Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594) was a renowned cartographer, mathematician and philosopher. He is credited with coining the word ‘atlas’ to describe a collection of maps. He developed a map projection that is still in use today, although it highlights the near impossibility of transferring spherical details on to a flat surface(a).
He is among many of his day who believed that America was Atlantis.
John R. Salverda is an apologist for many aspects of the Brit-Am movement(a), which endeavours to link the British and American people with the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. He also claims that Greek legends have a Hebrew origin(c).
In a March 2014 blog(b), part of his Biblical Roots of Classical Philosophy series, Salvedra claims that Atlas can be equated with Adam and that Plato’s Atlantis is a retelling of the antediluvian world of the Bible.
Gadeiros was the twin brother of Atlas snd was known in Greek as Eumelos. It is generally accepted that he gave his name to the city of Gades, now Cadiz in southwest Spain. A more radical view is expressed by C. & S. Schoppe, who think that he gave his name to the Getae who occupied parts of today’s Bulgaria and Romania(a).
Some have sought to identify Gadeiros with Jacob’s son, Gad.
Sergey Teleguin is a Russian professor of Philology and a leading advocate of the idea that the city of Tripura (Triple City) in Vedic tradition was the original inspiration behind Plato’s city of Atlantis. In support of his contention he has outlined a number of parallels between Plato’s account and the sacred texts of India, the Puranas and Mahabharata, in an extensive English excerpt(a) from his 2005 Russian book, Anatomy of a Myth.
A further claim by Teleguin is that the Popol Vuh, the sacred book of the Maya gives clears evidence that they came from the far north – Ultima Thule. He goes further and attributes a North Pole origin to both the Maya and the Indo-Europeans(b).
He has recently outlined his ideas further in an article for (Nov/Dec 2013) Issue 102 of Atlantis Rising magazine.
He recently reiterated, in an email, his view that Plato’s Atlantis story should only be accepted literally or not at all. It is difficult to accept that an academic could write such nonsense. He cannot be unaware that Plato’s narrative is composed of mythology, history and within the bounds of literary licence, some embellishment of his own. Otherwise, according to Teleguin, we are expected to believe that Clieto actually gave birth to five sets of male twins, that Athens fought a war before it existed and that Poseidon and Atlas were real people! The same absence of critical thinking allows people to believe that the world was created in seven days.
Charles D. Pfund is a New York State correctional officer and the author of Antediluvian World: The End of the Myth, a rough draft version of which can read online(a). His website(b) begins with an examination of a 1482 map by the Italian cartographer Francesco Berlinghieri. A version of his map depicts the Fortunate Islands as a large island with mountains in the Atlantic off the coast of Africa. Pfund then compares this speculative map with underwater features in the region revealed by modern technology and percieves a match. He then proceeds to identify these features as Atlantis, which include the Canaries in the south stretching northward to include the Madeira archipelago.
Among the many other controversial claims made by Pfund is a 10,000 BC date for the existence of Atlantis, that Achilles was Atlas and that Atlanteans resettled Greece after the Flood
Pfund then unexpectedly includes a discussion on ancient ‘divination livers’(c) found in Mesopotamia and claims that some of them represent his Atlantis in the Atlantic! It is clear that the author’s source of inspiration is the work of Donnelly, whom he refers to as the ‘Great’ Ignatius Donnelly (although omitted from the index!).
I am not convinced. However, anyone wishing to investigate his ideas further must read his first book and hope that Pfund can get his second volume published. Overall, whatever one might think about Pfund’s theories, you cannot help admiring the level of research that went into the writing of this book. In my opinion the input of a professional editor would have improved the text as there is a lot of repetition, even unnecessarily repeating images. There is also an irritating overuse of bold text and underlining, reminiscent of tabloid newspapers.
Enoch was the seventh patriarch in the book of Genesis. However there appears to be two Enochs in the Bible(d), one fathered by Cain, the other by Jared! He is also regarded as the inventor of astrology, while Eusebius considered Atlas its originator, suggesting that the two were the same person. Lewis Spence in The Occult Sciences in Atlantis frequently touched on the subject of Enoch, equating him with Atlas and telling us that in Arabic and Welsh, Enoch is known as Edris.
One of the many odd details regarding Enoch is that while the patriarchs that preceded and succeeded him are recorded as having lived eight and nine hundred years, he was only given 365 years before being ‘taken by god’ without dying. He has been cited by many as the inventor of alchemy. Enoch is also identified with Atlas by Pseudo-Eupolemus, attributed to a Samaritan source around 300 BC. This suggestion is comparable with the idea of equating the Egyptian god Shu with Atlas.
In Genesis 4:16-17 it is recorded that Cain was building a city and that he named it after his son Enoch. One commentator suggested that Enoch, the city, was the archetype for Atlantis the city(e).
Rather oddly, Philip Ochieng, an African writer, contends that Cain was in fact Enoch(a). Equally bizarre is the claim by Zia Abbas in Chapter 8 of his magnus opus that Enoch established Atlantis! Of course he offers no evidence to support this notion.
It is quite clear that the interesting but mysterious Enoch has done little but generate wide-ranging speculation including a completely unsubstantiated link with Plato’s Atlantis(b). Eusebius the 4th century bishop of Caesarea wrote that Enoch was Atlas, king of Atlantis (Praep. Ev., ix, 17).
The Book of Enoch, also known as 1 Enoch, is a 2nd century BC Jewish religious document whose content is traditionally attributed to Enoch, the great grandfather of Noah. It was lost for centuries but rediscovered in the 19th century and brought from Ethiopia, then known as Abyssinia and translated into English by Archbishop Richard Laurence. This can now be read on or downloaded from the Internet(c).
(b) http://www.fbrt.org.uk/pages/essays/essay-enoch.html (offline 26/12/15)
(d) http://www.timelessmyths.com/mirrors/enoch.php (offline)
(e) http://genesisfacts.wordpress.com/2013/01/30/the-city-of-enoch/ (offline, 01/08/14)
‘Atlantean’ as an adjective is noted in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary as meaning ‘relating to or resembling Atlas’ and that the first instance of that connotation dates to 1667. The same source informs us that a further meaning, namely, ‘relating to Atlantis’ only dates from 1828(a).
Agadir is a city in the South-West of Morocco. It is situated at the Atlantic end of the Sous-Massa-Draa valley which was considered by Michael Hübner to have been the location of Atlantis(a) . The name was identified by him as a variation of Gades, a region of Atlantis, ruled by Gadeiros, the twin brother of Atlas. Keep in mind that Agadir was about 3,300 km away from Athens by sea. Not what you might call ‘easy striking distance’.
Telamons is the term more usually used in French when referring to Atlanteans. The term is derived from the Greek word ‘telamo(n)’, meaning ‘to bear’ which is a reference to the mythological Atlas who was condemned to bear the weight of the cosmos, although later he was depicted as bearing a globe of the earth on his shoulders.
Tantalis is referred to, by Pliny, as the capital of ancient Lydia in western Turkey. It was later known as Magnesium ad Sipylum. Tantalis was apparently named after the legendary King Tantalus, who had remarkable similarities with Atlas; they were both Titans, supported the heavens and had mountains named after them(a). This powerful city was flooded following an earthquake and is now reputed to be located beneath the now dried-up Lake Saloe. Also note that Atlantis is an anagram of Tantalis – coincidence?
British archaeologist Peter James has identified Tantalis as the original Atlantis and that it was located just north east of modern Izmir (Smyrna). James reached this conclusion after a study of classical writers, comparative mythology and local place-names. Unfortunately, there has, as yet, been no archaeological expedition to confirm James’ contention.
Objections to James’ theory are that Tantalis was:
i) not on an island.
ii) not outside the conventional location of the Pillars of Hercules.
iii) too close to Greece (James raises this objection against the Santorini theory).
iv) not a circular city (?).
N.B. Sardis was also known as the capital of Lydia by the early 7th century BC.