Gernot Spielvogel is a German marine geologist who has studied the Atlantis question for over 15 years and has concluded that it had been located in or near the Azores. He attributes the destruction of Atlantis to an encounter with a comet which split into seven pieces, some of which landed in the Alps and Vietnam as well as the Azores region.
He claims to have fragments of the impactor as well as artefacts to support his theory on display in the Atlantis-Institut in Überlingen on Lake Constance.*Unfortunately, the Institute closed following the death of Tollmann. However, it was revived under the name of forschungszentrum-atlantida (Atlantis Research Centre)(b). Although the new entity still includes Atlantis research among its activities, it has expanded into other areas, including Climate Research, Enlightenment and Archaic Medicine among others. The latter seems to be managed by Regina Rohrmüller-Spielvogel who claims to have discovered the healing properties of precious stones and minerals. At this point I felt Atlantis slipping away!
In 2013, Gernot Spielvogel co-authored Sonnenbomben in which it is suggested that the Tunguska event was caused by a solar plasma ‘bomb’.
William Whiston (1667-1752) was an English historian and theologian. In his 1696 book, A New Theory of the Earth, he contended that an encounter with a comet, in 2346 BC, caused the biblical Deluge, which in turn led to the destruction of Atlantis (p.262, 5th edition). His book is now freely available online as a pdf file(a). Both George Dodwell and Mike Baillie have also offered evidence for a globally catastrophic event in 2345 BC.
The ancient Chinese Huai-nan-tzu, recounts a legend of ten suns appearing in the sky, an account which might be related if the suggested(b) date of 2345 BC for the event could be verified.
He had the idea that the antediluvian population had been much greater than the present continents could accommodate and he reasoned that an additional landmass was required to cater for these additional people. Whiston took Plato’s description, of the submerged Atlantis being greater than Libya (North Africa) and Asia combined, at face value and assumed that such a large piece of extra territory would have been adequate to meet the needs of his presumed additional world population.
Joseph-Jérôme Lalande (1732-1807) was a famous French astronomer. He reviewed Carli’s theory of the earth’s close encounter with a comet and concluded that if a comet had come within 3,000 miles of the earth it would have created a tidal wave 12,000 feet high covering many mountain tops as it moved around the world and inspiring the global deluge stories (and by extension the story of the flooding of Atlantis).
A lesser known fact about Lalande is that he used to eat spiders!
Karl Georg Zschaetzsch (1870- ?) was a German who, in 1920, placed Atlantis in the Atlantic and identified its people with the Aryans. He considered the Atlanteans to have had blonde hair and blue eyes, which sounds sadly familiar. His views were adopted by the Nazi Ahnenerbe. Zschaetzsch also supported the idea of a cometary impact being involved in the destruction of Atlantis.
Zschaetzsch suggested that Atlantis was situated in the Azores and published a map illustrating this.
For those who can read German and are interested in the madness of that period, Zschaetzsch’s book Atlantis – die Urheimat der Arier (Atlantis: The Original Home of the Aryans) can be downloaded from the Internet(a) for €5. As a bonus Zschaetzsch eventually reveals that he is descended from Jupiter and that his unpronounceable name is really just a corruption of Zeus!
Professor Antonino Zichichi (1929-) is an internationally renowned Italian nuclear physicist from the University of Bologna. As a rational scientist he is strongly opposed to any form of superstition, particularly astrology and numerology and is certainly not given to flights of fancy.
According to Roberto Pinotti’s list(a), Zichichi, in 1993 placed Atlantis in the Atlantic. In an interview(b) he considered the possibility that its demise could have been caused by the impact of a comet or asteroid.
(a) http://www.edicolaweb.net/am_0201s.htm (offline June 2016)
(b) http://gonagai.forumfree.it/?t=34289264&st=15 (see post for 25/11/2008)
George F. Dodwell (1879-1963) was a leading Australian astronomer, who made an extensive study of ancient gnomons and discovered that they deviated from the expected. A gnomon is the part of a sundial that casts the shadow. He concluded that there was consistent evidence that the tilt of the earth’s rotational axis was altered around 2345 BC. This view supported those that have claimed that the poles shifted within the memory of man, possibly as a result of a close encounter or impact with an extraterrestrial body such as a comet. Some have gone further and attribute the destruction of Atlantis to this clash. Dodwell’s complete work on the subject can now be read on Barry Setterfield’s website(a).
Dodwell, a devout Christian, concluded that it was this sudden shift of the earth’s axis that led to the Flood of Noah. Rene Noorbergen (1928-1995) mentions in his Secrets of the Lost Races[612.20] that Dodwell wrote to Professor Arthur J. Brandenberger of Ohio State University, outling his theory in the following manner; “I have been making during the last 26 years an extensive investigation of what we know in astronomy as the secular variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic. From a study of the available ancient observations of the position of the sun at the solstices during the last three thousand years, I find a curve which, after allowing for all known changes, shows a typical exponential curve of recovery of the Earth’s axis after a sudden change from a former nearly vertical position to an inclination of 26½ degrees, from which it was returned to an equilibrium at the present inclination of 23½ degrees during the interval of the succeeding 3,194 years to A.D. 1850. The date of the change in the Earth’s axis, 2345 B.C., is none other than that of the flood recorded in the Bible, and the resulting conclusion is that the Biblical account of the flood as a universal one, together with its story of Noah’s Ark, is historically true’.
*Dodwell was also impressed by the work of the creationist, George McCready Price (1870-1963), who had also concluded that the Earth’s axial tilt had been altered as a result of an impact with a celestial body. Price also linked the event with the biblical Deluge.*
Dodwell referred to a paper of F.S.Richards on the orientation of the Temple of Ammon at Karnak(b), which indicated an anomalous obliquity of the ecliptic of 25°9’55”. This led to considerable debate(c) regarding the age of the temple. William Fix drew attention[871.264] to the widespread reuse of very ancient sacred sites by successive cultures, which might explain the incompatibility between the apparent age of the most recent temple and the greater antiquity suggested by the obliquity of the ecliptic. Alternatively, it might also indicate an encounter with an extraterrestrial body that affected the Earth’s axis and caused widespread destruction, including, according to some theories, the destruction of Atlantis!
In the interests of balance, I must refer readers to an extensive 2013 paper(f) by a creationist, Dr. Danny Faulkner, who has cast doubts on Dodwell’s conclusions.
Another interesting comment is offered by Barry Setterfield, who wrote(a) that “ Dodwell has assumed here that the original axis tilt of the earth, before 2345 B.C., was nearly upright. For that reason, he supposed a very strong impact was necessary to jolt the earth from that position to its current 23.5 degree tilt. This is why a number of astronomers have rejected Dodwell’s work in this area. However, if the axis tilt was greater than its current axis tilt before 2345 B.C., then an impact of much less force would have been required to restore the earth to a slightly more upright position. The evidence for this greater axis tilt may be seen in the evidence of the ice age which covered most of Europe prior to 2345 B.C.”
Malcolm Bowden, author of True Science Agrees with the Bible, also wrote a pamphlet supporting Dodwell’s findings and later produced an YouTube video explaining in detail Dodwell’s axial tilt theory(g).
In 2011, Mike Baillie, the renowned dendrochronologist, gave a PowerPoint presentation(d) at the Quantavolution Conference in Athens, which offered tree-ring evidence that clearly demonstrated an ‘event’ in 2345BC, which has counterparts in early Chinese and Middle East records suggesting a cometary encounter/impact! Baillie also notes that Isaac Newton and Edmund Halley both thought that Archbishop Ussher’s Flood of 2349 BC was due to a comet.
More recently, Andrew Bourmistroff, a Russian researcher, has determined that the orientation of the Great Pyramid at Giza is off by 9.85 degrees west of true north(e). The significance, if any, of all these details has yet to be fully determined.
(c) http://infinitybiblecode.zoomshare.com/files/2345bc_Dodwells_Graph_Showing_Earth_Tilt.html (offline July 2015)
In a book concerning the history of the Peruvians he expressed his belief that a close encounter with a comet altered the orbit of the earth, lengthened the year and was responsible for the Deluge. A consequence of this catastrophic fly-by was also the destruction of Atlantis, which he located in the Atlantic, leaving the Azores and Canaries as its remnants today.
His idea of a cometary interference with the earth is an extension of the theories of William Whiston (1667-1752), the Anglican priest who sought to reconcile science and religion. The French astronomer, Jérôme Lalande, developed Carli’s cometary ideas further.
Flavio Barbiero was born in 1942 in Pula, Croatia. He entered the Naval Academy at Livorno in 1961. He pursued his scientific studies at Pisa’s University from where he graduated as an engineer in 1967. He has spent most of his professional life in the Research Centre of the Italian Navy, working on interdisciplinary projects, where he became a specialist in gyroscopic phenomena. He retired in 1998 with the rank of Admiral.
Barbiero is quite clearly a cultured man with a wide range of interests and has been fortunate in being able to combine his naval career with his other activities as a researcher, writer, and lecturer. He has organized and led two scientific expeditions to the Antarctic (in 1976 and 1978). As a member of the Italian Scientific Institution – Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici, he participated in archaeological researches in Israel. Barbiero is the author of many articles and books on a variety of subjects, ranging from geology to the Bible. His most recent book, La Bibbia Senza Segreti, is still to be released in an English translation under the title The Book of the Law.
*He has also written a paper(f) on the location of Mt. Sinai, which he places in the Negev Desert at Har Karkom, following the work of Prof. Emmanuel Anati*
Since 1974, Barbiero has, been an ardent promoter of the controversial idea of Atlantis being located in Antarctica. This belief is the result of his studies into the possibility of a rapid pole shift. He submitted a paper on the subject to the 2008 Atlantis Conference in Athens. Some excerpts are available online(b) with an English translation provided. A more extensive paper in support of his views was published on Graham Hancock’s website in 2006(a).
It is worth noting that although his book predates the more widely publicised work of the Flem-Aths, it was published in Italian and was probably unknown to them when they published their own book and as far as I can determine, Barbiero’s original work, Una civiltà sotto ghiaccio, (One Civilisation Under the Ice), is still only available in Italian. Like the Flem-Aths, Barbiero has also proposed a Pole Shift that was caused by an impact with an asteroid or comet(d).
*In 2007, Barbiero delivered a paper(e) to the 2007 Conference on Quantavolution in the Swiss town of Kandersteg. The theme of his address concerned the possible effects of an asteroidal or cometary impact with the Earth with particular reference to pole shifts. He has some interesting comments, but for many, such as myself, the section with the mathematical formulae is rather daunting.*
However, in 2010 he published, in English, The Secret Society of Moses , in which he investigates the disappearance of Moses’ descendants from the historical record.
Barbiero has also written an extensive paper(c) in which he precisely dates the biblical Exodus to the night of the 14th and 15th of July of 1208 B.C.
Stonehenge is part of what is now arguably the most extensive and complex megalithic site in Europe. It was actually purchased in 1915 for a sum equivalent today to £680,000 by Cecil Chubb, who later gave it to the nation(aa).
Two depictions of Stonehenge exist which go back as far as medieval times, with a third recently added by Professor Christian Heck(ai). Little serious study of the monument was undertaken until the 17th century antiquarians, predecessors of the archaeologists, took an interest.
What is not generally known is that the monument has been subjected to numerous ‘restorations’ over the past hundred years and what we see today is actually a 20th century vision of the original site. One website(au) shows a large series of images recording some of these renovations. There is evidence that at least one stone was re-erected a metre and a half from its original position.
Photos from 1867 show parts of Stonehenge, before later ‘restorations’ altered their earlier positions(ax), originally released by the UK’s Ordnance Survey(ay).
New technology has now revealed the existence of another henge less than a kilometre from Stonehenge (BBC Focus October 2010). We were next presented with evidence that an early form of ball bearings may have been used to move the large stones of which the monument was constructed(d). Other recent discoveries in the vicinity include the 3,550-year-old skeleton of a teenage boy buried with a rare amber necklace – a clear indication of status. Furthermore, dental analysis revealed that he had come from the Mediterranean region.
Stonehenge is not the only site to have its area of interest expanded in recent years. The 2018 drought in Ireland and the UK had produced evidence of a previously unknown henge situated not too far from Newgrange, our best-known megalithic site(az).*This new location has been dubbed ‘dronehenge’.*
Similar sites have been revealed throughout these islands as a result of the current (July 2018) dry period.
October 2015 gave us a report(ad) that a semi-permanent structure was discovered about a mile east of Stonehenge and dated to be 1,300 years earlier than megalithic edifice.
The two big questions relating to Stonehege are its exact purpose and the method of construction.
Allied to that is the question of how the ‘bluestones’ were transported from Wales. Was it by humans or glaciers(aj). However, an early theory proposed that the ‘bluestones’ were deposited by glaciers much closer to the Stonehenge site. This idea was quickly debunked, but has once again surfaced in a new book by Brian John.
What may have been a much earlier precursor to Stonehenge’s calendrical features, tentatively dated as 10,000 old, has been identified in Scotland’s Aberdeenshire(f). This is now arguably the world’s oldest lunar calendar.
We were next presented with evidence that an early form of ball-bearing may have been used to move the large stones of which the monument was constructed(d). Stone balls were also discovered near a megalithic monument in Scotland and in Malta, stone balls have been found in the vicinity of the ancient temples there – some still in situ under the stones. In 2004, Gordon Pipes put forward a radical new method of construction(ac), which requires minimal manpower and equipment. In 2009, Pipes expanded on his ‘stone-rowing’ idea in book form.
The Ancient-Wisdom.com website has an interesting item regarding the use of balls and tracks in 1770 to shift very heavy weights, noting that “The largest stone ever (recently) recorded to have been moved purely by human power alone is the famous ‘Thunder Stone’ from Russia, which was moved to St. Petersburg from the gulf of Finland. It was rolled along on small balls placed on a track (Only 100m in length) at a rate of 150m per day.”(ba)(bb).
More discoveries are expected as investigations continue. In 2014 it was announced that although most attention is focused on the rising sun at the summer solstice, it is now thought that Stonehenge was more likely to have been concerned with the midwinter setting sun(m).
In the 1960’s it was Gerald Hawkins who set a cat among the pigeons with the publication of his Stonehenge Decoded. in which he proposed that the monument was in fact used as an astronomical computer. Many of the leading astronomers and archaeologists of the day offered apoplectic responses. Hawkins went as far to suggest that the 56 Aubrey Holes at Stonehenge were also eclipse predictors, an idea endorsed by Fred Hoyle.
Another theory has recently been advanced by Thomas O. Mills which suggests that Stonehenge was aligned with the position of the North Pole as it was situated around 10,000 BC as proposed by Charles Hapgood.(u)
Paul D. Burley has published a two-part paper(q)(r) on Stonehenge, which draws attention to the fact that most commentators have focused on the solar or lunar significance of the site’s alignments that that he feels is in stark contrast to other European megalithic monuments that would appear to have been designed with stellar alignments in mind. Burley is the author of Stonehenge: As Above, So Below.
In 1995 Duncan Steel suggested in his book, Rogue Asteroids and Doomsday Comets, that Stonehenge I had been constructed as a predictor of the Earth’s intersection with the path of a comet and its attendant debris, which had a 19-year periodicity(x).
Stonehenge, among other megalithic structures, has been linked by various writers with Plato’s Atlantis. One extreme example of this is the suggestion that if the number of Aubrey Holes, 56, is multiplied by the diameter of the Aubrey Circle we get 16,200 feet which is “the exact diameter of Plato’s Atlantis”. Now a ten-minute search on the Internet reveals FIVE different figures for the diameter of the Circle, ranging from 271.6’ to 288’. Combine that with the uncertainty attached to the value of the unit of measurement employed by Plato, it is clear that any claim of a connection between the Aubrey Holes and Atlantis is at best tenuous and at worst foolish.
Jürgen Spanuth suggested that the five trilithons “most probably represented five sets of twins.” [0015.85], an idea echoed later by Dieter Braasch(as). Spanuth was adamant that a commonly held view linking Stonehenge with Hyperborea was incorrect as Hyperboreans had come from Jutland.
The late Philip Coppens echoed(b) the views of a fellow Belgian, Marcel Mestdagh, that there might be a connection between monuments within the Stonehenge Heritage Site and Atlantis, namely Woodhenge, which comprised of posts arranged in six concentric circles. The suggestion being that this arrangement is in some manner a reflection of the concentric features in Atlantis described by Plato. I can only consider this to be highly speculative, somewhat akin to the suggestion(c) that Stonehenge I was an earthquake predictor.
For those interested, a recently reconstructed German counterpart of Woodhenge has had the original dated to 2300 BC(aq).
However, in the meanwhile we will have to be content with a recent book by Professor Mike Parker-Pearson, Stonehenge: Exploring the Greatest Stone Age Mystery , which includes all the discoveries revealed by the recent ten years of investigation.
A 2014 offering from Professor David P.Gregg, The Stonehenge Codes, throws further light on the mathematics used for the building and development of Stonehenge over a 1500 year period was consistently the same polygon geometry. Gregg has also identified an earlier Babylonian influence. His book has a considerable numerical content that many will find heavy going. The text of the book is available online(j). The July 2014 edition of the BBC Focus magazine offers evidence that the history of the Stonehenge location can be traced to nearer the end of the Ice Age.
It has been generally accepted for many years that the bluestones (spotted dolerites) at Stonehenge had been brought from the Preseli Mountains of Wales. Now (Nov.2013) evidence has been presented that identifies the precise outcrop, Carn Goedog, as their source(h). Further investigation has produced the claim by Paul Devereux that the rock there was chosen because of its acoustic qualities(I), raising the possibility that Stonehenge was the site of the first ‘rock’ concert. A more wide-ranging essay on the subject of archaeoacoustics is available online(ak).
However, in November 2015, a report threw doubt on the existence of a Neolithic quarry in the Preseli Hills(ag). Confusingly, the following month it was reported(ah) that studies carried in Wales suggested that the stones had been erected there first before their transportation to Wiltshire.In May 2016 the controversial matter of the method of transportation from Wales was claimed to have been resolved when it was demonstrated by students from University College London, supervised by Parker-Pearson that the bluestones could have been mounted on a sycamore sleigh and dragged along timbers requiring far less effort than was previously expected.(ao) Parker-Pearson believes that originally the stones had been part of a Welsh tomb which was dismantled and brought to Wiltshire as the successors migrated westward(ap). There is now a search underway tp locate the site of the original monument in Wales.
Parker-Pearson published a paper in the February 2019 edition of Antiquity in which he reports on his research at the Welsh site, where he found some of the tools used to extract the pillars and determined the method of transportation(bc).
*The transportation question received new attention with a study which suggested that “to move these stones such long distances, the builders likely maneuvered them onto timber sledges and rolled these over logs,” using pig fat as a lubricant to minimise the friction between the sled and the logs. It is suggested that ceramic vessels, with high concentrations of pig fat, found on site at Durrington Walls, may have been used to collect fat from the carcasses as they were roasted on a spit, which was then stored as lard or tallow! (bf) My question is, ho many pigs are needed to drag a stone from Wales to Stonehenge?*
After centuries of being described as one of the wonders of the megalithic world, the construction skills of Stonehenge’s builders have been harshly criticised by Professor Ronald Hutton of Bristol University, who went as far as to describe them as ‘cowboy builders’(n).
In 2012, Gordon Freeman, a Canadian scientist, published Hidden Stonehenge in which he offers an extensive study of a native American “medicine wheel” in Alberta and compares its astronomical alignments with that of Stonehenge, revealing ‘incredible’ similarities. His book highlights the use of sophisticated astronomical knowledge at both locations, in the very distant past suggesting cultural links millennia before Columbus!
A somewhat cruder but equally effective winter solstice alignment was recently identified in the Chilean Andes(aw).
A site in Australia discovered in the first half of the last century by Frederic Slater (President of the Australian Archaeological Society) and dubbed as ‘Australia’s Stonehenge’ was bulldozed in 1940 on the orders of the Australian Government! The location, obviously, never as impressive as its namesake on Salisbury Plain, has been again identified and with drawings made over seventy years ago has enabled a computer generated image of the site to be made(t). A father and son team, Steven & Evan Strong have recently relocated the damaged site(af).
In May 2013, Melville Nicholls published a Kindle ebook, Children of the Sea God, in which he argues strongly for a Stonehenge built by Atlanteans, better known as the Bell Beaker People!
Robert John Langdon has now proposed(g) that Stonehenge was constructed by megalith builders, around 8500 BC, who had migrated from Doggerland/Atlantis as it became submerged and that the Altar Stone at Stonehenge points to Doggerland!
Shoji Yoshinori has suggested that Stonehenge was intended as a model of Atlantis(k). as had also the late Philip Coppens(b).
It is quite obvious that more convincing evidence is required if any claim of a Stonehenge/Atlantis connection is to gain greater traction. In 2018, David L. Hildebrandt published Atlantis – The Awakening , in which he has endeavoured to do just that with a mass of material that he claims supports the idea of Atlantis in Britain and Stonehenge as the remnants of the Temple of Poseidon. He suggests that the five trilithons represent the five sets of male twins, an idea voiced by Jürgen Spanuth and more recently by Dieter Braasch. Even earlier George H. Cooper proposed Stonehenge as the Pillars of Herakles. I am not convinced by the spirited defence of his hypothesis, as I consider his date too early and the location too far from Athens or Egypt to consider them to be within ‘easy striking distance’ for the purpose of invasion.
As recent as the summer of 2014 evidence was accidentally discovered(o) that suggested that the Stonehenge megalithic stones form a complete circle. Commenting on the discovery Susan Greaney from English Heritage said “A lot of people assume we’ve excavated the entire site and everything we’re ever going to know about the monument is known, but actually there’s quite a lot we still don’t know and there’s quite a lot that can be discovered just through non-excavation methods.” An extensive digital mapping project carried out at Stonehenge by researchers from the University of Birmingham and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Vienna has revealed “that the area around Stonehenge is teeming with previously unseen archaeology and that the application of new technology can transform how archaeologists and the wider public understand one of the best-studied landscapes on Earth.”(p)
December 2014 saw an encampment site just 1.5 miles from Stonehenge have its date confirmed at around 4000 BC(s).
Marden Henge, situated between Stonehenge and Avebury is reckoned to be ten time bigger than Stonehenge and has now (2015) seen the start of a three-year, £1,00,000, dig by 80 archaeologists hoping to unlock its secrets(a). Dr. Jim Leary, a leading archaeologist working at the site is convinced that Marden may turn out to be more significant than Stonehenge(w).
Earlier in 2015 Tim Daw, a steward at the Stonehenge site, has claimed that he had discovered a previously unknown alignment, involving a line of stones at 80 degrees to the axis of the monument. His theory is that the tallest stone at Stonehenge points towards the midsummer sunset and has been observed to be correct(v).
The archaeological importance of Stonehenge was boosted further in September 2015 with the announcement that a line of nearly 100 buried stones had been discovered just a mile away, beside the Durrington Walls ‘superhenge’(y). There are images available, including a short video clip relating to this new discovery(z).
In November 2015 the New York Times published an updated overview(ae) of the various excavations that have taken place in the vicinity of Stonehenge.
Sarah Ewbank has now offered us a fascinating new theory regarding the original purpose and plan of Stonehenge. In a fully illustrated website(al) she reveals that the structure was conceived as “a ‘Cathedral-like’ building with a massive oak-framed roof, and a huge hall at it’s centre.”
Further discoveries are listed on the Heritage England website(ab). What is not listed there is the information that Stonehenge was constructed by giants on the instruction of the Devil! This b.s tidbit was imparted to us in April 2016 by Dr. Dennis Lindsay on the TV show of disgraced US evangelist Jim Bakker(am). Another blog from Jason Colavito exposed further Stonehenge nonsense, this time from New Zealander, Ted Harper, who has recently claimed that the Wiltshire monument together with the Great Pyramid, both warn of a meteor strike in 2020.
Theories relating to Stonehenge and Atlantis seem to proliferate at comparable rates. In a new book, The Memory Code, by Lynne Kelly, she proposes that the Wiltshire monument is a giant mnemonic(ar) and that other megalithic sites also were.
July 2017, saw a BBC review of the recent acceptance of Stonehenge as just a part of a huge complex of monuments, with a hint of more to come(at).
*In June 2019, Dr. Christophe Snoeck, a Belgian archaeological scientist offered evidence for the origins of some of the cremated human remains discovered at Stonehenge. “During his doctoral research he developed a method to extract information about the geographical origin of cremated individuals.“ This method, he says, “was applied to 25 cremated individuals from Stonehenge and our results show that 40% (10 out of 25 analysed individuals) did not live near Stonehenge in the last decade or so prior to their deaths but came from further away. Some might actually have originated from west Wales where the bluestones came from, some 250 km away,” he adds. “This shows the importance of the site in the British landscape during the Neolithic period.” (bd) Italian scientists have also been working on new ways of gleaning information from cremated remains(be).*
(b) http://www.philipcoppens.com/stone_ave.html (offline Dec. 2017) (See Archive 2140)
(m)BBC Focus Magazine, July 2014, p.51
(x) http://www.archaeologyuk.org/ba/ba45/ba45feat.html (offline Mar. 2016) see Archive 2657
(ai) http://www.archaeologyuk.org/ba/ba92/feat1.shtml (offline Mar. 2016) see Archive 2832