European and Middle Eastern mythologies (including the biblical Genesis account)”(d).

However Atlantis is only a tangent to main theme of this book, which opens with Solon in the Temple of Neith at Sais from Plato. Cahill recognised that the myth of Phaeton related by the old Egyptian priest actually referred to a supernova in the constellation of Cygnus. This was confirmation that the Atlantis account referred to the transmission of actual historical information by Plato, rather than fictional imagination, inspired further investigation.

For Cahill the inundation of Atlantis would have corresponded to the biblical Deluge, which Ryan and Pitman’s Noah’s Flood equated with the Black Sea Flood, dated at 6400 BC(e) after the breaching of the Bosporus. This date is around 1,200 years earlier than that suggested by Christian & Siegfried Schoppe, while Cahill’s proposed location for Atlantis, namely in the vicinity of modern Istanbul, is south of the Schoppe’s proposed Snake Island in the Black Sea. This location has, understandably, some local support(g) and more recently by George K. Weller (h).

Linguistics analysis had suggested the origin of the Indo-European languages in Anatolia (i.e. next to the Black Sea) around 6400 BC. Cahill looked for and found otherwise unlikely traces of Indo-European words in flood accounts, such as Genesis, The Book of Enoch, and The Epic of Gilgamesh. He has published a summary of the arguments in a poster presented at the 2011 Atlantis Conference in Santorini, Greece. Based upon the society reconstructed from the written flood accounts, from Indo-European comparative mythology, and from a host of other sources, the book concludes that this society was dominated by god-kings who commanded secret scientific Neolithic knowledge, possibly including an elixir which extended the life-span of the elite(f).From the Stonehenge-like circular Atlantis complex at the Bosporus the “gods” exerted a monopoly on power until 200 of them defected, revealing secret knowledge to “the daughters of man” to start a new farming culture that spread across Europe with its Indo-European languages. Paradise Rediscovered certainly poses challenging questions for many established social and archaeological paradigms. Whether or not this shadowy reconstruction is correct, and even Cahill does not insist that it is(d), it is well researched and its elaborate arguments are surprisingly plausible. (The above synopsis was written by Cahill at my request. TO’C)

Cahill has had problems with selling his books through Amazon and offers an alternative source for purchasers(h).

(b) http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/15753858-paradise-rediscovered

(c) http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/6082558.Michael_A_Cahill (accessed 23 Jan 2013).

(d) http://www.amazon.com/Paradise-Rediscovered-Roots-Civilisation-ebook/dp/B0089C9OSU/ (accessed 23 Jan 2013).

(e) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265937032_Status_of_the_Black_Sea_flood_hypothesis

(f) http://www.dailyadvertiser.com.au/story/129886/lecturers-search-for-longer-life/ (accessed 23 Jan 2013).

(g) https://sfinxredivivus.wordpress.com/tag/etnograful-adrian0-bucurescu/

(h) https://www.goodreads.com/author_blog_posts/3147587-amazon-paperback-policy

(i) http://.ctq2.org/farmers-blog/comparison-of-platos-critias-with-george-k-wellers-concept-of-atlantis-and-its-location/

I

Hepke, Karl Jürgen (L)

HepkeKarl Jürgen Hepke was born in 1933 and is a graduate engineer. For over twenty years he has been researching early history. He is the author, in German, of The History of Atlantis[381] with an English translation online(f).

Hepke maintains two websites(a)(b) that have a good portion of their content in English and cover a range of Atlantis related subjects. However, in an overview(d) of his work, he moves into the area of UFO’s and alien intervention, which for me is a ‘turn off’.

Hepke follows the opinion of Lewis Spence who was probably the earliest to postulate the idea of ‘two Atlantises‘. The first located in the North Atlantic and was flooded by rising sea levels following an impact with a comet or asteroid. He believes that this impact was responsible for some axial displacement of the earth. The second was the Atlantis described by Platoand in the opinion of Hepke was centred in Tartessos, the Tarshish of the Bible, in Andalusia, Spain. He specifies the present Puerto de Santa Maria(e), immediately north of Cadiz, as the site of Tarshish, where recent excavation, have revealed Phoenician remains and a very ancient racecourse.

Hepke agrees with the idea that Plato’s 9,000 ‘years’ were in fact lunar cycles and should be accepted as 692 solar years, which when added to the date of Solon’s visit to Sais would give a date of 1192 BC for the demise of Atlantis. Hepke points out that current understanding indicates a date of 1250 BC for the catastrophic impact that led to the destruction of Atlantis and that 1190 BC was the date of the first battle between the Egyptians and the Sea Peoples. However any slight date discrepancies could be explained by the fact that the 9,000 ‘years’ referred to is highly unlikely to have been intended as exact. In the same way that people of today will casually speak of an event in the 18th century as having occurred ‘a couple of hundred’ years ago, with an accepted accuracy that could be 50 years out.puerto-de-santa-maria

What is strange is that if Hepke is equating the Sea Peoples with the Atlanteans, this conflicts with Plato’s story, which suggests that the Egyptians did not have to fight the Atlanteans, who were engaged in warring with the Athenians diverting their forces away from Egypt.

Hepke delivered a paper(c) to the 2011 Atlantis Conference on Santorini. He outlined his Atlantis theory locating it on the plain of the River Guadalete which runs into the Bay of Cádiz near Puerto de Santa Maria.

Hepke has also added some links to video clips to his websites.

(a) http://www.tolos.de

(b) http://www.atlis.de

(c) http://www.tolos.de/santorin.e.html

(d) http://www.tolos.de/uebersicht.html  

(e) http://www.tolos.de/insula2.E.html

(f) http://www.tolos.de/History%20E.htm

 

 

Extraterrestrials

Extraterrestrial visitors have been suggested by a few of the more imaginative and sometimes unscrupulous authors and their publishers, as the source of an advanced civilisation in the past, remembered today as Atlantis. Martin Brady makes such a claim in a brief paper available online(h).

However, Professor Emilio Spedicato may have added some degree of respectability to the concept when he wrote(a) “There are significant indications in worldwide traditions that intelligent people from planets within a few hundred light years from Earth visited our planet and intelligently interacted with our biosphere”. He went on to claim that around 5500 BC some of these visitors landed in the Hunza valley of Pakistan where they engaged in a little genetic engineering which led to the ‘creation’ of Adam and Eve!

It should be noted that Plato’s account does not relate any technology beyond that of a Late Bronze Age society, whereas any civilisation founded by alien astronauts should present some evidence of technologies equal to if not more advanced than that of our present day capabilities. Bill Hanson and Bert Thurlings are some of the more recent promoters of this idea of an alien origin for Atlantis.

dieter-bremerHanson has been joined by the German researcher, Dieter Bremer (1952- ), who claims(b) that the winged disks found in Sumerian art represent a space station, which crashed! Bremer also provides a spirited defence of The Manna Machine[755]  by George Sassoon and Rodney Dale, combined with some bizarre theories regarding Christ. Incredibly, Bremer was invited to deliver a paper to the 2011 Atlantis Conference on the concentric circles of Plato’s Atlantean capital. He has published two books on his view of Atlantis[1022/3]. A more rational review of The Manna Machine is offered by Frank Dörnenburg(i).

The late Flying Eagle (1920-2007) and his partner Whispering Wind specified the planet Xylanthia(f) in the Sirius star system as the original home of a visitor who fell in love with an earthling and later became known as Poseidon!

The History Channel series entitled Ancient Aliens(d), now in its third season, has been heavily criticised on the Bad Archaeology website(c) and elsewhere. October 2011 saw another claim that the Maya had contact with extraterrestrials and that a documentary providing evidence is planned(e).

A sceptical review of extraterrestrial visitations was published in the 26th January 2014 edition of Ohio’s Columbus Dispatch(g).

I feel compelled to include a quote from the Calvin and Hobbes cartoonist Bill Watterson who wrote “The surest sign that intelligent life exists elsewhere in the universe is that they have never tried to contact us.”

(a) http://www.cartesio-episteme.net/ep8/ep8-spedic.htm

(b) http://www.atlantisbremer.de/

(c) http://badarchaeology.wordpress.com/2011/09/17/i-remember-why-i%E2%80%99ve-never-wanted-satellite-television/

(d) http://www.history.com/shows/ancient-aliens/episodes/season-3#slide-9

(e) http://www.thewrap.com/movies/column-post/mayan-filmmakers-heres-proof-aliens-central-america-32168?page=0,0

(f) http://atlantis-today.com/Great_Atlantis_Flood.htm

(g) http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/science/2014/01/26/no-evidence-of-aliens-helping-ancient-cultures.html (link broken June 2018) See: Archive 2098)

(h) https://www.scribd.com/document/233709833/Earth-Aliens-and-the-Universe

*(i) http://fdoernenburg.de/alien/alternativ/manna/man01_e.php*

 

Hübner, Michael

Michael Hübner (1966-2013) was a German researcher who presented to the 2008 Atlantis Conference in Athens, a carefully reasoned argument for placing Atlantis in North-West Africa on the Souss-Massa plain of Morocco. He had gathered and organised a range of geographical details and other clues contained in Plato’s text, which he maintained lead inexorably to Morocco. His paper is now available on the Internet(a) and a fuller exposition of his hypothesis has now been published in book form[632], in German, as Atlantis?:Ein Indizienbeweis, (Atlantis?: Circumstantial Evidence).

Hübner also published a number of video clips on his website in support of his theory. He begins with a lucid demonstration of a Hierarchical Constraint Satisfaction approach to solving the mystery. These clips offer a body of Sous Massaevidence which are perhaps the most impressive that I have encountered in the course of many years of rsearch. He matches many of the geographical details recorded by Plato as well as clearly showing rocks coloured red, white and black still in use in buildings in the same area. Hübner also shows possible harbour remains close to Cape Ghir (Rhir), not far north from Agadir (Plato’s ‘Gadeiros’). Although there are still some outstanding questions in my mind, I consider Hübner’s hypothesis one of the more original on offer to date.

However, I perceive some flaws in his search criteria definitions, which in my opinion, have led to an erroneous conclusion, although I think it possible that his Moroccan location may have been part of the Atlantean domain. Furthermore, I consider that his conclusions also conflict with some of the geographical clues provided by Plato.

Nevertheless, I am happy to promote Hübner’s website as a ‘must see’ for any serious student of Atlantology and I had looked forward to the publication of his book in English. In the meanwhile a video on YouTube(b) gives a good overview of his theory.

The 2011 Atlantis Conference saw Hübner present additional evidence(c) in support of his theory in which he translated his HCS method into a series of mathematical formulae.

Tragically, Michael Hübner died in December 2013 as a result of a cycling accident. However, he left a valuable contribution to Atlantis studies.

Mark Adams met Hübner shortly before his death, so in March 2015 when Adams’ book, Meet me in Atlantis, was published, the ensuing media attention probably gave Hübner’s theory more publicity than when he was alive!

Although I have always been impressed by Hübner’s methodology, my principal objection to his conclusions is based on the fact that all early empires expanded through the invasion of territory that was contiguous or within easy reach by sea. This was a logical requirement for pre-invasion intelligence gathering and for the invasion itself, but also for effective ongoing administrative control. Agadir in Morocco is 2000 miles from Athens and so does not match Hübner’s very first ‘constraint’, which requires that “Atlantis should be located within a reasonable range from Athens.”

He arbitrarily decided that ‘a reasonable range’ was within a 5,000 km radius based on the fact that the campaigns of Alexander the Great reached a maximum of 4,700 km from Macedonia. However, he seems to have missed the point that Alexander began his attack on the Persian Empire by crossing the Hellespont (Dardanelles), which is less than a mile wide at its narrowest. As is the case with all ancient empires, Alexander expanded his Macedonian empire incrementally, always advancing through various adjacent territories. Alexander’s aim was to conquer the Persian Empire and having done that, he continued with opportunistic expansionism into India. My point being, that ancient land invasions were always aimed at neighbouring territory, then, if further expansion became possible, it was usually undertaken immediately beyond the newly extended borders. Alexander, did not initially set out to conquer India, but, as he experienced victory after victory, his sense of invincibility grew and so he pushed on until the threat of overwhelming odds ahead and opposition within his own army persuaded him to return home.

Similarly, naval invasions are best carried out over the shortest distances for the obvious logistical reasons of supplies and the risk of inclement weather and rough seas. There are many extreme Atlantis location theories, such as America, Antarctica and the Andes, from which it would have idiotic to launch an attack on Athens, in excess of 3,000 years ago, particularly as there were more attractive and easier places to invade, closer to home, rather than Athens, from where up-to-date pre-invasion military intelligence would have been impossible. Hübner’s Agadir location being 3,300 km from Athens is not as ridiculous as the Transatlantic suggestions, but it is still far too great a distance to make it practical. If expansion had been necessary, nearby territory in Africa or Iberia would, in my opinion, have offered far better targets!

If I’m asked to say what I consider a ‘reasonable striking distance’ for a naval invasion to be, I would hazard a layman’s guess at less than 500 km. When the Romans wiped out Carthage, the used Sicily as a stepping-stone and then had to travel less than 300 km to achieve their goal. But there are many variables to be considered; weather, time of year, terrain and the opposing military, which I think should be left to experts in military history and tactics. However, I must reiterate that 3,300 km is not credible.

My second criticism of Hübner’s presentation is his claim that Plato described Atlantis as being ‘west’ of Tyrrhenia, which is based on his assumption that Atlantis was situated on the Atlantic coast of Morocco and consequently believed that Atlantean territory extended from there eastward until it met Tyrrhenia. In fact what Plato said, twice, was that Atlantis extended as far as Tyrrhenia (Timaeus 25b & Critias 114c), The implication being that Tyrrhenian territory, which was situated in central Italy, was adjacent to part of the Atlantean domain, which, I suggest, was located in southern Italy. This would have left the Greek mainland just over 70 km away across the Strait of Otranto, well within striking distance. I think that it is safer to think of the Atlantean alliance having a north/south axis, from Southern Italy, across the Mediterranean, including Sicily together the Maltese and Pelagian Islands and large sections of the Maghreb, including Tunisia and Algeria.

*In late 2018, the well-known TV presenter, Andrew Gough, who had previously supported the Minoan Hypothesis, posted a lengthy article on his website(e) endorsing Hübner’s theory.*

A graphical demonstration of how HCS works is available on a YouTube clip(d).

(a) http://www.asalas.org   (As of March 2016 the website is still live)

(b) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhxsY4GOjpg

(c) http://www.asalas.org/papers/Presentation_Santorini_2011.pdf

(d) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_N5pBg9TrAg

*(e) https://andrewgough.co.uk/was-atlantis-in-morocco/*