An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Caribbean

Flambas, P.P.

P.P. Flambas is the author of Plato’s Caribbean Atlantis[1368]. The self-explanatory title makes Dr. Flambas’ objective clear. The book was published in Australia and is a hefty 932 pages and is also available as a Kindle ebook. The book is so enormous that a full critique would require another book.

In my opinion, the book has many flaws and is just a case of quantity masquerading as quality. One of my first gripes is that the author places Atlantis in the 10th millennium BC, a period during which there is NO archaeological evidence for any structured societies in either Egypt or Athens.

Even more ridiculous is his suggestion that the Atlantean Empire was centred in the Caribbean and included what are now the U.S. states around the Gulf of Mexico, all of MesoAmerica and all the countries along the northern coast of South America. Then realising that Plato had also described Atlantean territory that included parts of Europe and North Africa, Flambas added them as well for good measure. Flambas accepts that the Atlantean territory included parts of Europe and North Africa but that, apparently unknown to Plato, the capital of this empire was in the Caribbean! I don’t find that credible, but readers will have to decide for themselves.

Eleven millennia later Europe could not keep control of its American colonies even with improved navigation, vessels and weaponry, so how did his Caribbean Atlantis manage the control its European territory?

Furthermore, Flambas is incorrect in saying that Plato noted that part of Atlantean territory extended as far as the Tyrrhenian Sea, in fact, he said that they controlled as far as Tyrrhenia (Timaeus 25b & Critias 114c), in other words they held part of southern Italy. Even without that, if parts of the Western Mediterranean had been occupied by Atlanteans from the Caribbean, it is hard to believe that some knowledge of the existence of the Americas was not well known throughout the whole Mediterranean region, sailors not being known as the most tight-lipped people. But Flambas claims that this knowledge was not available to Europeans until Columbus, eleven thousands years.

Flambas has a large section on empires and their development through the occupation of contiguous territory, which I fully agree with, yet he proposes that these ancient Atlanteans preferred to expand across the wild Atlantic to colonise the Mediterranean rather than the easier option of pushing either north into North America or south into the equally valuable South America with shorter supply lines. Expansion across the Atlantic makes no sense.

On a more positive note, as a layman, I think that Dr. Flambas has done creditable original work with his “Hydraulic Hypothesis” which relates to a modification of our view of Plate Tectonics. The extensive geological research carried out by him is admirable, but for me, his attempt to link it with Plato’s story of Atlantis is just a speculation too far.

Finally, his book is well illustrated, but to produce a volume of this size without an index is unforgivable. I was also disappointed to find that much of Flambas’ Chronology of Atlantis Theories was copied from this site, including errors, without any attribution!

 

Landbridges

Landbridges, in the distant past are believed to have played a critical part in early human migration. Similarly, migration-routeslandbridges,both real and speculative are important components in many Atlantis theories. There is no doubt that the ending of the last Ice Age and the consequent rising sea levels led to the creation of islands where continuous land has previously existed. The separation of Ireland and Britain from each other and from mainland Europe is just one example, the latter leading to a number of writers to identify ‘Doggerland‘, which lay between Britain and Denmark as the home of Atlantis.

The two most discussed landbridges were at the Bering Strait, where it is thought that it provided the gateway for humans to enter the Americas from Asia and an Atlantic landbridge, which was very popular at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, but now completely abandoned. Although there was only one suggestion that the Bering Strait was in any way connected with Plato’s Atlantis, an Atlantic landbridge was seized upon by many leading scientists of the day as an explanation for the similarity of flora and fauna on both sides of the Atlantic, which was reinforced by the discovery of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge around the same time.

A number of landbridges have been proposed for the Mediterranean and linked to a variety of Atlantis theories, the most notable being proposed for the straits of Gibraltar, Sicily and Messina. Less popular theories have been constructed involving landbridges in locations, such as the Caribbean and Indonesia.

Yoon, Jay

Jay Yoon is the American author of the short ebook, Atlantis Shrugged [1371] , also known as Atlantis: The Underworld(b). His views on Atlantis are also available on the Internet(a) where he supports the Caribbean Basin as the location of Atlantis, which he believes was submerged around 9600 BC.

He claims that originally the Basin, although nearly 13,000 feet below sea level, was kept dry by the range of surrounding mountains which was subsequently breached by the earthquake referred to by Plato. Yoon outlines his theory in the form of a Platonic Dialogue, in which the participants are Solon, Aristotle and Critias.

For anyone interested, Yoon has supplied the following co-ordinates for his chosen location for Atlantis – 17°09’54.95″ N  65°03’32.64″ W.

In my opinion his basic idea is fanciful. Why would Yoon’s Atlanteans send an army climbing over 13,000 feet to launch an attack in the eastern Mediterranean, over 5,000 miles away, at a time when suitable ships did not exist in order to attack Athens and Egypt, which did not exist either? Would it not have made more sense to expand into North and/or South America from the Caribbean?

It is more likely that if a dry Caribbean Basin did exist in 9600 BC, it was flooded by the rising sea levels resulting from the melting icecaps.

In March & April 2016, Yoon, then Brad and later Brady Yoon, rehashed his Caribbean theory on the Ancient Origins website(e). In one(d) he discusses the Deluge and its possible connection with the demise of Atlantis. In the concluding paragraph of the other(c) he admits that “all of this speculation could be entirely baseless”, a view I enthusiastically endorse.

Nevertheless, Yoon has written an interesting article(g) on the origin of Utah’s Great Salt Lake. Originally believed to be the result of the biblical Deluge, today it is claimed that the salt came from tributary rivers which remained after the water evaporated. Yoon offers strong evidence that the salt came from seawater and by extension reinstating the Deluge theory!

Jason Colavito has published a critique of some of Yoon’s earlier posts on Ancient Origins(f).

(a) http://y2jayblog.wordpress.com/author/y2jay2013/

(b) http://www.amazon.co.uk/Atlantis-The-Underworld-ebook/dp/B00B1JJDTS

(c) http://www.ancient-origins.net/opinion-guest-authors/when-ancient-masters-ruled-earth-mysterious-depths-saint-croix-basin-005688?nopaging=1

(d) http://www.ancient-origins.net/opinion-guest-authors/what-became-atlantis-flood-heaven-005536?nopaging=1

*(e) https://www.ancient-origins.net/opinion-guest-authors/legend-atlantis-between-ancient-ruins-and-philosopher-s-tale-006319*

(f) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/rings-of-power-do-concentric-circles-prove-atlantis-real

(g) http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/great-salt-lake-enigma-science-shows-anomalies-evidence-global-flood-007082

Steiner, Sarah

Sarah Steiner was a Swiss student who had opted for the Caribbean as the most likely location for Atlantis, in a German language 2002 graduation paper(a). Her contribution is fairly standard with a brief overview of the more popular theories. She seems strongly influenced by Charles Berlitz, Klaus Aschenbrenner and Andrew Collins, concurring with the latter’s thesis. Atlantisforschung has an extensive review of her paper(b).  See Archive 5042

(a) http://mou.ksz.ch/school/maturaprojects/Sarah%20Steiner%20-%20Atlantis%20-%20Mythos%20oder%20Wirklichkeit%20-%20Eine%20physisch-geografische%20Betrachtung.pdf (link broken 15/06/14)

(b) http://atlantisforschung.de/index.php?title=Sarah_Steiner:_Matura_mit_Atlantis

Cherokee Indians (L)

The Cherokee Indians of the southwestern states of America have an oral tradition which tells of ‘star people’ coming to earth from the Pleiades and settling on five islands in the Atlantic known as Elohi Mona. Following the destruction of these islands the survivors migrated to the Americas. A Cherokee contributor to an online forum relates(a) how he always understood Elohi Mona to be a reference to Atlantis.

I occurs to me that if the survivors were migrating after a catastrophe they would in all probability head for the nearest landmass, suggesting that Elohi Mona was located in the western Atlantic and could conceivably have been the then more extensive Caribbean lands that were flooded by the rising sea levels following the end of the last Ice Age.

Charla Jean Morris, a journalist of Cherokee and Choctaw extraction has written From the First Rising Sun[970] which deals with the traditions of the Cherokee people regarding their origins. They claim to have come to mainland America from those islands in the Atlantic off the coast of South America. Morris identifies these with Atlantis. She also discusses the Cherokee Flood Myths and compares them with the Genesis accounts.

(a) http://dir.groups.yahoo.com/group/Atlantis_Mysteries/message/940 (offline 1/8/14)

Migration and Diffusion

Migration and Diffusion is the brainchild of Dr. Christine Pellech who wrote that “the basic theme of my website is cultural contacts and migration covering the time range from human origins up to the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492.” For over ten years it has been regularly publishing articles by a range of writers on subjects that frequently touch on aspects of Atlantology. While Pellech does not refer directly to Atlantis, she does claim that the Caribbean had been the centre of an extensive maritime trading culture, millennia before Columbus. I highly recommend the site(a) for anyone interested in our ancient past.

It is relevant to refer you to a paper(b) delivered to the 12th International Congress of the Geological Society of Greece in 2010 by Professor Ilias D. Mariolakos. In it he concluded that the Mycenaeans had extensive knowledge of the Atlantic and its islands as well as the Michigan copper mines which they exploited for their bronze industry. He believes that this lasted from the beginning or middle of the 3rd millennium BC until some time after the Trojan War at the end of the 2nd millennium BC. There then followed the Dark Ages which resulted in this maritime knowledge being lost and the succeeding Greek civilisation began again from scratch.

(a) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/index.php

(b) http://www.geology.upatras.gr/files/diavgeia/geology_congress/XLIII,%20Vol%201.pdf (p.92)

 

 

Fisher, Mel

Mel Fisher (1922-1998) was colourful treasure hunter who claimed that he had discovered Atlantis in the Caribbean, but never revealed its location. He ran Mel-Fishera tourist shop in Key West where also sold ancient gold coins. Unfortunately, shortly before his death, he was accused of minting some of the coins himself, which he denied. However, it adds to probability that his Atlantis story was also manufactured. Mel’s grandson, Sean, has also taken up salvaging and with regard to Atlantis is reported as saying  “It was always my grandfather’s dream to find Atlantis,” Sean Fisher says. “I’m serious. We have some idea where it is. But it’s a hard salvage operation that will cost a lot of money and resources.”

Andrew Collins has told us[0072.333] of a number of telephone conversations that he had with Fisher shortly before his death, in which he claimed to have initially discovered Atlantis using satellite imagery. He also claimed to have subsequently verified his discovery using sonar scans not far from Cuba.

Sea Level Changes

Sea Level Changes. Recent years have seen the production of ever more detailed data relating to sea level changes following the last Ice Age. In 2006 researchers discovered that the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska was created around 9000 BC, a thousand years earlier than previously thought.

Such changes could have had a direct bearing on the Atlantis mystery, particularly if Plato’s assertion that its inundation took place 9600 BC is true, as this would place the event at the end of the last Ice Age and the melting of the glaciers with the consequent raising of level of the oceans. Although we are usually given the impression that this deglaciation progressed steadily it would appear that in reality the process continued at different rates and was at times temporarily reversed.

Recent studies(f) have clearly indicated that aboriginal Australians have preserved memories of the rising sea level at the end of the last Ice Age.

A 2000 report(c) from Dr. Robert Baker and Professor Peter G.Flood from the University of New England in New South Wales, suggests that 4,000 years ago sea levels “may have been up to two metres higher than at present, and that sea levels have risen and fallen like a roller coaster over the last 6,000 years.” I would expect that sea levels two metres higher around 2000 BC would have left archaeological evidence on a global scale. Until that is forthcoming, I would treat this claim with caution.

Holocene_Sea_LevelEstimates of the total change in sea levels vary between 300 and 500 ft. The most recent studies have estimated the rate of sea level rise at an average of one metre per century punctuated by occasional increased rates of 2.5 metres per century(a). To complicate the picture further, many areas in northern latitudes that had been depressed by the weight of the enormous ice sheets of the last Ice Age, rose considerably as a result of isostatic rebound when the glaciers melted.

There is general agreement that the raising of the sea levels had dramatic consequences worldwide. Vast landmasses, such as Sundaland, the Celtic Shelf, and in the Caribbean were totally or partially submerged, leaving many of today’s islands as remnants. Communities that had flourished in these regions during the last Ice Age must have been devastated and naturally led to the generation of myths recalling their former glory. Atlantis is assumed to be one such legend with a firm basis in reality.

Other, more controversial effects have also been proposed, such as the breaching of a landbridge that had existed between Spain and North Africa at Gibraltar and/or a similar isthmus between Sicily and Tunisia. James Bramwell reports that in the 1930’s geologists spoke freely of the breaching of a Gibraltar dam around 15,000 years ago. More recently, writers such as Joseph S. Ellul, Sergio Frau and Paulino Zamarro have convincingly based their Atlantis theories on this concept. The Mediterranean sea level is discussed elsewhere.

Other writers have proposed an asteroidal or cometary impact as the cause of catastrophic flooding, but such inundations would have receded fairly rapidly. In the end we are left with the ending of the last Ice Age as the primary cause of profound changes in the topography of our planet that probably included the submergence of one civilisation that we now refer to as Atlantis.

However, Plato introduces another detail into his Atlantis narrative, namely that following the submergence of Atlantis it created a maritime hazard in the form of shoals. Plato wrote that “wherefore also the ocean at that spot has now become impassable and unsearchable, being blocked up by the shoal of mud which the island created as it settled down.” (Timaeus 25d). The implication of this is that the shoals still existed in either Solon’s or Plato’s lifetime. We must also keep in mind that the draft of ships, such as triremes, at that time was about a metre. The attached chart shows how between 5000 BC and the present, the rate of sea level has been relatively slow. Even allowing for any local seismic, tectonic or isostatic activity I would interpret the data to suggest two important facts; first, the flooding of Atlantis could not have taken place before 5000 BC and still be a hazard in the first millennium BC and secondly if it occurred after 5000 BC Atlantis must be still in shallow water.

Kurt Lambeck has demonstrated from a study of Roman fish pens that the sea level along the Italian coast, 2000 years ago, was 1.35 metres below today’s levels. His investigations also included a study of land elevations along the coast that may have been affected by seismic or tectonic processes and found that they had raised the land by 1.22 metres, indicating that global sea levels had risen by just 13cm over the past two millennia, most of which has occurred over the past century(d)! Lambeck’s conclusions have been severely criticised by Izabol Apulia(e).

Furthermore, if the destruction took place before 5000 BC then either Solon or Plato concocted the description of the shoals, which would have no purpose whatsoever!

Sea level changes in the Gulf of Mexico are discussed in an online pdf file(b). In the same region, there is now claimed to be evidence(g) confirming that sea levels were lower during the last Ice Age and that the Yucatan Peninsula was very much larger.

(a) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/12/101201120605.htm

*(b) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20120713234249/http://www.gly.fsu.edu/~donoghue/pdf/donoghue-climatic-change.pdf

(c) https://web.archive.org/web/20110912071448/http://www.abc.net.au/quantum/stories/s112352.htm*

(d) http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1192397/posts

(e) See: Archive 2566

(f) http://theconversation.com/ancient-aboriginal-stories-preserve-history-of-a-rise-in-sea-level-36010

(g) http://phys.org/news/2016-11-dino-killing-crater-clues-ice-age.html

Lohle, Georg

Georg Lohle is a German researcher, but unfortunately, he has had his book, Die Weltgeschichte – Der wahre Ursprung[446], only published in German. However, Lohle’s website(a) has a considerable amount of its content in English. There are a number of excerpts from his book, in German, that can be read online(c).

His book has chapter two focused on Atlantis, in which he relies heavily on the controversial Oera Linda Book and not surprisingly leads Lohle to believe that its location was in the middle of the North Sea.

Lohle is also a keen exponent of the ‘Expanding Earth Hypothesis’ and he has compounded his nonconformist views with his acceptance of the old theory of a ‘hollow’ Earth.

The prominent Australian geologist Dr. James Maxlow is also a supporter of the idea of an expanding Earth and estimates that it is currently doing so at a rate of 22mm per year. A more technical explanation of the theory, in English, can be found elsewhere on the Internet(b).

A report in early 2007 added a further confusing element to the subject when it was announced by Dr. Chris MacLeod, of Cardiff University, that the earth’s crust appeared to be completely missing in an area thousands of kilometres across in the Atlantic between Cape Verde Islands and the Caribbean on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

*(a) http://www.vanaheim.de (offline Dec. 2017)

See: https://web.archive.org/web/20160731211043/http://www.vanaheim.de

(b) http://www.grisda.org/origins/15053.htm (link broken Oct. 2018)

See: https://web.archive.org/web/20180307141731/http://www.grisda.org/origins/15053.htm*

(c) http://www.hohle-erde.de/?s=Georg+Lohle