An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Cuzco

Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu is generally accepted to have been an Incan retreat, built in the middle of the 15th century on a barely accessible mountaintop of Peru about fifty miles northwest of Cuzco. It was apparently abandoned a century later and only brought to the attention of the outside world in 1911, when it was rediscovered by Hiram Bingham.

machu picchu

Mark Adams, the American writer, wrote an account of his retracing of Bingham’s journey to Machu Picchu[976]. Along with the narrative of his pilgrimage, Adams has also interwoven a valuable history of the region.

In 2013, a Polish-Peruvian team, while exploring a previously unexcavated building on the site, claimed to have discovered that the structure was astronomically aligned(a).  The following year saw a newly discovered section of the Inca Road, which leads to Machu Picchu, announced by the Andina News Agency(c).

In July 2016, it was reported that what are considered pre-Inca petroglyphs were discovered in the Machu Picchu region(d)(e). Research is proceeding.

*It was revealed in 2019 that work had commenced on the building of a new interational airport to service Machu Picchu, a development has been vigorously opposed as a threat to the already fragile site. It is worth noting that in 2017, 1.5 million visitors, nearly twice the limit recommended by UNESCO, came to Machu Picchu(g).*

Some pathetic attempts have been made to link Machu Picchu with Atlantis. One of them claims that “This was the (summer?) residence of the continental governor, who at the time of the destruction of Atlantis was a woman.”(b) Others, such as Rand Flem-Ath along with the late Colin Wilson[063], as well as Jim Alison, have included the Andean site in proposed global grids linking prehistoric sites.

A less-known Inca site is that of Choquequirao(f), sometimes referred to as the ‘sister’ of Machu Picchu. Only a third of the site has been excavated so far.

(a) http://www.ancienthistoricalresearchfoundation.com/index.php/news/item/66-new-archaeoastronomical-alignments-found-at-machu-picchu

(b) http://www.thelighthouseonline.com/articles/atlantis3.html

*(c) https://web.archive.org/web/20190105000701/https://www.livinginperu.com/news-new-inca-road-to-machu-picchu-discovered-103165/*

(d) http://www.ancient-code.com/researchers-find-pre-inca-petroglyphs-at-machu-picchu-that-could-rewrite-andean-history/

(e) http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/new-rock-paintings-discovered-machu-picchu-006393?nopaging=1

(f) http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/choquequirao-sister-site-machu-picchu-still-holds-hidden-secrets-003025?nopaging=1

*(g) https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2019/may/15/archaeologists-outraged-over-plans-for-machu-picchu-airport-chinchero*

 

 

Foerster, Brien

Brien Foerster is an American writer who now lives in Cuzco, the former Inca capital in Peru. He has studied the ancient cultures of the Andes and believes that many predated the Incas and had advanced technologies that  permitted the precise drilling of stone(a). His fully illustrated Kindle book, Lost Ancient Technology of Peru and Bolivia[0923]provides many examples. The book is worth purchasing for the images alone. There is now a video(d) that complements Foerster’s book.

Foerster has now studied the stonework of the ancient Egyptians and like Chris Dunn concluded that their level of accuracy could not have been achieved without possession of a high technology, now lost(i). He has expanded on this in his 2014 book, Lost Ancient Technology of Egypt[1487].

However, Foerester has recently stepped out of line when he apparently chipped fragments from stones at the Bolivian Puma Punku site with a view to having them tested for age. The laboratory refused to test the fragments as Foerester did not have the appropriate export document from Bolivia(e). It would appear that Foerster is either stupid or criminally irresponsible or both. This episode is reminiscent of the two German idiots who recently removed part of the ‘Vyse cartouche’ in the Great Pyramid and illegally smuggled it out of Egypt. Apparently, Foerester now claims that details of this report are inaccurate and may be libellous(f).

Elsewhere with regard to Atlantis he claims “the most plausible idea is that Atlantis was not a single land mass that sank, but was a series of smaller states in the Atlantic area 12,000 years ago.”

In recent interviews Foerster has proposed that the story of Atlantis is based on an Ice Age civilisation(g). His latest attention-seeking claim is that the Maya visited ancient Egypt, a trip that had some form of Atlantis connection(h).

He has also co-authored with David Hatcher Childress a book on South American cranial deformation and elongated skulls. These are reminiscent of similar skulls found in Malta(c) and Egypt as well as elsewhere around the world and dating back many thousands of years(b).

Carl Feagans’ website(j) has a number of articles that are highly critical of Foerster’s methods and motivation.

(a) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR7of1Lkef0

(b) http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/head-space-artificial-cranial-deformation

(c)  http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.ie/2013/03/ancient-elongated-skulls-and-cranial.html

*(d) http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.ie/2013/12/puma-punku-ancient-alien-technology.html (link broken Sept. 2018)*

(e) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2014/04/purdue-refuses-to-test-stone-pieces-brian-foerster-claimed-to-have-chipped-from-puma-punku.html

(f) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2014/04/brien-foerster-accuses-me-of-libel-says-puma-punku-stones-came-from-outside-fenced-area-at-site.html

(g) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/l-a-marzulli-and-brien-foerster-discuss-megalithic-ruins-decide-native-people-couldnt-have-built-any-of-them

(h) https://verumetinventa.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/brien-foerster-good-evidence-of-maya-culture-in-egyptian-pyramids/(offline October 2017)

(i) http://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-ancient-technology/evidence-cut-stone-compelling-argument-lost-high-technology-ancient-021545

(j) http://ahotcupofjoe.net/

 

Cunningham, Derek

Derek Cunningham is the author of a website(a) with an extensive amount of material devoted to archaeoastronomy. His core idea is that there existed in ancient times a World Map based on the the Cygnus constellation, echoing some of  Andrew Collins’ work[075].

Included on his site is an article that somehow links a painting, allegedly a map, in the Lascaux Cave with a location in Viet Nam’s Gulf of Tonkin, which Cunningham describes as having  “dimensions and geographical features similar to Plato’s description of Atlantis.” He later adds that “of all the various locations proposed, this is the only site that appears consistent with Plato’s description.” As a layman I found the article and the site in general, totally confusing, forcing me to lie down in a darkened room.

Gulf-of-Tonkin1

However, I cannot deny that Cunningham has put a lot of work into his site and he does have fans(b), but his ideas are too ‘way out’ for me.

His most recent ‘discoveries’(c) include an association of the layout of the Stonehenge complex with the Milky Way!

Cunningham has published his theories in two books, Khyung The Stone Age Astronaut[954] and 400,000 Years of Stone Age Science[955].

He has now extended his studies to the remarkable terraced walls of  Sacsayhuamán near Cuzco in Peru. In a 2014 illustrated article in Popular Archaeology online magazine, he claimed that the angles of the adjoining ends or sides of the  irregular yet tightly fitting stones have astronomical significance!

Cunningham, has now turned his attention to angles inscribed at ancient sites, which he now claims can be associated with astronomical features and events. His extensive article(e) on the Migration and Diffusion website deals with a great many numbers that I shall leave others to evaluate.

sacsay021

Sacsayhuamán

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) http://www.midnightsciencejournal.com/?s=derek+Cunningham (offline Nov. 2017)

(b) http://thothistheibis.wordpress.com/tag/brodgar-complex/

(c) http://www.midnightsciencejournal.com/2013/10/24/the-ancient-world-map-of-the-paleolithic-stonehenge-avenue-map/  (offline Nov. 2017)

(d) http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/03012014/article/researcher-suggests-famous-ancient-inca-monumental-complex-exhibits-astronomical-values

(e) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?year=2016&id=486

 

Peru

 

Peru has recently been shown to have been home to one of the oldest monument building cultures in South America. The valleys of the Norte Chico region have revealed cities with pyramids and other large ceremonial structures that have now pushed the date of the earliest buildings to the end of the 4th millennium BC. Dr. Jose Oliver, who lectures in Latin American archaeology at University College London, has stated “that by 3100 BC monumental buildings were already under way, not just at an isolated site but also across a whole region”. Such structures were being erected 400 years before the earliest Egyptian pyramids! The Sechin Bajo site is now (2017) being claimed(r)  as having the oldest manmade structures in the Americas and having been dated to 3500 BC.

The prehistoric coastal city of Caral (3400 BC) has also revealed that quipus, the ancient South American ‘writing’ system, was in use there as early as 3000 BC. A cache of 25 well-preserved quipus were discovered in an ancient warehouse in Peru in June 2014(d). It may be worth noting that systems similar to the quipus have been indentified on Hawaii and ancient China(q).

Philip Coppens gave an interesting overview of the Caral site(a). A 2016 report(j)(k) reveals further details of the level of technology achieved at Caral(o). Also near Caral is Aspero (3700-2500 BC), another large pre-ceramic site(p).

As early as the 16th century Agustín de Zárate identified Peruvian natives as originally having migrated from Atlantis. Ignatius Donnelly made a similar suggestion in a chapter of his book that he devoted to a description of Peru as an Atlantean colony (Pt.5 Chap.5).

In the 1960’s Mrs. Karola Siebert of Lima attempted to link her own finds and other discoveries of structures and inscriptions in Peru with Atlantis. The rather tenuous links suggested were compounded with a high degree of supposition. A few years later James Bailey also opted for Peru as the site of Atlantis.

In 2004, Professor Robert Benfer unearthed a structure at the Buena Vista site in Peru that was named the ‘Temple of the Fox’. This 33-foot high Andean temple revealed the earliest known astronomical alignment and sculptures in the Americas(e).

Peru also offers another rarely discussed mystery, namely, a long band of holes, numbering thousands, in the Pisco Valley, which has lead to much head-scratching among archaeologists(l).

Band of Holes

Band of Holes

Petroglyphs dated as between 3,500 and 4,000 years old and described as an ‘astronomical laboratory’ has been discovered in northern Peru and disclosed in July 2014 in Archaeology magazine(c).

The Peruvian Times have an extensive ongoing (2011) series(b) on the history and culture of Peru which is well worth a look.

The Smithsonian Magazine claims that Peru was home to the oldest calendar in the New World(g), as well as the oldest solar observatory in the Americas(f), which is credited to the 4th century BC, thirteen towers of Chankillo(h)(i).

It was announced in August 2016 that an intensive search from space of undiscovered archaeological sites, would begin with Peru(m)(n). 

Chantillo 2

Chankillo Towers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In June 2018, a report(s) from Miami University chronicles the remarkable skill of ancient Peru’s cranial surgeons” and reveals that with over 800 ancient trepanned skulls, Peru has “more than the combined total number of prehistoric trepanned skulls found in the rest of the world.”

Also See: Cuzco

(a) http://www.philipcoppens.com/caral.html (offline Dec. 2017) (See Archive 2138)

(b) http://www.peruviantimes.com/23/history-of-peru-series-part-1-the-dawn-of-urbanization/6447/ Subsequent parts of this series are to be found in the History section of the Peruvian Times.

*(c) https://web.archive.org/web/20171113082455/http://www.livinginperu.com/news-archaeologists-discover-ancient-astronomy-lab-in-northern-peru-103539/*

(d) https://www.seeker.com/rare-incan-calculators-found-in-peru-1768752683.html

(e) http://articles.latimes.com/2006/may/14/science/sci-observatory14  (in 2 parts)

(f) http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/return-of-the-sun-cult-152321532/?no-ist

(g) http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-new-worlds-oldest-calendar-152115988/

(h) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6408231.stm

(i) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12619455

*(j) https://web.archive.org/web/20190409071414/https://andina.pe/ingles/noticia-caral-surprises-the-world-for-advanced-knowledge-and-technology-593667.aspx

(k) https://web.archive.org/web/20170703103854/http://lost-origins.com/the-advanced-technology-of-ancient-caral/

(l) See Archive 3009*

(m) http://www.bizjournals.com/birmingham/news/2016/08/23/uab-archaeologist-to-use-1-million-ted-prize-in.html

(n) http://www.dailygrail.com/Hidden-History/2016/8/Million-Dollar-Prize-Will-Be-Used-Search-Lost-Ancient-Sites-Using-Satellite

(o) http://www.andina.com.pe/ingles/noticia-twodecade-research-reveals-new-information-about-caral-civilization-604481.aspx

(p) https://web.archive.org/web/20190108223937/http://www.arqueologiadelperu.com.ar/aspero.htm

(q) http://www.accountingin.com/accounting-historians-journal/volume-10-number-2/use-of-knotted-string-accounting-records-in-old-hawaii-and-ancient-china/

(r) http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/sechin-bajo-peru-location-oldest-man-made-structure-new-world-005845?utm_source=sendy&utm_medium=email&utm_content=top5_lastyear&utm_campaign=email_regular

(s) https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/06/180608200055.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ffossils_ruins%2Fancient_civilizations+%28Ancient+Civilizations+News+–+ScienceDaily%29

 

Cuzco

 

Cuzco is a provincial capital of modern Peru, which in the 11th century was the capital of the Inca Empire. One remarkable sight in the city is the 12-angle stone in the wall on Hatun Rumiyoc Street, which has now been outdone by a 13-angle stone recently identified built into an irrigation system at the Inkawasi archaeological site, located in Huancavelica region’s Huaytará district(c). A few years ago Davide Andrea published his theory on how the Incas fitted those multi-angled stones(d).

The city of Cuzco contained The Corichancha, (Place of Gold), which the Incas dedicated to Viracocha and which astounded the Conquistadors in the 1530’s when confronted with its opulence(b). It was Cusco-Inca-Wallcovered inside and out with over 700 sheets of gold and silver. The nearby Garden of the Sun contained golden animals, birds and plants. Pipes, aqueducts and basins were also made of gold. The complex was fed by natural hot and cold springs. Apart from all this ostentatious wealth, some writers have drawn further parallels between Plato’s Atlantis, Homer’s Phaeacia and the Cuzco of the Incas. Although nobody, so far,  has suggested that Cuzco had been the location of Atlantis it has been mooted that it may have been constructed as a reminder of the glory of a previous homeland. Donnelly considered Peru to be an Atlantean colony. Local people are clearly not unaware of the suggestion that Cuzco has been associated with Plato’s lost city and so you will find the Atlantis Hotel within a few blocks of the main square.

The astonishing mortarless Inca masonry in the town has to be seen to be believed.

Frank Joseph states[102] that north-west of Cuzco there is a sacred mountain whose summit and a village on its southern slope are known as Atalaia. Pre-Inca remains are also to be found in the vicinity of Cuzco, an ancient sun-worshipping city, which was recently discovered to have the highest ultra-violet levels on our planet. For centuries rumours have persisted(a) that a series of tunnels existed under Cuzco. In 2000, a 2km tunnel was discovered under the city by the Spanish archaeologist, Anselm Pi Rambla.

Yale University in the United States, and the Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cuzco (UNSAAC) in Peru, announced the establishment of a International Center for the Study of Machu Picchu and Inca Culture, in Cuzco. The Centre opened in 2011(a) following the return of hundreds of items looted by Hiram Bingham.

Brian Foerster is convinced that pre-Incan advanced technology was used in the earliest construction of Cusco, an idea that he expands on in a short YouTube video(e).

(a) http://news.yale.edu/2011/10/06/peru-yale-center-study-machu-picchu-and-inca-culture-opens

(b) http://www.world-mysteries.com/mpl_9.htm (offline Feb. 2016) see Archive 2921

(c) http://www.peruviantimes.com/24/thirteen-angled-stone-found-at-inca-site-of-inkawasi/23139/

(d) http://www.davideandrea.com/personal/ideas/inca_stones/index.html

*(e) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XwDRZ-u8E2Q*