An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Antikythera Mechanism

Möhn, Andreas

Andreas Möhn is the author of a trilogy of historical novels, Opus Gemini, based around the Antikythera Mechanism. These were published in September 2013 as Kindle books. Earlier in the same year he published Atlantika, in German, which reviews various Atlantis theories. An English translation should be available in late 2014. The original German can be read online(a) .

The author emulates Plato and pursues his investigation in the form of a dialogue between four participants who hold different opinions on the subject. Unfortunately, they were unable to arrive at a consensus. Möhn calls for further serious study of the Atlantis question. 

(a)  https://de.scribd.com/doc/136430985/Atlantika-Was-Platon-wirklich-sagte

Jochmans, Joseph Robert

Joseph Robert Jochmans (1950-2013) was an American researcher with Jochmansa special interest in ancient mysteries. He sometimes wrote under the nom de plume of ‘Jalandris’.

I note that a Joey R. Jochmans is credited as the researcher for Rene Noorbergen’s 1977 book Secrets of the Lost Races [612] and that a number of books have been published under that name.

On his extensive website (now closed) he covers a number of New Age subjects and also offers five well-written articles on Atlantis. He locates it in the Atlantic and gives his comments on many of the popular location theories.

Some of his work can be found on other websites including an interesting paper on the Saqqara ‘Model’(c).

Jochmans has also written a paper(d) in which he discusses the possibility that the Antikythera Mechanism may date back to the 6th century BC.

Saqqara-Bird

Jochmans wrote an extensive article debunking the 2012 Doomsday hype(b).

*(b) https://web.archive.org/web/20130207071435/http://www.2012hoax.org/joseph-robert-jochmans

(c) https://web.archive.org/web/20120416232748/http://atlantisrisingmagazine.com/2009/03/01/ancient-wings-over-the-nile/

(d) https://web.archive.org/web/20150112201249/http://atlantisrisingmagazine.com/2009/07/01/how-old-can-this-strange-machine-really-be/*

Faro

Faro in Portugal has been linked with the Greek Pharos or lighthouse. Roger Coghill offers an ingenious theory on the origin of Faro’s name and connects it with Plato’s Atlantis. I have taken the liberty of quoting from his website(a) which is at least worth a read.

“That beacon is exactly what Faro (Pharos is Greek for lighthouse) I believe provided, at its location in the middle of that otherwise inhospitable coastline, exactly where Plato described it.

The question is, if this is right, how could such a primitive civilisation have provided a continuous lamp, bright enough to be seen thirty miles offshore in unsettled weather? (Further than 30 miles it would have been below the horizon. Sailing downwind in a real gale one has scarcely time to make a major course correction in thirty miles: you only have one chance!

I believe that the answer lies not on the coast, but inland of Faro, where there are the world’s largest and most ancient copper and zinc mines lying adjacent to each other, and have given rise to today’s commercial giant, the RTZ Corporation, which stands for Rio Tinto Zinc. The Rio Tinto flowing down to that part of the Atlantic coast is so called because of its alluvial copper. Any schoolboy today knows that you can make a voltaic battery quite capable of lighting any filament lamp by simply connecting copper to zinc.

The first schoolboy ever accidentally to discover this may plausibly have lived a little inland from modern Faro, since the two component materials were plentiful and to hand. It is my speculation that here in this fertile cradle of civilisation was first discovered the ability to make electrons flow and thereby create primitive electrical energy.

Plato helps us into this belief: he explains how the city was built as a city with three concentric rings, each ring being clad with a different metal and in the centre a beacon “shone like a torch”. It is important for scholars to note that the words Plato used are not those suggesting reflected light, as in a mirror, but of intrinsic light, self- generated. What Plato is describing then is a city built as a huge lighthouse and plausibly powered by the electrical current flowing between copper and zinc cladding, separated by huge walls.”

In 2006 Larry Radka(b) edited The Electric Mirror on the Pharos Lighthouse and Other Ancient Lighting[0948]which according to one commentator is a reworking of a much older work. In it is the claim is made that the famous Pharos lighthouse was powered by electricity. All we have is a coincidence of names and alleged function combined with speculation, but no evidence at either site.

While Radka’s claim is rather extreme, Robert Temple in The Crystal Sun is more restrained where he refers to a 16th century account of a telescope at Pharos in the 3rd century BC, implying the existence at that early date of some optical technology and its possible use in the lighthouse there[928.128]. Temple’s entire book is devoted to proving that the science of optics is much older than generally accepted. When we consider the Antikythera Mechanism or the ‘Baghdad Battery’, it may be unwise to be too dismissive of Temple’s conclusions in this regard.

(a) http://www.cogreslab.co.uk/prehistory.asp  currently (17/8/13) offline

(b) http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_hitech05.htm

 

 

Antikythera Mechanism

AntikytheraThe Antikythera Mechanism is one of the most remarkable artefacts ever discovered. It was found by sponge divers off the coast of the Aegean island of Antikythera just over a century ago. The device consists of four fragments with a total of 30 bronze gears.

Very little intensive investigation was done until the early 1950’s when Derek J. de Solla Price (1922-1983) a professor at Yale University undertook a study of the Mechanism. His conclusions were published in a number of papers including Gears from the Greeks, now available as a pdf file(r).

It was originally dated to the 1st century BC and had been ascribed by some to the Greek astronomer Hipparchos, but recent research by Professor Alexander Jones of New York’s Institute for the Study of the Ancient World has pushed this back to the 2nd century BC(b). Jones dismissed as ‘desperate’ a suggestion by Dr. Jo Marchant, that the mechanism had been part of a timepiece that possibly controlled the sequential appearance of figures to indicate seasons. Marchant is the author of Decoding the Heavens: Solving the Mystery of the World’s First Computer[1460].

A report(n) published in November 2014 revised further the date of its creation back to 205 BC. This modification includes the suggestion that the mathematics upon which the Mechanism were based were Babylonian rather than Greek. The level of ancient Greek celestial knowledge is also being reappraised in the light of a recent study of a decorated cup of a type known as a skyphos(o).

The superiority of Babylonian mathematics was supported by a recent study of a 3,700-year-old tablet known as Plimpton 322. The tablet was discovered around a century ago in what is now southern Iraq. Australian scientists from the University of New South Wales, Sydney have now demonstrated that the tablet is the world’s oldest and most accurate trigonometric table, predating the Greek astronomer Hipparchos by over a millennium(z).

The Mechanism is apparently a clockwork device for calculating astronomical events. A number of models have been built(c), based on the evidence of the fragments discovered and further study is continuing. Even Lego was used by designer Andrew Carol to build a replica of the mechanism(e)(d). Furthermore, in November 2011 Hublot, the Swiss watch manufacturer, revealed(h)  that they had designed a wristwatch based on the Antikythera Mechanism.

In 2008, it was announced that writing engraved on the housing indicated the locations of athletic games; The Games dial shows six competitions, four Panhellenic (Olympics, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean) plus Naa (Dodona) and very probably Halieia (Rhodes)(w).

At same time, a possible connection with the renowned Archimedes was being posited by some commentators(f). An even more remarkable feature was the clever use of two gears, one positioned slightly off-centre in relation to the other, allowing the mechanism to track the apparent speeding up and slowing down of the moon each month, resulting from its elliptical rather than circular orbit(g).

The question that has now arisen is whether “It is possible that the mechanism is based on heliocentric principles, rather than the then-dominant geocentric view espoused by Aristotle and others.”(ab)

Dr. Minas Tsikritsis, a Cretan researcher, maintains that an object from the Minoan Age discovered

Paleokastro Object

in 1898 in the Paleokastro site on Crete, was in fact “a cast for building a mechanism that functioned as an analog computer to calculate solar and lunar eclipses.”(i) This was nearly a millennium and a half before the Antikythera Mechanism was manufactured, which would make it Minoan.

Commentators such as David Hatcher Childress see the Antikythera device as just another piece of evidence of more complex scientific knowledge among early cultures than is usually accepted and that by extension the possibility of a technologically advanced Atlantis[620].

In his 2014 book, The Stonhenge Codes[977], Professor David P.Gregg, has devoted an appendix to the sophistication of the mechanism, in which he discusses the functions of individual shafts and gears. His objective is to show that its complexity is comparable to that of Stonehenge and that our view of early Greek mathematics and astronomy requires revision. His book can be read online(j).

*A January 2019 article elaborates further on the Mechanism’s function as a predictor of possible eclipses(ae). It may be worth recalling that in the 1960’s, Gerald Hawkins suggested that the 56 Aubrey Holes at Stonehenge were also eclipse predictors[1613], an idea endorsed by Fred Hoyle[1614].(af)*

Opus Gemini, a trilogy of novels by Andreas Möhn, based on the Antikythera Mechanism was published on Kindle format in September 2013 and is also available in other formats. Further information and updates are available on his website(m).

The following website(a), will keep you up to date on related developments.

New Scientist announced on June 4th 2014(k) that plans have been made to dive again to the Antikythera wreck in the hope of finding a second ‘mechanism’, using a ‘wearable submarine’. The Sept/Oct season of 2014 ended with evidence that the ship had been up to 50 metres long, making it thelargest ancient shipwreck ever discovered(l).

The February 2015 edition of Smithsonian Magazine gives an up-todate review of the scientific studies of the Mechanism(p). In June 2016 the Smithsonian returned to the subject with an article(u) devoted to the extensive writing, some less than a millimetre tall, revealed by CT scans on virtually every surface. This recent study indicates that the Mechanism also appears to have an astrological purpose! These investigations also pointed to the Aegean island of Rhodes as its place of manufacture.

In August 2016, further dives confirmed that “the ancient cargo in Antikythera, still full of goods, is located at a depth of around 60 metres, making the work of divers particularly difficult. They only have 20 minutes to explore the sea. To help them, a set of submarine drones are currently being developed for next year. They will detect metal and make real-time analyses of the data collected.”(v)

Another paper(t) in 2015 offers a more complete history of the Mechanism’s discovery and subsequent studies.

In 2017, further objects were recovered from the wreck, including parts of a metal statue, as well as compacted metal objects that have yet to be cleaned and separated. It seems that the site has not yielded all its secrets yet(aa). There are indications that there may be as many as nine statues still to be recovered, which are under huge boulders that overlie the metal objects and may have tumbled onto the wreck during a massive earthquake that shook Antikythera and surrounding islands in the 4th century AD.

A physically smaller but important discovery was that of the part of a gearwheel in Olbia, Sardinia in 2006. Giovanni Pastore, an Italian mechanical engineer, has studied the object and written an article(s) on it for the Ancient Origins website, where he informs us that it is dated between the mid-2nd century and the end of the 3rd century BC, has revealed a very important surprise: the teeth have a special curving which make them extraordinarily similar to the mathematically perfect profile used in modern gears. Moreover, the unusual composition of the alloy (brass) was completely unexpected.”

Inevitably, the suggestion has be made that first century BC Greeks could not have created the Mechanism without alien assistance as the following quote shows; While many experts try to offer explanations for how this device could have been conceived, designed and built, all their concepts fail the tests of logic. There is only one possible explanation. Beings with advanced knowledge of astronomical bodies, mathematics and precision engineering tools created the device or gave the knowledge for its creation to someone during the first century B.C. But the knowledge was not recorded or wasn’t passed down to anyone else.(x) It is also humourously ‘suggested’ that the early Greeks had laptops!!(q)

For the technically minded, a clockmaker known just as ‘Chris’ has an extensive website(y) where he has a number of videos illustrating how he has reconstructed copies of  individual components of the Antikythera Mechanism.

In 2018, Charles River Editors have produced a fascinating volume [1585] that offers a valuable history of the Mechanism and the various efforts to determine its origin and purpose.

*A few days ago (17.11.18) it was announced that a missing piece of the Mechanism had been found near the site of the original finds(ac). However, the Smithsonian Magazine swiftly adopted a more cautious approach(ad), claiming that it was probably not a piece of the Mechanism! Watch this space.*

(a) http://www.antikythera-mechanism.gr/ (offline Oct 2018) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20170627012433/http://antikythera-mechanism.gr/

(b) http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/jul/29/archaeology-astronomy

(c) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4eUibFQKJqI

(d) https://www.cbsnews.com/news/apple-engineer-recreates-2000-year-old-computer-using-legos/

(e) http://acarol.woz.org/antikythera_mechanism.html (offline April 2018) See: Archive 3800

(f) http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/antikythera-mechanism-eclipse-olympics/

(g) http://www.nature.com/nature/podcast/v468/n7323/nature-2010-11-25.html

*(h) https://www.hublot.com/antikythera/*

(i) http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2011/04/researcher-cites-ancient-minoan-era.html

(j) https://www.scribd.com/document/318813275/The-Stonehenge-Codes-pdf

(k) http://mysteriousuniverse.org/2014/06/wearable-submarine-to-hunt-for-rad-computer/

(l) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/141009163757.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ffossils_ruins%2Fancient_civilizations+%28Ancient+Civilizations+News+–+ScienceDaily%29

(m)  www.opus-gemini.de (offline 2017)

(n) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2853082/World-s-oldest-computer-ancient-thought-Antikythera-Mechanism-created-205-BC-study-claims.html

(o) http://dailygrail.com/Hidden-History/2014/12/Evidence-Mounts-Early-Greek-Celestial-Expertise

(p) http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/decoding-antikythera-mechanism-first-computer-180953979/?no-ist

(q) http://boingboing.net/2015/08/13/greek-statue-from-110-bce-of-a.html

(r) http://www.pdfarchive.info/index.php?pages/De

(s) http://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-ancient-technology/unraveling-mystery-ancient-olbia-gearwheel-005136

(t) http://hackaday.com/2015/11/23/the-antikythera-mechanism/

(u) http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/worlds-first-computer-may-have-been-used-tell-fortunes-180959335/?no-ist

(v) http://www.epsnews.eu/2016/10/diving-into-the-secrets-of-the-antikythera-mechanism/

(w) http://dailygrail.com/Hidden-History/2016/6/Newly-Decoded-Text-Antikythera-Mechanism-Gives-New-Insights-the-Functions

(x) http://www.theancientaliens.com/untitled

(y) http://www.clickspringprojects.com/

(z) Historia Mathematica, August 2017.

(aa) http://www.tornosnews.gr/en/greek-news/culture/27503-incredible-find-of-classical-bronze-statues-at-antikythera-shipwreck-in-greece.html

(ab) https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/antikythera_mechanism.htm

(ac) https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/.premium.MAGAZINE-missing-piece-of-antikythera-mechanism-found-on-aegean-seabed-1.6640779

(ad) https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/no-archaeologists-probably-did-not-find-new-piece-antikythera-mechanism-180970821/

*(ae) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-018-0210-9

(af) https://blog.stonehenge-stone-circle.co.uk/2017/01/04/stonehenge-eclipse-predictor/

 

Phaistos Disk

The Phaistos Disk is the most famous ancient artefact ever found on Crete and as Axel Hausmann says, can be considered the world’s oldest ‘printed’ document, dated to around 1700 BC. This is because the characters were created using incised punches, similar in effect to movable type.

Noting that this ‘document’ was produced using some sort of character ‘punches’, brings to my mind three questions – (1) were these the only set of punches created? And (2) have any other objects been discovered that show a similar use of punches? And (3) if not why not? These questions prompted some to claim that the Disk was a hoax! (See below)

Another artefact with characteristics remarkably similar to the Phaistos Disk, is the inscribed Magliano Disk, made of lead, which was discovered in Magliano, Tuscany in the 1889’s(ac) . However, the two discs were very far apart in time and location and so similarities are just superficial. Like the Phaistos Disc, the one from Magliano has also presented translation problems as the Etruscan script in which it is written is still only partly decipherable.

It was discovered around a hundred years ago by the Italian archaeologist Luigi Pernier (1874-1937) and despite an amazing number of efforts(a) it has defied a definitive decipherment ever since. The interpretations so far have ranged from it being a prayer to a description of the eruption of Thera, while one writer in a light-headed moment went as far as to suggest that it might hold a message from extraterrestrials!

phaistosdiscs Frank Joseph contends[636.42] that it was ‘a sophisticated astrological chart’ and ‘is an example of Atlantean Bronze Age technology’.

One of the most fascinating suggestions is that the disk was in fact a board game based on an ancient Egyptian game called Senet(b)(o), which was proposed by Peter Aleff, an explanation later supported by Philip Coppens. However, it seems that this idea was first proposed by Fernand Crombette at least half a century ago(r).

Alan Butler, who has written a book on the subject[504], provides a more conventional offering in which he sees the disk as being primarily an astronomical aid. Rosario Vieni has promoted the idea that the disk had a calendrical use and has published his reasons, in French, on the Internet(c). Paul Dunbavin has also suggested that the disk may have been a spiral calendar[099.181].

Naturally, Atlantis has not been excluded from this wide ranging Phaistos speculation, although the linking of the disk with Atlantis is tenuous at best. Jean Louis Pagé has produced a bilingual offering[501] that combines the Phaistos, Mayan and Aztec disks in an effort to locate Atlantis. Axel Hausmann, writing in German[372], has also done little to provide a clear connection between Atlantis and the disk.

Christian O’Brien and his wife Barbara Joy,in an appendix to their book The Genius of the Few, have identified the writing on the disk as an early form of Sumerian cuneiform writing.

The disk is housed in the Iraklion Archaeological Museum which is also home to the Akralochori Axe also found on Crete in 1934 by Spyridon Marinatos, that was inscribed with 15 characters that have been identified with the Linear A script as well as some of the Phaistos characters(e).

Brent Davis is one of the world’s leading experts on Bronze Age Aegean scripts and languages. In 2018, he published an article “in which, based on a close statistical analysis, shows that the while both the Phaistos Disc and Linear A are undeciphered writing systems, he can demonstrate that the both are, with a high degree of certainty, encode the same language!”(ad)

Two American academic twins, Keith and Kevin Massey, have made available a 72-page pdf file(k) outlining their interpretation of the disk. They concluded that the disk was probably a receipt for goods deposited in a temple.

2008 was a busy year for Phaistos Disk studies. Panagiotes D. Gregoriades delivered three papers to the Atlantis Conference in Athens in which he identified the disk as a calendrical devise used on land and sea. He subsequently published his ideas in book form in 2010 entitled The Creation of Prototypes[1416].  In 2008 a major international Phaistos Disk Conference was held in London(h) to celebrate the 100th anniversary of its discovery.

Unfortunately, in 1999 a professional ‘wet blanket’ in the form of Dr. Jerome Eisenberg declared the disk to be a fake, when he wrote to The Economist declaring that the disk “a joke perpetrated by a clever archaeologist from the Italian mission to Crete upon his fellow excavators.” He expanded on this in a detailed, fully illustrated paper(z) in 2008. Brian E. Colless responded by pointing out(d) that such a hoax would first have required the “making 45 little stamps to imprint on clay, on both sides of the object, and printing 30 clusters of signs (words or phrases ?) on one side and 31 on the other.”

The Greek authorities have refused to allow the disk, which is just 16cm across, to be removed for testing, on the grounds of its extreme fragility. The idea of fraud has been suggested because of the lack of other documents ‘printed’ in the same manner and because none of the punches were ever found. Fortunately that argument has now been refuted(u). My own response would be to point out that uniqueness is not necessarily a sign of a hoax. Otherwise, we would have to reject the Antikythera Mechanism, which is also a singular item with no objects of any intermediate sophistication discovered so far.

Dr. Marco Guido Corsini, who has also written about Atlantis, has widely promoted his interpretation of the Phaistos Disk(o).

Mark Newbrook, who has studied linguistics, gave a good overview of the various attempts to decipher the disk to the 2008 Phaistos Conference. An even more extensive site (currently suspended) was offered by the Georgian mathematician Gia Kvashilavathat includes a very comprehensive bibliography. Kvashilava offers his own interpretation based on the Colchian (Proto-Kartvelian) language printed in the unique Colchian syllabo-logogramic Goldscript. His paper is quite technical and more suited to advanced students of the subject.

Reinoud de Jong has now entered this particular fray with a decipherment that he claims offers a description of the religion of Crete(i).  Steven Roger Fischer, who claims to have deciphered the rongorongo script of Easter Island has also offered a translation of the Phaistos Disk in his book, Glyphbreaker[1520].

By way of complete contrast, Gary Vey claims that the disk is merely some sort of inventory  and also gives an overview of the difficulties attached to deciphering the disk as well as some interesting features overlooked by some researchers(j).

The Czech WM magazine has an extensive 2011 article on the decipherment of the Phaistos Disk(p), giving prominence to the work of Petr Kovar, who claims that the language is Proto-Slavic!(y)

Stephen E. Franklin has claimed that the Disk is a king-list of Cretan rulers and also that it had a calendrical function(ab).

Barbara Gagliano raised a few eyebrows with her claim that the Disk contained DNA information(q)!

Late 2014 saw another translation attempt published(s) by Dr. Gareth Owens of the Technological Educational Institute of Crete,  in which he claimed that the disk “contains a prayer to the mother goddess of the Minoan era.” Owens’ contribution provoked further controversy including further suggestions that the Disk might be a fake(t).

Linear B was the basis of Owens’ study, which was the result of a collaboration with John Coleman in Oxford University. They claim to have translated 80% of the text with certainty, along with another possible 15%, leaving just 5% undeciphered.(w)

Robert Bradford Lewis has offered a recent forensic study of the Disk, based on his view that the language used was Ugaritic, an long extinct Semitic tongue.(y) However, while the language may be Ugaritic, the script is not!

The number of theories relating to the Disk seems to rival the range of speculation relating to Atlantis. My selection here can be fruitfully augmented by the Wikipedia entry(x) on the subject.

A list of decipherment claims as well as a useful bibliography up to 2008 is available(y) and Charles River Editors has recently (2018) published two Kindle books[1585][1586] offering more information about the many attempts to solve the mystery of the disk. 

(a) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaistos_Disc_decipherment_claims

(b) http://www.recoveredscience.com/Phaistos1summary.htm

(c) http://www.world-mysteries.com/LeDisquedePhaestos.pdf  (offline Nov. 2017) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20150423071528/http://www.world-mysteries.com/LeDisquedePhaestos.pdf

(d) http://sites.google.com/site/collesseum/phaistosdisc

(e) http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arkalochori_Axe&printable=yes

*(h) http://www.csad.ox.ac.uk/bes/phaistos.pdf (link broken April 2019) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20120419010351/http://www.csad.ox.ac.uk/bes/phaistos.pdf*

(i) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?year=2012&id=320

(j) http://www.viewzone.com/phaistosx.html

(k) http://www.keithmassey.com/files/ThePhaistosDisk-Massey.pdf  (offline July 2017) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20160331171116/http://www.keithmassey.com/files/ThePhaistosDisk-Massey.pdf

(l) https://www.we-love-crete.com/phaistos.html (Link broken Nov. 2017) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20141201114928/https://www.we-love-crete.com/phaistos.html

(n) http://www.goldenageproject.org.uk/969.php

(o) http://www.phaistosgame.com/ (3 papers) 

(p) http://www.wmmagazin.cz/rservice.php?akce=tisk&cisloclanku=2011010004

(q) http://brazilweirdnews.blogspot.ie/2013/07/the-phaistos-disc-code.html

(r) http://www.ciphermysteries.com/2011/12/16/phaistos-disk-update

(s) http://news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/mysterious-4000-year-old-cd-rom-code-cracked-141023.htm

(t) http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/archaeology-today/phaistos-disk-deciphered/

(u) http://mysteriouswritings.com/the-unsolved-mystery-of-the-phaistos-disk/

(v) http://www.ancient-origins.net/unexplained-phenomena/curious-phaistos-disc-ancient-mystery-or-clever-hoax-002089

(w) https://cretazine.com/en/heraklion/city-life/city-people/item/1025-gareth-owens-secrets-of-phaistos-disk

(x) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaistos_Disc#Attempted_decipherments

(y) https://creteinfo.wordpress.com/2017/03/28/translation-of-the-phaistos-disc/

(z) http://sites.utexas.edu/scripts/files/2016/07/eisenberg_2008.pdf

(aa) http://www.stomverbaasd.com/ooparts-phaistos-disc/

(ab) https://neros.lordbalto.com/ChapterFourteen.htm

(ac) https://www.academia.edu/31038379/Celestial_Magliano_Disc_Deciphered

(ad) https://gath.wordpress.com/2019/01/30/brent-davis-on-the-languages-of-the-phaistos-disc-and-linear-a/