David Daniel Zink (1927-2008) was formerly an English professor at the USAF Academy in Colorado and Lamar University in Texas. Following a meeting with J. Manson Valentine in the 1970’s he carried out extensive searches with funding from A.R.E. in the shallow waters off Bimini producing detailed maps of anomalous underwater features such as the ‘Bimini Road’. Zink published these findings in his 1978 offering, The Stones of Atlantis, described by the Los Angeles Times(a) as an “unintentionally hilarious compendium of pseudo-science”.
The following year Zink published a second book that discussed megaliths in a more general manner. In 1990 he published a revised version of ‘Stones’, but it added very little new material.
However, it has transpired that Zink used the ‘services’ of psychics, including a well-known clairvoyant, Carol Huffstickler, during his Bimini investigations. One of Huffstickler’s contributions was to declare that Stonehenge was built around 16000BC! These psychic sources advised that highly evolved, loving extraterrestrial beings from the Pleiades arrived on earth around 30000 BC and joined the thriving commercial and religious community of Bimini and assisted with the construction of temples and buildings including the structures studied by Zink. The inclusion of this psychic ‘input’ did little to enhance the credibility of Zink as a serious investigator and led to the withdrawal of A.R.E. support.
Zink also warned us that a period of geological instability might be due in 2030, following the reversal of the poles. Perhaps it is noteworthy that had he lived, Zink would be 103 in 2030 and therefore conveniently unlikely to be affected by the projected catastrophe!
The Bimini Road/Wall is located in about ten feet of water off Paradise Point on Bimini Island in the Bahamas. It was investigated in 1968 by Dr. J. Manson Valentine, Jacques Mayol, Harold Climo and Robert Angove. The discovery coincided with the ‘prophecy’ of Edgar Cayce, the American psychic, who pronounced in 1933 that parts of Atlantis would re-emerge in the late 1960’s. His exact words are recorded as: “A portion of the temples may yet be discovered under the slime of ages and sea water near Bimini. Expect it in ‘68 or ‘69 – not so far away.”
A comparable alignment of blocks in 22 metres of water was found off the coast of Lanzarote in the Canaries and originally reported in the Belgian magazine Kadath in 1987 and noted in the Science Frontiers website(d).
Naturally, there was intense media interest and the idea of Atlantis in the Americas was given a new lease of life. Unfortunately, the exact nature of this unusual ‘J’ shaped feature was fiercely debated and controversy continues to this day. Eugene A. Shinn, a geologist and devout sceptic, has offered(a) a more critical interpretation of the Bimini discoveries.*In an article in Nature magazine some years ago Shinn described Cayce followers as members of ‘a cult’.(h)*
Greg Little offered a vigorous refutation of Shinn’s claims in an article in the May/June 2006 edition of Atlantis Rising magazine(g). Little continued his criticism of Shinn in a 2017 article(e).
Without wishing to rain on anybody’s parade it should be pointed out that Manson Valentine was a fan of Cayce’s and as a consequence it has sometimes been inferred that the date of his discovery might have been engineered to agree with Cayce’s prediction and enhance the subsequent publicity. Lynn Picknett & Clive Prince have pointed out[705.61] that the Bimini Road was known to the local islanders for years and even offered to show it to its ‘discoverers’!
*Dr David Zink carried out a detailed examination of the Bimini Road, which he outlined in his own book, The Stones of Atlantis. Zink’s conclusion was to accept that Atlantis had been situated in the Atlantic but regarded “Bimini as an Atlantean colonial site or the location of a different culture parallel in time to Atlantis.” Not the ringing endorsement one might have expected.
Peter Tompkins, another Cayce fan, spend a lot of time and money exploring Bimini, but apparently, he also left unconvinced that it had Atlantean credentials.*
A local Bimini writer and healer, Ashley B. Saunders, has produced a definitive two-volume history of the island as well as a book on Atlantis. Saunders has been described as “the gatekeeper of Atlantis”(c).
The most recent study of structures off the coast of Bimini by a team that included Greg Little and William Donato in 2005 and 2006, when Andrew Collins joined them, has produced evidence of ancient harbours that are now submerged at two locations. They also discovered a number of stone anchors, now in the Bimini Museum. However, acceptance of the reality of this evidence is a long way from proving any connection with Atlantis.
Gavin Menzies speculated, in his book 1421, he speculated that the Chinese fleet suffered damage during a storm and landed at Bimini where they used their large square ballast stones to build an emergency drydock, the remains of which is now the Bimini Road!
A YouTube film including an interview with Greg Little is worth viewing(b). Less interesting is a new documentary from Amazon Prime, aided and abetted by the UK’s Daily Express, which has apparently resurrected some interest in the Atlantis – Bimini connection(f).
The Bahamas are a favoured location for Atlantis by some writers. They refer to the Spanish for Bahamas being Baha Mar or ‘Shallow Sea’ and link it with Plato’s reference to impassable or shallow sea encountered at the site of the sunken Atlantis. There is little doubt that large areas of what is now submerged land around the Bahamas were exposed during the last Ice Age, a situation paralleled around the world.
After the arrival of the Spanish, the natives of the Bahamas, the Lucayans, were gradually wiped out by disease and exploitation. Consequently, we are unable to avail of the legends of these people, which might have thrown more light on the early history of the region.
Interest in the region was heightened by the discovery of what appeared to be a manmade underwater road off the coast of Bimini in 1967. This ‘Bimini Road’ has been subject of continuing controversy ever since.
Atlantis seekers have pointed to this discovery as evidence of Atlantis in the Bahamas. They add to this Plato’s reference to impassable or shallow seas existing where Atlantis sank. They further suggest that these shallows exist today in the Bahamas. However, it must be pointed out that Plato refers to the impassibility being caused by mud. There is no indication of this mud today otherwise the Bimini Road would not have been visible and the waters in the region, although shallow, are certainly not impassable.
In 2005, a 23-year-old Canadian mechanic named Chris Shearer achieved his 15 minutes of fame when he claimed(a) to have discovered the concentric rings and canal system of Atlantis in NASA images off the Bahamas. He assumed that these had been uncovered by the recent tropical storms in the region. He immediately sought funds for an expedition to the area. Nothing has been reported since.
More recently, another site in the Bahamas, Cat Island, has also been identified as a possible location with remnants of an ancient civilisation.
Dimitri Rebikoff (1921-1997) was born in Paris of Russian parents. His grandfather, Vassily, had helped to develop the Czar’s air force and his father was an attaché at the Paris embassy and later murdered in Prague by the KGB. During the Second World War Dimitri was forced to work in Germany.
After the war, he returned to Paris and studied at the Sorbonne and in 1959 moved to the United States, where he developed his career as an oceanographer and engineer. He has many inventions to his credit including an underwater camera and the Pegasus underwater platform. He has written a number of books on underwater exploration and photography that have been published in French and German as well as English.
This feature is 300 feet wide and 1600 feet long and has been the subject of controversy since its discovery. A number of writers have attempted, unsuccessfully, to link this strange structure with Atlantis. Rebikoff’s conclusion was that the Bimini Road is some form of ancient harbour works.
Gavin Menzies (1937- ) is a former submarine officer with the British Navy. He retired in 1970, a year after an incident in the Philipines in which the boat under his command collided with the USS Endurance. He followed this with a brief dalliance with British politics.
However, Menzies is best known as a controversial author beginning with 1421: The Year China Discovered the Worldand six years later 1434: The Year a Magnificent Chinese Fleet Sailed to Italy and Ignited the Renaissance. His theories have been shown to be heavily flawed(a) and Menzies himself was accused of being either “a charlatan or a cretin” (b).
The badarchaeology website has, understandably, also given a thumbs-down to Menzies work(l).
In his book, 1421 , Menzies speculated that the Chinese fleet suffered damage during a storm and landed at Bimini where they used their large square ballast stones to build an emergency dry dock, the remains of which are now the Bimini Road!
However, the idea of ancient Chinese in America was proposed as early as 1913, following discoveries(k) just 19 miles from Mexico City, speculatively dated to around 3000 BC! Similar claims have been made throughout the ensuing century, with John A Ruskamp Jnr. one of the most recent.
Another, well illustrated site(d), accuses Menzies of altering maps to suit his theory.
April 16th 2010 saw the inventive Mr. Menzies present his latest offering, The Lost Treasures of Atlantis, at the Royal Geographical Society in London before its formal publication in August. The title was later changed to The Lost Empire of Atlantis.
He argued that the Minoans discovered America 4,000 years ago and that an ancient trading empire had stretched from the North American Great Lakes to Kerala in India.
I should point out that Roger Jewell had previously identified a Minoan connection with the Michigan copper mines in a 2000 book.
Menzies bases his thesis on metallurgy, ancient shipbuilding and navigation techniques as well as DNA evidence. He focuses on the cargo found on the Uluburun shipwreck(c) found off the coast of Turkey and which is dated to the 14th century BC.
My principal reaction to his book was that he seemed to studiously avoid Plato’s text as a source of information. Perhaps, because much of what Plato said does not conform to Menzies’ imaginative theories. He identifies Thera as the location of the capital of Atlantis but he does not attempt to explain why Plato did not simply say so, since Thera was less than 150 miles from Athens and well known to the Athenians. Furthermore, Menzies places the ‘Pillars of Heracles’ at Gibraltar but then fails to explain how the Atlanteans could have attacked them from BEYOND the ‘Pillars’ if Atlantis was virtually on their doorstep on Crete.
He contends that the Minoans (Atlanteans) discovered America, exported vast quantities of copper from Michigan(g)via the Mississippi and after processing it at Poverty Point sent it to the Mediterranean to feed needs of the Bronze industries there. He attributes the building of astronomical stone circles in the Mediterranean as well as Spain, Brittany and the British Isles to the Minoan influence. However, none are found on Crete! It is understandable therefore that his book has received some very bad reviews(e)(f).
This is a speculative book about the Minoan civilisation and has little to do with Atlantis apart from the cynical use of its name on the cover. However, Menzies does have many followers(g), but Jason Colavito’s seven-part critique(h) of his book that should be compulsory reading for those fans.
In October 2013 Menzies returned to the subject of ancient sea voyages and in particular the very early visitors to the Americas in Who Discovered America? Judging by the first customer reviews(i) this offering promises to be as controversial as his previous books. Two of his specific claims are that transoceanic travel began 100,000 years ago and that the Chinese regularly began visiting America from 2200 BC!
Recently, in 2015, new evidence of early Chinese in America was found by John A. Ruskamp Jnr. in Albuquerque’s Petroglyph National Monument(j). Ruskamp has already identified 82 archaic Chinese petroglyph’s, many dated to the Shang dynasty circa 1042 BC.
(h) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2012/08/reviewing-gavin-menzies-atlantis-pt-1.html (just change part number)