An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Brazil

Retzius, Anders

Anders Retzius (1796-1860) was a Swedish anthropologist who studied the skulls of the Guanches of the Canaries and noted a similarity with those of the Guaranas of Brazil and others. He suggested that the existence of the continent of Atlantis might explain such connections.(a)

Today, the survival of the Guarani people is under threat(b).

(a) https://www.blogarama.com/resources-blogs/203386-nephilim-chronicles-fallen-angels-ohio-blog/5895147-smithsonian-scientist-claims-native-american-skulls-identical-those-caucasion-guanches-canary-islands

(b) https://www.survivalinternational.org/tribes/guarani

 

Bering Strait

The Bering Strait between Asia and America has been a source of ongoing controversy regarding the peopling of America.

James Howell (1594-1666) relates how even in the 17th century the existence of the strait, then known as the Anian, was disputed, although at the same time there was also a theory that the nomadic Scythians had originally crossed over the Strait from America[1313].

There is little doubt that at some point in prehistory a landbridge linked the two continents.

Although it is frequently claimed that the Hadji Ahmed Map of 1559 shows a landbridge between the two continents, it only appears to be so because of the way the map is drawn.

A recent paper(a) by Heather Pringle and Krista Langlois offers evidence that the link was more than just an isthmus, but was in fact a vast area of land, Beringia, the size of Australia and that it provided a crossing point, for humans and animals earlier and for longer than previously believed (See map above right).

After crossing the Strait there were two southward routes, one along the coast and the other via what is known as the Ice-Free Corridor Route which ran between two vast ice sheets, the Laurentide to the east and the Cordilleran to the west(c). According to a 2018 report(i), the coastal route which followed deglaciation was physically and environmentally viable for early human migration to the Americas.” Another report in 2018 claims that the earliest settlers in America were island-hopping sea-farers from Asia(j)(k).

However, there is now compelling evidence that peopled reached South America before the existence of the ice-free corridor, suggesting the alternative coastal migration route, which, so far, has little evidence to support it.

This recent report is the result of excavations at the Huaca Prieta ceremonial mound, 600 Km north of the Peruvian capital, Lima. Human activity there has now been dated to around 15,000 years ago(e).

Pre-Columbian contact between Asia and Alaska was confirmed by a report(b) from Purdue University in September 2016. Artifacts were discovered in a house dated between 700 and 900 years old. The bronze items were identified as having been smelted in Asia, while a leather strap was radio carbon dated to between 500 and 800 years old.

Another 2016 report(d) added genetic evidence for the Beringia migration route, when the remains of two infants, dated to around 10,000 years ago were discovered at the Upward Sun River site in Alaska.

The ‘received wisdom’ regarding the origins of the Clovis people was that they had crossed into the Americas from Asia via the Bering Strait 12,000 years ago. This has been challenged in a book[1516] by two archaeologists, Dennis J. Stanford and Bruce A. Bradley, who claim “that the first Americans crossed the Atlantic by boat and arrived earlier than previously thought. Supplying archaeological and oceanographic evidence to support this assertion, the book dismantles the old paradigm while persuasively linking Clovis technology with the culture of the Solutrean people who occupied France and Spain more than 20,000 years ago.” In 2014, Stephen Oppenheimer endorsed the work of Stanford and Bradley(h).*Coincidentally, an article(m) in the August 2017 edition of Antiquity offers evidence that humans lived in Brazil more than 20,000 years ago, which is many millennia before the Clovis people arrived in North America.*

A sceptical view of their work should also be read(f). Furthermore, in 2016 the Solutrean Hypothesis also appears to have been contradicted by recent genetic studies(g).

*Late August 2019 saw the dating controversy surrounding the arrival of the First Americans re-ignited with a study which pushes the date back to over 16,000 years ago(l) . This is based on archaeological discoveries at Cooper’s Ferry in Idaho. This earlier date suggests that the ice-free corridor would not have been available to these people, but are more likely to have used the coastal route from Asia via the Bering Strait. A secondary matter raised by these finds is that “Based on their analysis of the stone tools from Cooper’s Ferry, the researchers suggest that they are most similar to artifacts of the same general period found on the other side of the Pacific. Specifically, they appear to share many traits with tools produced on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido 13,000-16,000 years ago!”*

The only direct connection of the Bering Strait with Atlantis has been suggested by Albert. M. Chelchelnitsky, who proposed that Atlantis had been situated in Alaska and placed the Pillars of Herakles in the Strait itself.

(a) https://www.hakaimagazine.com/article-long/sunken-bridge-size-continent

(b) http://westerndigs.org/asian-metal-found-in-alaska-reveals-trade-centuries-before-european-contact/

(c) https://web.archive.org/web/20151114195842/http://www.sfu.museum/journey/an-en/secondaire1er-middle/route_libre_de_glace-ice_free_route

(d) http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/children-upward-sun-river-11500-year-old-remains-shed-light-alaska-s-021109

(e) http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/05/traces-some-south-america-s-earliest-people-found-under-ancient-dirt-pyramid

(f) http://www.academia.edu/5119515/On_thin_ice_Problems_with_Stanford_and_Bradley_s_Solutrean-Clovis_hypothesis

(g) https://news.ku.edu/2015/12/17/genetic-data-does-not-support-ancient-trans-atlantic-migration-professor-says

(h) https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00438243.2014.966273?journalCode=rwar20

(i) https://popular-archaeology.com/article/along-alaskas-pacific-coast-early-humans-could-have-migrated-to-the-americas/

(j) https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/30/science/boulders-americas-migration.html?smtyp=cur&smid=tw-nytimesscience

(k) https://gizmodo.com/humans-may-have-reached-north-america-by-more-than-one-1828194893?lR=T

(l)    http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/deadthings/2019/08/29/stone-tools-in-idaho-evidence-of-first-americans/

*(m) https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/science-ticker/stone-age-people-brazil-20000-years-ago*

Lynch, George

George LynchGeorge Lynch (1868-1928) was listed by Sprague deCamp[0194.329] as a supporter of a Brazilian Atlantis in 1925. Until recently, that was all that I could find about him. However, I discovered that Stelios Pavlou had unearthed much more information.

Lynch was an Irish war correspondent, reporting on conflicts such as the Spanish-American War, the Boer War and the Chinese Boxer Rebellion* and recounted in his Impressions of a War Correspondent [1639].*

Towards the end of his life, Lynch was a fund-raiser for Percy Fawcett’s expedition to find the lost city of ‘Z’ in Brazil, which, apparently, they both believed to have a possible connection with Atlantis.

 

Karam, Christian C.

Christian C. Karam is a Brazilian archaeology student who has written a paper with the controversial, if not provocative, title of Phoenicians in Brazil(a). In it he proposes that an encounter with an extraterrestrial body caused a global catastrophe, which caused a large part of the Andes to be uplifted, the Sahara to be dried out and Atlantis in the Atlantic to be submerged. He dates this event to around 9500 BC and believes that the Atlantean survivors fled to Africa.

Perhaps the first to suggest that the Phoenicians visited Brazil was Georgius Hornius in the 17th century. The matter was dealt with in greater detail(d) by the Austrian professor of history, Ludwig Schwennhagen, who flourished at the beginning of the 20th century. A Hungarian website(c) offers more on the development of this claim.

Karam names the Phoenicians as the thalassocratic successors to the Atlanteans. The main portion of his paper concerns the possibility or as he sees it, the probability, of Phoenician visits to and even colonisation of Brazil.

Ross T. Christensen (1918–1990) an American archaeologist supported the idea of Phoenicians in America. However, in my view, his early work as a Mormon missionary must bring into question his objectivity. Further evidence in support of Phoenicians in Brazil is presented elsewhere(b).

*(a) https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/ciencia_phoenicians01.htm*

(b) http://www.cristobalcolondeibiza.com/2eng/2eng16.htm

(c) http://tist-fla.blogspot.com/2013/12/foniciaiak-kozep-es-del-amerikaban.html (Hungarian)

(d) http://www.academia.edu/7848641/Fen%C3%ADcios_no_Brasil_parte_1_Ludwig_Schwennhagen (Portuguese) (offline Feb. 2016)

*(e) http://www.ancientamerica.org/library/media/HTML/1ofnf5kk/15.%20THE%20PHOENICIANS%20AND%20THE%20ANCIENT%20CIVILIZATIONS%20OF%20AMERICA.htm?n=0*

Quetzalcoatl (m)

QuetzalcoatlQuetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity, whose name in the local Nahuatl language means ‘feathered serpent’. To the Aztecs he was a creator god and also had a parallel in Mayan culture to whom he was known as Kukulcan or Gucumatz. It is a commonly held belief among Mormons that Quetzalcoatl was Jesus Christ!

Harold T. Wilkins claimed[363.97] that Quetzalcoatl was from Atlantean Brazil.

*[Pierre Honoré claimed[0956] that these white gods had come from the region of Crete and had brought with them their script. As Linear A & B had ceased being used by 1400 BC, Honoré surmised that visits of these deities had taken place before that date.]*

Lewis Spence also claimed an Atlantis connection for Quetzalcoatl.

These ideas are just pure conjecture but are relatively tame compared with the wilder speculations of writers such as Peter Kolosimo, who claimed that the legends actually describe a race of white men who were born in spaceships and migrated to Atlantis; then, after Atlantis was destroyed, they moved to the Americas to be treated as “white gods” by the “primitive earth-dwellers.”(a)

(a) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_gods

Baraldi, Gabriele d’Annunzio

Gabriele d’Annunzio Baraldi (1938-2002) was Italian by birth but moved to Brazil’s São Paulo until his death. He did much to publicise the incredible range of artifacts left by the many ancient civilisations that existed in Brazil. Among those remains is the remarkable Ingá Stone, which is covered with petroglyphs for its entire 24 metre length. Baraldi claims that locality was a Hittite colony and that a Hittite empire had existed in Brazil(c). Huari Roman links the Ingá Stone with Atlantean refugees from sunken Atlantis in the Atlantic. He also associates Ingá with Inca![1127.222]

In 1983 Baraldi gave a newspaper interview in which he claimed that there was evidence for Atlantis to be found “Under the rocks of the National Park of Seven Cities, which is 26 miles from Piripiri Piauí” in north east Brazil(a)(b).

The Ingá Stone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*There is now a website dedicated to his work(d), as well as an e-book, in Italian, Un archeologo sulle tracce di Atlantide, which can be downloaded.(e)*

(a) http://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=en&sl=pt&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.gabrielebaraldi.arq.br%2Fentrevistas2.htm&anno=2  (Portguese)

*(b) http://www.archivioflaviobeninati.com/2013/08/gabriele-dannunzio-baraldi/ (link broken May 2018)

(c) http://brazilweirdnews.blogspot.ie/2012/09/the-miystery-of-ingas-stone.html

*(d) http://www.gabrielebaraldi.arq.br/

(e) https://www.scribd.com/document/29677685/eBook-G-D-Baraldi-Un-archeologo-sulle-tracce-di-Atlantide*

 

Huari Román, Americo

Americo Huari Román (1950 – ) is a Peruvian electrical engineer who was Americo Huariborn in the former Inca capital of Cuzco. He is the author of La Atlantida y el Imperio de los Incas (Atlantis and the Empire of the Incas)[1127]. This is a bilingual book with a somewhat flawed English translation.

He contends that originally Atlantis had been an island in the Atlantic from where their influence spread to the the cultures of Europe, Africa and South America.Huari enters the realms of speculation with the wild claim that the Atlanteans used some form of levitation using anti-gravity fields! At the same time he also claims that they did not have the wheel as they did not need it! He quotes Blavatsky and other theosophists and psychics, which is probably where he got his ideas of advanced technology in Atlantis that is comparable with our own.

Even more disappointing for me was Huari’s failure to address Plato’s account, in particular the control of the Western Mediterranean by the Atlanteans from North Africa northward as far as modern Tuscany, and does not adequately explain the war with Egypt, if, as he claims[p.211] it was already an Atlantean colony!

Before the Great Deluge, Huari claims that most of central Brazil had been a huge inland sea and that Atlanteans and  Arawaks lived around this lake and that one artifact left by them is the enormous carved Ingá Stone(c).

After the Deluge a cataclysm inundated Atlantis and Brazil rose 100 metres, which got rid of the inland sea. Some groups fled to the Andean highlands of Peru, eventually developing the Empire of Tiwanaku which later morphed into the Incan Empire.

Huari supports his views with a number of video clips (a) which unfortunately are only in Spanish. Huari published a new video(b) in July 2014.

(a) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVzhBgn_am8

(b) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXMunaa3Q0I

(c) http://www.messagetoeagle.com/unsolved-enigma-of-the-inga-stone-and-its-mysterious-ancient-undeciphered-signs/

Homet, Marcel F.

Marcel F. Homet (1897-1982) was a famous French Algerian scientist who published over twenty books Marcel_Hometon anthropology, ethnology and ancient history generally. His most famous book is Sons of the Sun[813] discusses his work in South America where he found evidence of Old World connections, in particular, on the famous Pedra Pintada (Painted Rock)(a) in Brazil, in a region which provides evidence of human activity there as early as 40,000 years ago, although, because of the acidic soil the earliest human bones are dated to 12,000 years ago(b).*Some of the Pedra Pintada images have been claimed to represent UFOs!*

The title of Homet’s book is his name for Atlanteans. Homet believed that Atlantis had been located in the Atlantic and*was part of a landbridge linking Europe and the Americas, an idea that was still popular when he was a child, but abandoned long since. Homet contended that refugees fleeing its destruction had escaped to both of those continents.*He linked “tools,inscriptions, cults and monuments in both Crete and Egypt on the one hand with the Amazon regions on the other.”

(a) http://www.yurileveratto.com/po/articolo.php?Id=166 (Offline March 2017) See Archive 2218

(b) http://www.cerchinelgrano.info/misteri_brasile_preistorico.htm

Snider-Pellegrini, Antonio

Antonio SniderPellegrini (1802-1885), was a French geographer, who, in 1858[555], offered a theory(a) that has been seen as a precursor to that of Alfred Wegner’s concept of Continental Drift, which developed into today’s widely accepted model of plate tectonics. It also appears that he thought that the Earth had been much smaller at the time of the biblical Genesis(c), anticipating the Expanding Earth Hypothesis!

He is credited with creating the first representation of the Americas joined to Europe and Africa  (see below). Snider-Pellegrini published his theories in La Création et ses mystères dévoilés[555].

However, it is claimed that as early as 1620, Francis Bacon was one of the first to note the close fit of eastern South America and the west coast of Africa. Half a century ago, this attribution was heavily criticised by G. L. Herries Davies(b), who claimed that the idea came from a ”careless reading of the text.”

Snider-Pellegrini also added the suggestion that Brazil had been the location of Atlantis.

 

Antonio_Snider-Pellegrini_Opening_of_the_Atlantic_sm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) http://www.xearththeory.com/

*(b) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238388608_Francis_Bacon_and_Continental_Drift*

(c) http://www.annalsofgeophysics.eu/index.php/annals/article/view/4622

Brazil

Brazil was arguably (re)discovered by the Pinzon brothers, before Columbus first reached the West Indies according to Steven Sora(g).

Brazil has had few serious investigators propose it as the location of Atlantis. Although, in 1947 Harold T. Wilkins claimed[0363.97] that Quetzalcoatl was from Atlantean Brazil. Earlier in the 20th century, Col. P.H. Fawcett, the famous explorer, disappeared while searching in the Brazilian rain forest for a ‘lost city’ that he called ‘Z’. A 2009 book by David Grann about Fawcett’s searches in Brazil, entitled The Lost City of Z [0772] was the basis for a film released in 2016. Sprague de Camp listed[0194.329] a George Lynch supporting a Brazilian Atlantis in 1925. In fact, Lynch was a fund-raiser for Fawcett.

However, although there is growing evidence of ancient roads, plazas and bridges in Brazil’s vast tropical forests, further data is needed before we can attempt to fit these structures into any specific culture or chronology.

An article(e) in the August 2017 of Antiquity offers evidence that humans lived in Brazil more than 20,000 years ago, which is many millennia before the Clovis people arrived in North America.

The possibility of Phoenician contact with Brazil has a number of supporters and a range of websites supports this controversial view(a). One such advocate, Ronald Barney, maintains[1185] that they concentrated their influence in the northeastern region of the country citing the work of Ludwig Schwennhagen[1550] and Apollinaire Frot(f).*There would appear to be evidence for 3rd century AD Roman contact with Brazil(h).*

fotomapaMay 2013 saw a flurry of media interest when a Japanese submersible found evidence in the form of granite suggesting of a previously unknown continental mass that sank about 900 miles off the coast of Rio de Janeiro. Members of the expedition have played down any attempt to link this discovery with Atlantis(b)(c).

This reminiscent of the reaction in 1931 when two islands were reported to have emerged from the sea off Brazil and within a short time, claims that they were a returning Atlantis were widely quoted(d).

Any suggestion that the land of Hy-Brasil in Irish mythology has any connection with Brazil or Atlantis is just wild speculation.

(a) http://phoenicia.org/brazil.html

(b) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/07/brazilian-atlantis-japanese-submersible-atlantic-ocean_n_3231437.html?utm_hp_ref=world

(c) http://www.counselheal.com/articles/5276/20130507/scientists-found-atlantis-coast-brazil.htm

(d) http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/98134066?searchTerm=Atlantis&searchLimits=

(e) https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/science-ticker/stone-age-people-brazil-20000-years-ago

(f) http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/biados/texts/brazilph.htm

(g) See: Archive 3480

*(h) https://mysteriousuniverse.org/2019/05/the-mysterious-ancient-underwater-roman-relics-of-brazil/*