An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Aztecs

Honoré, Pierre (L)

Pierre Honoré was the author of In Quest of the White God[956], which explored the legends which persisted among the natives of Central and South America of white pre-Colombian visitors, revered as gods, that had come from the east. Individual ‘gods’ were remembered as Kukulcan by the Maya and Quetzalcoatl by the Toltecs and Aztecs. Honoré proposed that these ‘deities’ had come from Crete and brought their script with and since the use of Linear A & B ceased around 1400 BC the transatlantic visits must have taken place before that date.

Honoré’s book was later republished as In Search of Quetzalcoatl, which can be read online(a).   Unfortunately, Honoré’s work has been seen as racist and is often used now by white extremists.

Jason Colavito has delivered a characteristically harsh review of the ‘White Gods’ school of thought.(b)

(a) http://books.google.ie/books?id=mNv4ofH2Mk8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Pierre+Honor%C3%A9&hl=en&ei=Hpz3TcXcMIe38gORoJTHCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

(b) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2014/02/the-1960s-search-for-ancient-white-gods-in-the-americas.html

Quetzalcoatl (m)

QuetzalcoatlQuetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity, whose name in the local Nahuatl language means ‘feathered serpent’. To the Aztecs he was a creator god and also had a parallel in Mayan culture to whom he was known as Kukulcan or Gucumatz. It is a commonly held belief among Mormons that Quetzalcoatl was Jesus Christ!

Harold T. Wilkins claimed[363.97] that Quetzalcoatl was from Atlantean Brazil.

*[Pierre Honoré claimed[0956] that these white gods had come from the region of Crete and had brought with them their script. As Linear A & B had ceased being used by 1400 BC, Honoré surmised that visits of these deities had taken place before that date.]*

Lewis Spence also claimed an Atlantis connection for Quetzalcoatl.

These ideas are just pure conjecture but are relatively tame compared with the wilder speculations of writers such as Peter Kolosimo, who claimed that the legends actually describe a race of white men who were born in spaceships and migrated to Atlantis; then, after Atlantis was destroyed, they moved to the Americas to be treated as “white gods” by the “primitive earth-dwellers.”(a)

(a) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_gods

Mexcaltitán

Mexcaltitán is a small inhabited island in North West Mexico that is laid out with concentric streets intersected by two perpendicular avenues(a). Some locals compared its layout to that of old maps of Tenochtitlán the legendary capital of the Aztecs, which in turn has been proposed as having a connection with Atlantis. The idea is totally fanciful and does not stand up to the most cursory examination.

 

(a) http://www.briannissen.com/  (see under texts)

Toltecs, The

The Toltecs were the predecessors of the Aztecs in central Mexico. It is generally accepted that they ruled between the 10th and 12th centuries AD. Some rather pathetic attempts by Theosophists and New Agers have been made to link the Toltecs with Atlantis. Annie Besant,  the theosophist, informed us that the Toltecs were 27 feet tall! In the Toltec city of Tula, in the Mexican state of Hidalgo are 15 foot high statues known as Atlantes, which is an architectural term used to describe supporting columns carved in the shape of a man.atlantes - Tula

Survivors

Survivors of the Atlantean destruction are a reasonable expectation given the extent of its influence as described by Plato. The fact that its rulers only met every few years suggests a geographical spread that must have left some, if not most, of the confederation intact, irrespective of the location of the earthquake’s epicentre. Some writers have proposed that survivors migrated to an extensive range of locations such as Egypt, the Middle East and the Americas, but offer little to substantiate their claims apart from the widely dispersed flood myths that are most likely to have arisen following the melting of glaciers at the end of the last Ice Age.

*All the suggestions put forward are either pure speculation, invention or allegedly derived from some psychic source. W. Scott-Eliot claimed [543] that refugees from an Atlantic Atlantis fled westward to Mexico and became the Toltecs and eastward and built Stonehenge ln Britain! While other European cultures have also had Atlantean roots attributed to them, the most frequently named are the great civilisations of Central and South America – Aztec, Mayan and Incan. Posnansky went as far as to suggest that Tiwanaku  in the Andes was built by Nordic refugees from Atlantis! Proof, however, is lacking in all cases.*

Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco)

Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) is an ancient city whose remains are located over two miles above sea level near the southern end of Lake Titicaca on the Altiplano of Bolivia. It was first encountered by Spanish conquistadors in 1549. Tiwanaku has all the features of a harbour, which has led some to describe it as the seaport of nearby Puma Punku another remarkable ancient site(o).

tIWANAKUThe ruins are scattered over a number of square miles through which the Guayqui-La Paz railway was constructed, which was responsible for the breaking up of many monuments to provide ballast. Prior to that, stone from the site was used in the construction of nearby homes and a church.

Belisario Díaz Romero believed that Tiwanaku had been built by a race of people he calls Homo atlanticus, who had come to America from Atlantis over a landbridge from the east, outlined in his 1906 book Tiahuanacu[1235]. Heather Pringle notes(t) that before Romero, Francis de Castelnau (1810-1880), for example, proposed in the mid-19th century that Tiwanaku was the work of wandering Egyptian pharaohs, as opposed to the ‘imbicilic race that inhabits the country today’.”

The controversial Arthur Posnansky, who linked Tiahuanaco with Aztlan, the mythical “white” island homeland of the Aztecs investigated them in the early 20th century. The similarity of Aztlan with the name of Plato’s city has excited some straw clutching Atlantis seekers into claiming a definite connection between the two.

Posnansky also noted that the expected alignments of structures at Tiwanaku were offset by an amount which suggested their construction at a time when they would have been correctly aligned with respect to the cardinal points. He, after many years of study, was convinced that Tiahuanaco was the oldest civilisation on Earth[516] dating it to around 15,000 BC. Charles Orser jnr. debunked Posnansky’s dating in a 2001 article(k) as did Paul Heinrich(n).

Some researchers, including Jim Allen, have studied Tiwanaku’s remarkable Gate of the Sun and identified the figures carved on it as a sophisticated calendar(v) . Ashley Cowie has recently proposed that Tiwanaku was located on an ancient Prime Meridian(w).

In the 1920’s Edmund Kiss studied the ruins of Tiwanaku and concluded that it had been constructed by Nordic refugees from Atlantis which had been destroyed by a falling moon! His ideas were enthusiastically received back in Nazi Germany. A further expedition was planned, but never materialised because of the start of World War II.(u)

In sharp contrast is the claim(l) by Roger Elefant that later construction at Tiwanaku was carried out by the Vikings!

However, a more recent, but catastrophic, explanation is offered by Stephen Smith(d) on the Thunderbolts.info website. Perhaps Smith’s ideas might be combined with the studies of George Dodwell to produce a more comprehensive hypothesis. Posnansky’s date is greatly at variance with conventional dating that puts the flourishing of Tiwanaku at 1200 BC until 1200 AD. The latter part of that period roughly coincides with the existence of the Wari Empire, a possible rival of Tiwanaku(e).(e).

The claim of a direct connection between Tiahuanaco and Atlantis is hard to accept on a number of grounds; for example, the idea of an army travelling from the west coast of South America to attack Greece in the east of the Mediterranean is not tenable. That there was an advanced culture in the Andes is undeniable but to link it to Plato’s story is stretching credibility to extremes. Lake Titicaca and Tiahuanaco have plenty of mysteries still to be explained. In 1980 the Bolivian scholar, Hugo Boero Rojo, aided by one of the local natives, Elias Mamani, located underwater ruins off the coast of Puerta Acosta[576]. His discoveries included megalithic temples, flights of stairs and stone roads.

Way of ViracochaMore recently, Dave Truman has written about an alignment known as ‘The Way of Viracocha’ that runs from Cajamarca in the north, through Cuzco and Tiwanaku and finishing at Pukara Grande(p), oriented exactly 45° west of true north. Truman has built on the work of Maria Sholten d’Ebneth (1926-2007), who wrote of the La Ruta de Wiracocha[1236] in the 1970’s(q). Others have expanded on her work, but usually in Spanish. Truman has speculated on whether “Viracocha, the great teacher and restorer of civilisation in the Andes, in some way embodied the scientific knowledge of a sophisticated, but long forgotten high culture?” Truman

Chakana

Chakana

also discusses the ‘chakana’ or Andean stepped cross and it possible meaning.

It was reported in October 2013(g) (that a team of Belgian and Bolivian archaeologists had found an assortment of ceramics, gems and gold objects at an apparent ceremonial site beneath the waters of Lake Titicaca, which was sacred for the Incas and Tiwanakus.*It was not until 2019 that images of some of the artefacts recovered from the lake were widely published(x).*

We cannot leave the matter of mysterious Tiahuanaco without referring to the fact that some miles further south is Lake Poopó beside which Jim Allen is convinced that the city of Atlantis was located. Allen claims that the large plain to the west of the lake is the plain mentioned by Plato as being adjacent to the city of Atlantis. In a recent documentary “Atlantis in the Andes” broadcast by ‘Discovery Civilization’, Allen identified Tiahuanaco as one of the ten kingdoms of Atlantis.However, I cannot help noticing that while Tiwanaku, claimed to be 17,000 years old, provides us with an astonishing wealth of structures, Allen’s chosen Atlantis site, Pampa Aullagas, offers little more than rubble!

Another supporter of an Andean Atlantis is Sean Bambrough, who has been developing a theory since 1999 that identifies Tiwanaku as the city of Atlantis(h). In February 2015, Marcelo Ozorio also suggested a link with Plato’s Atlantis and most interesting is the huge number of images included on his site(i). There is also a large collection of related images on a YouTube clip(m).

James Bailey was an early advocate[149] of a Peruvian Atlantis with its capital at Tiwanaku or Chan Chan, which was probably the largest pre-Colombian city in South America.

In 2008 David E. Flynn brought to public attention an astonishing series of satellite photos(a) that show a vast network of the remains apparently of human structures that extend for many miles around Lake Titicaca. These ‘geoglyphs’ encompass Tiahuanaco.

The most remarkable collection of early photos of the Tiwanku site can be found on the Above Top Secret website(b). The accompanying text makes a strong case for treating the location as archaeologically contaminated and as a consequence that many of the dates proposed for the site should be considered suspect. Other mysteries are the fact that saltwater Lake Titicaca contains known sea life and that old waterlines are slanted(c).

In late March 2015, the Bolivian government announced(j) that ground-penetrating radar had identified what appeared to be a buried pyramid in the Tiwanaku complex as well as other ‘anomalies’ and that excavations may start in May or June.

A mixed Spanish and English website(f) offers a number of interesting papers including a chapter from Posnansky’s book Tiahuanaco: The Cradle of American Man.

Archaeology magazine has an interesting Q & A paper relating to the history and current state of preservation at the Tiwanaku site(s).

A May 2017 report(r) confirmed that the Tiwanaku complex is much more extensive than previously thought, covering an area of at least 650 hectares (1,675 acres).

(a) http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1977971/posts

(b) http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread732575/pg1

(c) http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2012/04/30/tiwanaku/

(d) http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2013/04/03/tiwanaku-3/

(e) http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/science-wari-tiwanaku-rival-empire-01473.html

(f) http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/arqueologia/esp_tiahuanaco5.htm

(g) 10-bolivia-lake-titicaca-yields-trove.html”http://phys.org/news/2013-10-bolivia-lake-titicaca-yields-trove.html#jCp

(h) https://2rbetterthan1.wordpress.com/atlantis-south-americatiahuanaco/

(i) http://documentaries.camera/tiwanacu/ (offline Sept 2015)

*(j) http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/entertainment/2015/03/27/bolivia-detects-buried-pyramid-at-tiahuanaco-site/print  (offline April 2019) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20170319193806/http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/entertainment/2015/03/27/bolivia-detects-buried-pyramid-at-tiahuanaco-site/print*

(k) https://www.mail-archive.com/ctrl@listserv.aol.com/msg62910.html

(l) http://atlantide-mu.over-blog.com/2013/12/terre-creuse.html

(m) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PkuoXm9uafI

(n) http://www.intersurf.com/~chalcedony/Tiwanaku.html

*(o) http://www.atlantisquest.com/prehistcity.html  (offline March 2018) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20170601230717/http://www.atlantisquest.com/prehistcity.html*

(p) https://grahamhancock.com/trumand1/

(q) http://puri-aprendiendovida.blogspot.ie/2013/02/la-ruta-de-viracocha-camino-de.html

(r) http://www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=2436357&CategoryId=14919

(s) http://interactive.archaeology.org/tiwanaku/qanda.html

(t) http://archive.archaeology.org/blog/the-fantasy-world-of-tiwanaku/

(u) http://theappendix.net/issues/2013/4/andean-atlantis-race-science-and-the-nazi-occult-in-bolivia

(v) http://blog.world-mysteries.com/science/the-gate-of-the-sun-calendar-from-ancient-tiwanacu/

(w) https://www.ancient-origins.net/events/unearthing-lost-meridian-tiwanaku-s-temple-builders-0010322

* (x) https://www.sciencealert.com/stunning-discovery-reveals-mysterious-religion-pre-dating-the-incas-by-500-years*

 

 

          

Linguistic Connections (t)

Linguistic Connections have been frequently advanced between Europe and the Americas as evidence of either an ancient sea link between the two or an intermediate landmass, Atlantis. Some of these supposed connections have been demonstrated as being totally without substance and merely coincidences resulting from the limited number of sounds that can be produced by human speech. Unfortunately, many of these purported links are still referred to in some books and even more frequently on websites, as credible evidence for the existence of Atlantis. Quite frankly the whole matter of similarities between languages is a complete red herring in the search for Atlantis. While it is perfectly possible that prehistoric Europeans and Africans travelled to the Americas and brought their languages with them, it does nothing to prove that Plato’s Atlantis existed.

The Basques, frequently linked with Atlantis, call their language, Euskara, which is a seemingly unique tongue, unrelated to any Indo-European speech. Strangely, Euskara shares some affinity with Finno-Urgic Patumnili (allegedly spoken in ancient Troy), Etruscan (belonging to the pre-Roman civilizers of western Italy, traditionally descended from the Trojans), Guanche (spoken by the early, supposedly Atlantean, inhabitants of the Canary Islands) and Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs. These long-dead languages are themselves only very imperfectly understood today but the fact that Basque Euskara contains legitimate cognates with the languages of four arguably Atlantean peoples may not be without significance.

To add further confusion, in the middle of the last century, Dr. Yoshitomi drew attention to similarities between the Basque and Japanese languages.

Following the work of Dr. Pierre L. Collignon, Egerton Sykes supported the view that a number of North American place names have a possible Egyptian origin.

Tennessee – Ta-N-Ese meaning ‘Land of Isis’

Kentucky/Quantuck named after the Egyptian Anubis

Missouri – Mesu-Ra meaning ‘Children of the Sun’

Kansas/Arkansas named after the Third Great God of Thebes

Massachusettes –Mesu-Tchesert refers to ‘Children of the Red One’

Niagara – Nga-Ra equates with ‘Bull of Ra’, bull being another title of the Nile.

All that can be said to readers is to tread warily and generally speaking take all that is read on this subject with a grain of proverbial salt. Nevertheless, those interested in recent developments in language studies the website below(a) should be of interest.

Also See: Augustus le Plongeon, Brasseur de Bourbourg, Ignatius Donnelly

(a) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/09/120920135321.htm

Kukulcan

Kukulcan was the ‘feathered serpent’ god of the Mayan religion. He also had a human form that kukulcanclosely matches a description of a tall Caucasian, white-skinned, blue-eyed with blonde or silver hair. This similarity led to the European invaders being initially greeted as ‘gods’. There have been frequent suggestions that the original Kukulcan was a survivor of the demise of Atlantis, who managed to escape to Mesoamerica bringing the knowledge of the lost city to the Americas. However, it must be stressed that this only conjecture. The Aztecs and Toltecs had a similar god, Quetzalcoatl, who had a matching description.

Pierre Honoré claimed that these ‘deities’ had arrived from Crete bringing with them their script. As the use of the Cretan Linear A & B had ceased by 1400 BC Honoré surmised that these transatlantic trips took place before that date!

Cuchulainn, an Achilles type hero in Irish mythology, has also been speculatively linked with Kukulcan because of the name similarity, an idea that has never had any scholarly support.

From Atlantis to the Sphinx (L)

From Atlantis to the Sphinx: Recovering the Lost Wisdom of the Ancient World [335] by Colin Wilson, presents the idea that the inhabitants of Atlantis were the precursors of the ancient Egyptians as well as the Maya and Aztecs. He perceives Atlantis as a seafaring nation with worldwide reach. He contends that Atlantis was originally located in Antarctica and was destroyed in a worldwide catastrophe. This theme is developed further in a second book[063] that Wilson co-authored with Rand Flem-Ath. More recently Wilson has altered his views and supported Robert Sarmast’s claim for Atlantis being located off Cyprus.

To support an extended antiquity for Egypt, he outlines evidence for a 10500 BC construction date for the legendary Sphinx. Unfortunately, most of the material is a re-working of information to be found elsewhere.