An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Ethiopia

Enoch

Enoch was the seventh patriarch in the book of Genesis. However there appears to be two Enochs in the Bible(d), one fathered by Cain, the other by Jared! He is also regarded as the inventor of astrology, while Eusebius Enochconsidered Atlas its originator, suggesting that the two were the same person.  Lewis Spence in The Occult Sciences in Atlantis[260] frequently touched on the subject of Enoch, equating him with Atlas and telling us that in Arabic and Welsh, Enoch is known as Edris.

One of the many odd details regarding Enoch is that while the patriarchs that preceded and succeeded him are recorded as having lived eight and nine hundred years, he was only given 365 years before being ‘taken by god’ without dying. He has been cited by many as the inventor of alchemy. Enoch is also identified with Atlas by Pseudo-Eupolemus, attributed to a Samaritan source around 300 BC. This suggestion is comparable with the idea of equating the Egyptian god Shu with Atlas.

In Genesis 4:16-17 it is recorded that Cain was building a city and that he named it after his son Enoch. One commentator suggested that Enoch, the city, was the archetype for Atlantis the city(e).

Rather oddly, Philip Ochieng, an African writer, contends that Cain was in fact Enoch(a).  Equally bizarre is the claim by Zia Abbas in Chapter 8 of his magnum opus[0001]   that Enoch established Atlantis! Of course, he offers no evidence to support this notion.

It is quite clear that the interesting but mysterious Enoch has done little but generate wide-ranging speculation including a completely unsubstantiated link with Plato’s Atlantis(b). Eusebius the 4th century bishop of Caesarea wrote that Enoch was Atlas, king of Atlantis (Praep. Ev., ix, 17).

The Book of Enoch, also known as 1 Enoch, is a 2nd century BC Jewish religious document whose content is traditionally attributed to Enoch, the great grandfather of Noah. It was lost for centuries but rediscovered in the 19th century and brought from Ethiopia, then known as Abyssinia and translated into English by Archbishop Richard Laurence. This can now be read on or downloaded from the Internet(c).

(a) http://archaeologica.boardbot.com/viewtopic.php?f=12&t=2026

(b)  http://www.fbrt.org.uk/pages/essays/essay-enoch.html (offline 26/12/15)

(c) http://reluctant-messenger.com/1enoch01-60.htm

(d) http://www.timelessmyths.com/mirrors/enoch.php (offline)

(e) http://genesisfacts.wordpress.com/2013/01/30/the-city-of-enoch/ (offline, 01/08/14)

 

 

Jackson, John Glover

John Glover Jackson (1907-1993) was a renowned Afro-American historian John Glover Jacksonwith a number of major books to his credit, invariably with a strong Afro-centric theme. He was also a devout atheist, a fact that no doubt coloured his many essays on comparative religion. In his 1939 paper, Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilisation(a) , he touches on the subject of Atlantis and clearly accepted the reality of its existence. Jackson quotes Proclus Lycaeus who in turn cites The Ethiopian History of Marcellus as evidence that Atlantis was connected with the history of ancient Ethiopia.

 

(a) http://archive.org/details/EthiopiaAndTheOriginOfCivilization (link broken Jan 2019)

See: Archive 3643

Ethiopia (m)

Ethiopia as a geographical area had very different meanings depending on the period in which it was used. Frank Joseph stated[102] that until the 1st century BC. Ethiopia referred to the Atlantic coast of North Africa.*[Zhirov claimed that ‘Ethiopia’ simply meant a land inhabited by dark-skinned people[0458.98].]*

Pliny the Elder stated that Aethiopia was formerly called Atlantia (p. 116). Proclus, the Greek philosopher, was convinced that ethiopic oceanAtlantis existed and was connected with ancient Ethiopia, quoting The Ethiopian History of Marcellus.

Col. Alexander Braghine believed[156] in a connection between the ancient Ethiopians and Atlantis. The map above dating from 1650 and published in a book[292] by J.A. Rogers shows the South Atlantic as ‘The Ethiopic Ocean’, while the entire central Africa is named Ethiopia. We can only conclude that the location of the original Ethiopia is nearly as difficult to pinpoint as the location of Atlantis itself.

In 1936, D. Duvillé suggested[284] that there had been two Atlantises – one in the Atlantic and one in Ethiopia.

It might be worth noting that in Greek mythology, Poseidon was given two Ethiopias, one in the east and the other in the west.

Duvillé, Daniel (t)

Daniel Duvillé writing[284] before the Second World War was another who generously gave us two Atlantises – one, an island in the Atlantic that had a peninsula that extended as far as Iceland and the second in East Africa where Ethiopia had finally been settled.

Divine Twins

Divine Twins (Dioscurism) occur frequently in many cultures worldwide(c), Greek mythology being no exception, although Plato’s report that five sets of twins were the original rulers of Atlantis, it provides one of the more unusual elements in the account.  Could there be any connection between the male twins of the Atlantis and the male twins, Romulus and Remus, who founded Rome or Amphion and Zethos who established Thebes?

Jürgen Spanuth expressed the odd idea that the five trilithons at Stonehenge “most probably represented five pairs of twins.” [0015.85] an idea echoed later by Dieter Braasch(h).

Greek and Roman mythologies also shared the twins Castor and Pollux. Furthermore, a Christian reference to them can be found in the Acts of the Apostles (28.11), where St.Paul is said to have left Malta for Rome on a ship displaying the sign of Castor and Pollux.

The idea of Divine twins is also found in the old Slavic pantheon according to Michael Shapiro in a 1982 paper(g)*and found across European mythologies(i).*

According to Jim Allen, the leading proponent of the idea of Atlantis having existed in the Andes, the Aymara kingdoms which existed on the Andean Altiplano also governed in pairs, so he has no doubt that the story of Atlantis had its origins in a Bolivian legend(a).  It is accepted that ‘The Hero Twins’ are part of Mayan mythology in the form of Xbalanque and Hunaphu. The anthropologist Robert L. Hall has detected twins in the native symbolism as far north as the Mississippi. The existence of twin rulers also existed in Bronze Age Scandinavia – one being the chief of war, the other the chief of rituals.

Also interesting is the paper presented by Thérèse Ghembaza to the 2008 Atlantis Conference in which she referred to the Oromos of Ethiopia, who also were governed by five pairs of rulers[0750.519].

A recent paper by Alastair Coombs entitled The Atlantis Twins offered further thoughts on possible prehistoric references, including a suggested link with Göbekli Tepe. This article was expanded and retitled Göbekli Tepe & the Atlantis Twins and was later published on Graham Hancock’s website(d).

In December 2017, Anton Mifsud, the doyen of Maltese Atlantologists, published an intriguing suggestion(f), when he pointed out that on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Neo-Platonist Michelangelo, something odd can be perceived in the central panel, known as The Creation of Adam. There, we find ‘god’ surrounded by five pairs of flightless ‘cherubs’. This is reminiscent of Poseidon’s five pairs of twin sons that ruled Atlantis. However, Christian iconography invariably shows cherubs with wings, so it begs the question; why this departure from the norm? Mifsud contends that together with other aspects of the fresco, this depiction is closer to Plato’s ‘god’, Poseidon, than that of the Mosaic creator in Genesis!

My own view is that the story of the five sets of male twins is just one of the mythological threads in Plato’s Atlantis narrative. P.P. Flambas who has taken a generally literal view of Plato’s account, admits the improbability of happening to one couple through natural means. However, in correspondence, he defensively quotes the somewhat dubious(e) case of “the greatest officially recorded number of children born to one mother is 69, to the wife of Feodor Vassilyev (1707–c.1782), a peasant from Shuya, Russia.”

(a) http://www.atlantisbolivia.org/twinsofatlantis.htm

(c) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twins_in_mythology

(d) http://grahamhancock.com/coombsa1/ or see Archive 3642

(e) http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20151020-did-one-woman-really-give-birth-to-69-children

(f) https://www.academia.edu/35425812/THE_CREATION_OF_ADAM_-_Genesis_or_Plato?auto=download

(g) Michael Shapiro, Neglected Evidence of Dioscurism (Divine Twinning) in the Old Slavic Pantheon, JIES 10 (1982), 137-166.

(h) http://www.braasch-megalith.de/atlantis-stonehenge-decoded.html

*(i) https://howlingpixel.com/i-en/Divine_twins*

 

Ark of the Covenant, The

The Ark of the Covenant is one of the most enduring mysteries that originated in the Old Testament. It was recorded there, in great detail (Exod.25:10-22; 37:1-9), how the Ark was constructed in order to house the tablets of stone inscribed with the Ten Commandments given to Moses. King Solomon built the First Jerusalem Temple with the primary purpose of ark-of-the-covenantproviding a suitable home for the Ark. Some time before the 6th century BC the Ark disappeared and so for at least two and a half millennia the search for it has been ongoing.

In 1982, Yehuda Getz, the rabbi in charge of Jerusalem’s Wailing Wall claimed to have knowledge of the Ark’s location to within 2 or 3 metres, under the Dome of the Rock and the al-Aqsa Mosque. Political considerations have prevented any excavation at the site(d). The late Ron Wyatt also claimed to have discovered the Ark in 1982, under the old city of Jerusalem(f). A 2017 claim is that the Ark is situated near Jerusalem at Kiryat Ye’arim, where excavations will begin soon(g).

One of the best known books recounting a personal search for the Ark in modern times was by Graham Hancock in the shape of The Sign and the Seal [678],  which ended with a frustrated author outside a church in Axum, Ethiopia. Oddly, Hancock touches on the subject of Atlantis in this book (p.319) where he dismisses the idea of an Atlantic home for Atlantis.

Hancock’s experiences in Ethopia were repeated by Paul Raffaele and recounted in a 2007 article in the Smithsonian magazine(b). However, there is a short report(c) that in 1869, Isaac de Karpet, Armenian Patriarch of the library of the monastery of St. James in Jerusalem, along with his brother Dimoteo Sapritchian, gained access to the church in Axum thanks to the intervention of the Abyssinian crown prince Kasa. They concluded that the ‘Ark’ in the church were wooden tablets (tabots) inscribed with the Ten Commandments dating from the 13th or 14th centuries AD.

The de Karpet report was recently echoed by an account(m) of the inside of the Aksum church having been seen by one Edward Ullendorff during WW2 and who much later gave an interview to the Los Angeles Times in 1992 in which he revealed that there was only a replica of the ‘Ark’ which are to be found in churches throughout Ethiopia.

A recent website article(a) offers newly discovered evidence for considering Yemen as the hiding place of the Ark. However, closer to home we have a book[1345] by Graham Phillips suggesting that the Ark had been brought back to England, to Temple Herdewyke, near Stratford-upon-Avon. He partly bases this idea on the work of Jacob Cove-Jones, a British historian(e), who died before he could complete his own quest for the Ark.

Other suggested locations include Mount Pisgah in Jordan(h), East Prussia(i) and Ireland’s Hill of Tara(j). The fruitless excavations at Tara around 1900 by British-Israelites in now recounted in a recent book by Mairéad Carew [1645].

Expanding the possible locations further west is the suggestion by J. Chamberlain, following the theories of J.P. Noel(l) who proposed in a convoluted tale, that St. Croix in the Caribbean U.S. Virgin Islands as the final resting place of the Ark [1581].

Equally entertaining is the hint from the late Philip Coppens that the Bugarach mountain, near the Rennes-le-Chateau, was also, through rumour, the location of the ‘Ark’. In a colourful article Coppens, links, President Mitterrand, Nazis, Mossad and Steven Spielberg(k).

A number of other books and TV documentaries charting the search for the Ark continue to be produced. However, there is also another trend becoming more obvious, which is that there is an increasing number of instances, particularly on the Internet, of the Ark being linked to Atlantis. There is, of course, no evidence ever offered to support such speculation. One of the most recent of these is Opening the Ark of the Covenant, co-authored by Frank Joseph, where he traces the Ark back to Atlantis.

There are probably few people that don’t accept that the Ark had been a real artefact, while many doubt the reality of Atlantis. It is possible that by linking the two, authors hope to achieve credibility transference from one to the other!

*Spencer Alexander McDaniel, an American researcher, has published a lengthy article about the Ark and concluded that while it is possible that it did exist, it is unlikely, for a number of reasons, that it survived(n).*

(a) http://viewzone2.com/protocanaanite22.html

(b) http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/keepers-of-the-lost-ark-179998820/?all

(c) http://ilsettimopapiro.altervista.org/antichi___misteri.htm (offline May 2017: see Archive 2479)

(d) Brisbane Courier Mail, 29th January 1992

(e) http://www.ancient-origins.net/opinion-guest-authors/did-templars-hide-ark-covenant-unraveling-cove-jones-cipher-006980?nopaging=1

(f) http://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends/adventist-adventurer-claimed-have-found-ark-covenant-beneath-crucifixion-site-007412?nopaging=1

(g) http://www.timesofisrael.com/archaeologists-to-break-ground-at-biblical-site-where-ark-of-the-covenant-stood/

(h) http://www.hope-of-israel.org/p16.htm

(i) http://earth-chronicles.com/histori/the-ark-of-the-covenant-hidden-under-the-kaliningrad.html

(j) http://www.irishtimes.com/news/the-ark-at-the-seat-of-kings-1.356282

(k) Atlantis Rising, No. 88, July/August 2011

(l) http://arkofthecovenant-jpnoel.blogspot.com/p/st-croix-ark.html

(m)  https://www.livescience.com/64256-ark-of-the-covenant-location.html

*(n) https://talesoftimesforgotten.com/2019/09/02/what-happened-to-the-ark-of-the-covenant/*