There is an Irish tradition that names Murias as one of the four cities of the Tuatha dé Danaan(b), who came to Ireland a thousand years before the Celts.
The pre-Hellenic Greeks were known as the Danai and were, according to an Egyptian source, the descendants of Danaus. Furthermore, the Danai have been linked with the legendary Tuatha dé Danaan of Ireland as well as the Shardana of Sardinia.
(a) Atlantis, A New Concept. Pt.1, Atlantis May-June, 1974
Alan Baker (1964- ) is an English author with a mixed output of both non-fiction as well as some fiction. His chief interest would appear to be historical mysteries, which led to the publication of The Enigmas of History. This book touches on a number of subjects covered on this site; Noah‘s Deluge, Stonhenge, Amazons and, of course, Atlantis. He briefly discusses a few of the more popular theories; Bimini, Thera, and the Atlantic, but arrives at no firm conclusion, although he appears sympathetic to its existence. In his Destination Earth he delves into the disappearance of Percy Fawcett and the mysteries relating to South America.
Jean-Louis Bernard (1918-1998) was a French novelist with a passion for the esoteric and ancient history. He is the author of L’Atlantide des géants in which he touches on the Guanches of the Canaries, Bimini, Crete and Mexico.
Earlier he had authored a science fiction dictionary, Les archives de l’insolite, in which, before Richard Firestone, he commented on a catastrophic period in the earth’s prehistory around 10,000 BC and was quoted by Michel-Alain Combes(a).
“A series of catastrophes which took place around the year 9,000 or
10,000 before our era,which affected the whole planet,and about which
Tradition and modern science are in agreement. Let’s list these
cataclysms: in Europe, the end of the last ice age, maybe as a
consequence of the shifting of the pole towards its present position in the
North; in compensation, a drying up of the Sahara was started or
accelerated; probable end of the archipelago of Atlantis; in East Africa,
a sudden sur-elevation of mounds,and disappearance of an interior sea
(at the sources of the Nile) and of an archipelago (Pount) in the Indian
Ocean; possible sur-elevation of the Andes,with disappearance of
archipelagos in the Pacific Ocean (and isolation of the famous Easter
Reader’s Digest published The World’s Last Mysteries in 1977. The very first article, written by May Veber, was about Atlantis. She reviews the leading Atlantis theories of nearly four decades ago; Azores, Bimini and in greater detail, Minoan Thera. One of her final comments was that “even the impressive body of scientific evidence which supports the Santorini explanation has been challenged. There is a volume of scholarship building up in favour of Heligoland as the site of Atlantis.” This was two years before Spanuth‘s Atlantis of the North was published in English!
John B. Alexander (1937- ) retired from the US Army with the rank of Colonel in 1988. He has lectured on pre-cataclysmic civilisations and as an underwater demolition expert with the Green Berets he was highly qualified to undertake exploratory diving in the vicinity of Bimini in 1971. He discovered a series of regularly shaped underwater features extending over a considerable area. Alexander was convinced that they were the product of a very ancient civilisation. However, he considered his views compatible with the ‘revelations’ of Edgar Cayce! For me, even more disturbing was his claim in an interview with Brad Steiger[874.59]that he used hypnotic regression to obtain “quite a bit of information on what we call Atlantis.” Plato does not get a look in. Cazeau & Scott[878.10] are even more critical, concluding that the interview shows Alexander to be neither archaeologist nor geologist and that his opinions regarding Bimini are “useless.” Frankly, it seems that Alexander was just one more trying to get on board the Bimini bandwagon.
Pino Turolla (1922-1984) was an Italian Count and a recognised expert in underwater exploration and photography. He also held a US patent for an improved parachute(a).
He carried out an investigation of sunken ‘pillars’ at Bimini in the late 1960’s. Turolla identified forty-four such pillars and suspected that more were still to be discovered. He was of the opinion that these pillars were not composed of stone native to the Bahamas, but had been brought from the Andes. Photos taken by Turolla were used by Robert Ferro and Michael Grumley in their book Atlantis: The Autobiography of a Search.
Turolla later published his own book, Beyond the Andes; My Search for the Origins of Pre-Inca Civilization.
John C. Saxer Jr. (1950- ) a.k.a. Prince Johannes Christian von Sax is
a bartender, bicycle mechanic and amateur archaeologist. In recent years he has insisted that Florida’s Tarpon Springs was the location of the Garden of Eden and that the port of Atlantis had been situated along Tampa Bay. He claims to have discovered large stone anchors which he believes were used in his Atlantis. After attempting to interest mainstream archaeologists in his discovery he finally got the attention of William Donato, best known for his research at Bimini. Donato was impressed by the size of the ‘anchors’ which he stated were similar to anchors found at Bimini and elsewhere. However, Donato does not subscribe to Saxer’s Eden or Atlantis theories(a).
Edgar Cayce (1877-1945) was born in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. He was reared a Christian and even taught Sunday school. He considered becoming a minister, but a lack of both education and funds prevented him from taking this course. The story goes that at the age of around 20, Cayce (pronounced KC) lost his voice and through self-hypnosis cured himself. He eventually found that he could cure others while in a trance and eventually his fame spread to such an extent that he was reported in the New York Times of 9th October 1910.
In due course Cayce’s trances were producing prophetic utterances or ‘readings’, that produced ideas totally at variance with his Christian upbringing, such as reincarnation and contact with the dead. During his lifetime over 14,000 ‘readings’ were recorded. In 1931 the Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E.) was founded by Cayce to manage a depository of his ‘readings’.
Towards the end of 1944, Cayce became very ill and on New Year’s Day, 1945 he ‘prophesised’ that he would be miraculously healed of his illness. He died three days later. Arguably, an even more disappointing prognostication was his claim that Jesus Christ would come again in 1998. The Cayce Petroleum Company was another failure in the 1920’s when Cayce and his associates unsuccessfully searched for the ‘Mother Pool’ of oil in Texas based on some of his ‘readings’.
Robert Bauval in his Secret Chamber reveals that Cayce seemed to have had a photographic memory and worked for up to fifteen years in a bookstore where, no doubt, he had access to the works of Donnelly, Steiner, Blavatsky and others (p158). The terminology employed by those writers is frequently used by Cayce in his ‘output’! His Reading 364-1(e) reveals quite clearly that he was acquainted with theosophical literature as well as other works of fiction such as A Dweller on Two Planets.*It is, therefore, a clear possibility that this familiarity may have influenced his sub-conscious and his later prognostications.*
A number of these ‘readings’ related to Atlantis and have been published in a separate volume, Edgar Cayce on Atlantis. He is most famously known for his claim that Atlantis would rise again in 1968 or 1969. Dr. Mason Valentine discovered the so-called Bimini Road. A suggestion that this underwater feature had been known to members of A.R.E., years before its ‘discovery’, has been made by Picknett & Prince in The Stargate Conspiracy.
John Gribbin, the British science writer has imaginatively suggested[1029.91] that “if Cayce was indeed perceiving the future during his psychic trance, what he ‘received’ was a distorted version of the newspaper accounts of this story, which he duly reported in his own words in 1940.” On a more scientific note Gribbin explains (p.93) that “we can say beyond that Atlantis will not rise again from the Atlantic floor – there is no continental crust there to rise”.
K. Paul Johnson has written Edgar Cayce in Context, a well-balanced book that investigates in detail Cayce and his prognostications. In 1922 Cayce gave a lecture to the Birmingham Theosophical Society. Johnson relates how one Arthur Lammers, a theosophist, stayed with Cayce in 1923, during which sojourn, it appears that Theosophy was extensively discussed. Around the same time Cayce was developing a friendship with one Morton Blumenthal, also an ardent theosophist. Coincidentally, it was in 1923 that some of Cayce’s ‘readings’ began to display great similarities with some of the views expressed in Madame Blavatsky’s ‘revelations’. A further interesting fact is that Alexander Strath-Gordon met Edgar Cayce on a number of occasions in the 1920’s prompting speculation that he may have ‘influenced’ some of Cayce’s Atlantis readings, an idea that must be considered a possibility.
Cayce added that the Atlanteans discovered electricity and also had ships and aircraft powered by a mysterious form of energy crystal. He tells us that these flying machines were made of elephant skins! (Reading 364-6)(f) and that they could also travel through water!
With all this technology at their disposal it is incredible that they could have lost a war with anyone, particularly the relatively primitive Athenians. The 17th century fictional work of Sir Francis Bacon, The New Atlantis, contains many references to advanced technology not realised until the last century. An encounter with this widely available work could easily have coloured any ‘readings’ while in a trance. Therefore, it would appear that there is sufficient evidence to suggest the possibity of ‘contamination’ of Cayce’s subconscious to throw doubt on the possible value of any of his ’readings’, without impugning the honesty of Edgar Cayce himself. Since the much-quoted prophecy of ‘Atlantis rising’ in the late ‘60’s is quite possibly the result of such contamination, it cannot be considered as evidence of anything. The Bimini Road itself is still the subject of controversy.
Cayce was also wrong regarding other historical details(d), such as the date of the biblical Exodus, which he declared to be 5500 BC (reading 470-22)(g), an error of about 4,000 years!
William B. Stoecker has written an article, which is highly critical of Cayce’s work(b). Nevertheless, it must be conceded that in one respect Cayce did offer one remarkable suggestion which claims that the Atlantean survivors fled to a number of locations (i) The Pyrenees – Home to the Basques (ii) Morocco – Berber country (iii) Egypt and (iv) North America – forming the Iroquois Nation. Coincidentally, the Berbers, Basques and Iroquois all share a specific DNA type(a).
Unfortunately, Plato is hardly mentioned at all by Cayce except for a brief reference to “the few lines given by Plato.” (Reading 364-1)(g).
(c) http://www.christophervolpe.com/strath/strath.html (8/6/14 offline)
(Roy Stemman 1942- ) is a British researcher who has written a fairly standard overview of ancient civilisations. He devotes a limited section of his book to a discussion of the Atlantis mystery, in which he opts for a more in-depth review of the Minoan Hypothesis before a quick look at the Bimini discoveries. The book is well illustrated, but unfortunately, its content adds little, if anything, to the solution of this enduring mystery. Stemman has also co-authored a similar book with Eleanor Van Zandt . He continues to write on a variety of paranormal subjects on his website(a).
*(a) http://www.paranormalreview.com/ (offline April 2017) *
William Michael Donato is an American archaeologist who holds an MA in anthropology and is a regular contributor to the Ancient American and Atlantis Rising magazines and is an advocate of a Bimini location for Atlantis. He was the founder of The Atlantis Organisation (TAO) whose work is now continued by the Apex Institute(a), which was established in 2001 to investigate sites in the Bahamas and other places around the world that might provide evidence of ancient advanced civilizations.
As of November 2016, I can find no trace of the Apex Institute apart from a website(b) with a bald mission statement.! Donato is also Archaeology Coordinator for the Genesis Quest network(c).
Donato’s Master’s Thesis was entitled A Re-examination of the Atlantis Theory. Donato was a member of the 2005 team of researchers who claim to have found definitive evidence of two submerged ancient harbours off Bimini.
Donato advises me that his “November 2006 expedition verified side-scan sonar images from 1998 and 1999. The ARE and my friends Greg and Lora Little have verified some of the targets, but no one has yet looked at the best ones — which resemble Maya-style temple pyramids. According to Greg’s account, one area has 35 building foundations in the target area of my side-scan sub-bottom profiling expedition.”
(a) http://apexinstitute.org/Home.aspx (offline May2015)