An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis
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Antikythera Mechanism

Möhn, Andreas

Andreas Möhn is the author of a trilogy of historical novels, Opus Gemini, based around the Antikythera Mechanism. These were published in September 2013 as Kindle books. Earlier in the same year he published Atlantika, in German, which reviews various Atlantis theories. An English translation should be available in late 2014. The original German can be read online(a) .

The author emulates Plato and pursues his investigation in the form of a dialogue between four participants who hold different opinions on the subject. Unfortunately, they were unable to arrive at a consensus. Möhn calls for further serious study of the Atlantis question. 

(a)  https://de.scribd.com/doc/136430985/Atlantika-Was-Platon-wirklich-sagte

Jochmans, Joseph Robert (L)

Joseph Robert Jochmans (1950-2013) was an American researcher with Jochmansa special interest in ancient mysteries. He sometimes wrote under the nom de plume of ‘Jalandris’.

I note that a Joey R. Jochmans is credited as the researcher for Rene Noorbergen’s 1977 book Secrets of the Lost Races [612] and that a number of books have been published under that name.

On his extensive website (now closed) he covers a number of New Age subjects and also offers five well-written articles on Atlantis. He locates it in the Atlantic and gives his comments on many of the popular location theories.

Some of his work can be found on other websites including an interesting paper on the Saqqara ‘Model’(c).

Jochmans has also written a paper(d) in which he discusses the possibility that the Antikythera Mechanism may date back to the 6th century BC.

Saqqara-Bird

Jochmans wrote an extensive article debunking the 2012 Doomsday hype(b).

(b) http://www.2012hoax.org/joseph-robert-jochmans (offline Oct.’14)

(c) http://atlantisrisingmagazine.com/2009/03/01/ancient-wings-over-the-nile/

(d)http://atlantisrisingmagazine.com/2009/07/01/how-old-can-this-strange-machine-really-be/

Faro (L)

Faro in Portugal has been linked with the Greek Pharos or lighthouse. Roger Coghill offers an ingenious theory on the origin of Faro’s name and connects it with Plato’s Atlantis. I have taken the liberty of quoting from his website(a) which is at least worth a read.

“That beacon is exactly what Faro (Pharos is Greek for lighthouse) I believe provided, at its location in the middle of that otherwise inhospitable coastline, exactly where Plato described it.

The question is, if this is right, how could such a primitive civilisation have provided a continuous lamp, bright enough to be seen thirty miles offshore in unsettled weather? (Further than 30 miles it would have been below the horizon. Sailing downwind in a real gale one has scarcely time to make a major course correction in thirty miles: you only have one chance!

I believe that the answer lies not on the coast, but inland of Faro, where there are the world’s largest and most ancient copper and zinc mines lying adjacent to each other, and have given rise to today’s commercial giant, the RTZ Corporation, which stands for Rio Tinto Zinc. The Rio Tinto flowing down to that part of the Atlantic coast is so called because of its alluvial copper. Any schoolboy today knows that you can make a voltaic battery quite capable of lighting any filament lamp by simply connecting copper to zinc.

The first schoolboy ever accidentally to discover this may plausibly have lived a little inland from modern Faro, since the two component materials were plentiful and to hand. It is my speculation that here in this fertile cradle of civilisation was first discovered the ability to make electrons flow and thereby create primitive electrical energy.

Plato helps us into this belief: he explains how the city was built as a city with three concentric rings, each ring being clad with a different metal and in the centre a beacon “shone like a torch”. It is important for scholars to note that the words Plato used are not those suggesting reflected light, as in a mirror, but of intrinsic light, self- generated. What Plato is describing then is a city built as a huge lighthouse and plausibly powered by the electrical current flowing between copper and zinc cladding, separated by huge walls.”

In 2006 Larry Radka(b) edited The Electric Mirror on the Pharos Lighthouse and Other Ancient Lighting[0948]which according to one commentator is a reworking of a much older work. In it is the claim is made that the famous Pharos lighthouse was power by electricity. All we have is a coincidence of names and alleged function combined with speculation, but no evidence at either site.

While Radka’s claim is rather extreme, Robert Temple in The Crystal Sun is more restrained where he refers to a 16th century account of a telescope at Pharos in the 3rd century BC, implying the existence at that early date of some optical technology and its possible use in the lighthouse there[928.128]. Temple’s entire book is devoted to proving that the science of optics is much older than generally accepted. When we consider the Antikythera Mechanism or the ‘Baghdad Battery’, it may be unwise to be too dismissive of Temple’s conclusions in this regard.

(a) http://www.cogreslab.co.uk/prehistory.asp  currently (17/8/13) offline

(b) http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_hitech05.htm

 

 

Antikythera Mechanism

AntikytheraThe Antikythera Mechanism is one of the most remarkable artefacts ever discovered. It was found by sponge divers off the coast of the Aegean island of Antikythera just over a century ago. The device consists of four fragments with a total of 30 bronze gears.

Very little intensive investigation was done until the early 1950’s when Derek J. de Solla Price (1922-1983) a professor at Yale University undertook a study of the Mechanism. His conclusions were published in a number of papers including Gears from the Greeks, now available as a pdf file(r).

It was originally dated to the 1st century BC and had been ascribed by some to the Greek astronomer Hipparchos, but recent research by Professor Alexander Jones of New York’s Institute for the Study of the Ancient World has pushed this back to the 2nd century BC(b). Jones dismissed as ‘desperate’ a suggestion by Dr. Jo Marchant, that the mechanism had been part of a timepiece that possibly controlled the sequential appearance of figures to indicate seasons. Marchant is the author of Decoding the Heavens: Solving the Mystery of the World’s First Computer[1460].

A report(n) published in November 2014 revised further the date of its creation back to 205 BC. This modification includes the suggestion that the mathematics upon which the Mechanism were based were Babylonian rather than Greek. The level of ancient Greek celestial knowledge is also being reappraised in the light of a recent study of a decorated cup of a type known as a skyphos(o).

*The superiority of Babylonian mathematics was supported by a recent study of a 3,700-year-old tablet known as Plimpton 322. The tablet was discovered around a century ago in what is now southern Iraq. Australian scientists from the University of New South Wales, Sydney have now demonstrated that the tablet is the world’s oldest and most accurate trigonometric table, predating the Greek astronomer Hipparchos by over a millennium(z). *

The Mechanism is apparently a clockwork device for calculating astronomical events. A number of models have been built(c), based on the evidence of the fragments discovered and further study is continuing. Even Lego was used by designer Andrew Carol to build a replica of the mechanism(e). Furthermore, in November 2011 Hublot, the Swiss watch manufacturer, revealed(h)  that they had designed a wristwatch based on the Antikythera Mechanism.

In 2008 it was announced that writing engraved on the housing indicated the locations of athletic games; The Games dial shows six competitions, four Panhellenic (Olympics, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean) plus Naa (Dodona) and very probably Halieia (Rhodes)(w).

At same time, a possible connection with the renowned Archimedes was being posited by some commentators(f). An even more remarkable feature was the clever use of two gears, one positioned slightly off-centre in relation to the other, allowing the mechanism to track the apparent speeding up and slowing down of the moon each month, resulting from its elliptical rather than circular orbit(g).

Dr. Minas Tsikritsis, a Cretan researcher, maintains that an object from the Minoan Age discovered

Paleokastro Object

in 1898 in the Paleokastro site on Crete, was in fact “a cast for building a mechanism that functioned as an analog computer to calculate solar and lunar eclipses.”(i) This was nearly a millennium and a half before the Antikythera Mechanism was manufactured, which would make it Minoan.

Commentators such as David Hatcher Childress see the Antikythera device as just another piece of evidence of more complex scientific knowledge among early cultures than is usually accepted and that by extension the possibility of a technologically advanced Atlantis[620].

In his 2014 book, The Stonhenge Codes[977], Professor David P.Gregg, has devoted an appendix to the sophistication of the mechanism, in which he discusses the functions of individual shafts and gears. His objective is to show that its complexity is comparable to that of Stonehenge and that our view of early Greek mathematics and astronomy requires revision. His book can be read online(j).

Opus Gemini, a trilogy of novels by Andreas Möhn, based on the Antikythera Mechanism were published on Kindle format in September 2013 and is also available in other formats. Further information and updates are available on his website(m).

The following website(a), will keep you up to date on related developments.

New Scientist announced on June 4th 2014(k) that plans have been made to dive again to the Antikythera wreck in the hope of finding a second ‘mechanism’, using a ‘wearable submarine’. The Sept/Oct season of 2014 ended with evidence that the ship had been up to 50 metres long, making it the the largest ancient shipwreck ever discovered(l).

The February 2015 edition of Smithsonian Magazine gives an up-todate review of the scientific studies of the Mechanism(p). In June 2016 the Smithsonian returned to the subject with an article(u) devoted to the extensive writing, some less than a millimetre tall, revealed by CT scans on virtually every surface. This recent study indicates that the Mechanism also appears to have an astrological purpose! These investigations also pointed to the Aegean island of Rhodes as its place of manufacture.

In August 2016 further dives confirmed that “the ancient cargo in Antikythera, still full of goods, is located at a depth of around 60 metres, making the work of divers particularly difficult. They only have 20 minutes to explore the sea. To help them, a set of submarine drones are currently being developed for next year. They will detect metal and make real-time analyses of the data collected.”(v)

Another paper(t) in 2015 offers a more complete history of the Mechanism’s discovery and subsequent studies.

A physically smaller but important discovery was that of the part of a gearwheel in Olbia, Sardinia in 2006. Giovanni Pastore, an Italian mechanical engineer, has studied the object and written an article(s) on it for the Ancient Origins website, where he informs us that it is dated between the mid-2nd century and the end of the 3rd century BC, has revealed a very important surprise: the teeth have a special curving which make them extraordinarily similar to the mathematically perfect profile used in modern gears. Moreover, the unusual composition of the alloy (brass) was completely unexpected.”

Inevitably, the suggestion has be made that first century BC Greeks could not have created the Mechanism without alien assistance as the following quote shows; While many experts try to offer explanations for how this device could have been conceived, designed and built, all their concepts fail the tests of logic. There is only one possible explanation. Beings with advanced knowledge of astronomical bodies, mathematics and precision engineering tools created the device or gave the knowledge for its creation to someone during the first century B.C. But the knowledge was not recorded or wasn’t passed down to anyone else.(x) It is also humourously ‘suggested’ that the early Greeks had laptops!!(q)

For the technically minded, a clockmaker known just as ‘Chris’ has an extensive website(y) where he has a number of videos illustrating how he has reconstructed copies of  individual components of the Antikythera Mechanism.

(a) http://www.antikythera-mechanism.gr/

(b) http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/jul/29/archaeology-astronomy

(c) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4eUibFQKJqI

(e) http://acarol.woz.org/antikythera_mechanism.html

(f) http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/antikythera-mechanism-eclipse-olympics/

(g) http://www.nature.com/nature/podcast/v468/n7323/nature-2010-11-25.html

(h) http://www.ablogtoread.com/hublot-antikythera-calibre-2033-ch01-watch-is-a-re-imagined-greek-masterpiece/

(i) http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2011/04/researcher-cites-ancient-minoan-era.html

(j) http://www.stonehenge-codes.org/StonehengeCodesFinal-2012.pdf (offline April 2017)

(k) http://mysteriousuniverse.org/2014/06/wearable-submarine-to-hunt-for-rad-computer/

(l) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/141009163757.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ffossils_ruins%2Fancient_civilizations+%28Ancient+Civilizations+News+–+ScienceDaily%29

(m)  www.opus-gemini.de (offline 2017)

(n) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2853082/World-s-oldest-computer-ancient-thought-Antikythera-Mechanism-created-205-BC-study-claims.html

(o) http://dailygrail.com/Hidden-History/2014/12/Evidence-Mounts-Early-Greek-Celestial-Expertise

(p) http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/decoding-antikythera-mechanism-first-computer-180953979/?no-ist

(q) http://boingboing.net/2015/08/13/greek-statue-from-110-bce-of-a.html

(r) http://www.pdfarchive.info/index.php?pages/De

(s) http://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-ancient-technology/unraveling-mystery-ancient-olbia-gearwheel-005136

(t) http://hackaday.com/2015/11/23/the-antikythera-mechanism/

(u) http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/worlds-first-computer-may-have-been-used-tell-fortunes-180959335/?no-ist

(v) http://www.epsnews.eu/2016/10/diving-into-the-secrets-of-the-antikythera-mechanism/

(w) http://dailygrail.com/Hidden-History/2016/6/Newly-Decoded-Text-Antikythera-Mechanism-Gives-New-Insights-the-Functions

(x) http://www.theancientaliens.com/untitled

(y) http://www.clickspringprojects.com/

*(z) Historia Mathematica, August 2017.*