An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Gibraltar

Alexander Knörr

Alexander Knörr is the author of Hagar Qim [1605] in which he discusses the cart-ruts of Malta, concluding that they must be at least 9,000 years old. But he goes further, declaring that the famous temples of Malta are more than 12,000 years old! Inevitably, he tackles Atlantis, attributing its demise to the breaching a dam at Gibraltar leaving Atlantis at the bottom of the Mediterranean.

Gorodnitsky, Alexander M.

Alexander M. Gorodnitsky (1933- ) is a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who is a geologist and oceanographer by profession(a). His other interests range from ancient civilisations to music composition. The former led him to conclude that Atlantis had existed and was situated between Gibraltar and the Azores near, the Ampere and Josephine seamounts.>Paulo Riven also favoured the Josephine/Torre seamount region holding the location of Atlantis(b).<

 

(a) http://atlantisforschung.de/index.php?title=Alexander_M._Gorodnitsky

>(b) https://tribesofatlantis.blogspot.com/p/9000-years-and-second-flood-explained.html<

Bell Beaker People

The Bell Beaker People identified by their distinctive pottery existed from around 2800 BC until 1800 BC. They occupied large areas of Iberia, Central Europe and the British Isles as well as some of the western Mediterranean Bell Beakerislands. Melville Nicholls claims that they originated in Portugal. Associated with them are the Wessex people divided into Wessex I and Wessex II, who are found in western Europe and southern Britain, the latter, dated to 1650-1400, were involved with the construction of the later stages of Stonehenge.

Uwe Topper associates the beginning of metallurgy with the Bell-Beaker People(e).

Nicholls and others(b) have linked Atlantis with the Bell Beaker culture, identifying a location near Gibraltar as the site of Atlantis. He published his views in Children of the Sea God[944], a 2013 Kindle ebook(a) and a second ebook, The Real and Imaginary Atlantis[945] generally reprising the first, later the same year! Further comment from Nicholls can be found on an internet forum(f).

David D. Miner, is an American Doctor of Medicine, who published a paper linking the Beaker People, Atlantis and Salisbury Plain. He makes a serious and imaginative effort to explain details in Plato’s narrative in the context of this proposed association.

Donald Ingram was more specific equating the Atlanteans with the Wessex II culture in The Unlost Island[665].

The Beaker People are also claimed to have crossed the Atlantic, where they have been linked to the Adena culture of North America. A leading exponent of this theory is undoubtedly Jay S. Wakefield, co-author of How the SunGod reached America [0751]. He has reprised his views in a 2018 paper on the Diffusion & Migration website(c)(g) . Others have expanded on his concepts(d).

(a) http://www.amazon.com/Children-Sea-God-ebook/dp/B00CNCD9GA

(b) http://widespreadblyss.blogspot.ie/2013/02/platos-atlantis-and-bell-beaker-culture.html (link broken Sept. 2018)

(c) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?year=2018&id=558

(d) http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/adena-people-and-prehistoric-colonization-north-america-003342

(e) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?id=545

(f) https://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/29303-A-New-Atlantis-Theory

>(g) https://migration-diffusion.info/article.php?year=2020&id=699<

 

Festin, Carl

Carl Festin (1957- ) is a Swedish researcher who was prompted by questions from his children to investigate the history of civilisation. His studies led him to conclude that the hundreds of worldwide flood myths involved a catastrophe that involved the biblical story of Noah and Plato’s Festintale of Atlantis.

In a PowerPoint presentation provocatively entitled Noah, Refugee from Atlantis Festin outlines a new Atlantis theory. He first suggests that a ridge of sediment built up in the vicinity of Gibraltar gradually cutting off the Mediterranean from the Atlantic when sea levels were much lower during the last Ice Age.*This similar in some ways with the theory of Paulino Zamarro.*

Festin posits an island in the Eastern Mediterranean, south of Crete, called Basileia, which dominated land around what we now call the Ionian Sea. This nation was known as Atlantis.

He identifies the mountains of what is now Crete and Al Jabal Al Akhdar (Green Mountain) in Libya as the Pillars of Heracles. These are shown on a new map(b). Other maps(c) show his proposed Atlantean capital, Poseidopolis and are sometimes oriented east-west.

Around 3,500 BC the Gibraltar ridge broke due to the pressure of the rising ocean levels following the melting of the ice. The influx of cold water into the Western Mediterranean Basin created extensive anti-cyclonic rainfall over Basileia (40 days and nights!). The Western and Eastern Mediterranean Basins were separated by a landbridge at the Strait of Sicily which now broke, inundating the eastern basin. Festin claims that the millions of tons of additional Mediterranean facing westwater created earthquakes in seismically fragile central Mediterranean, destroying  Basileia. Survivors included Noah who headed eastward. Others reached both North and South America.

Festin is now organising a five day cruise in the Mediterranean, which will include a dive in a small submersible to the Atlantean capital Poseidopolis on the submerged island of Basileia lying between Crete and Cyrenaica in Libya. The adventure can be watched on board the ship on large screens, while for the really enthusiastic, there are 8/10 spaces available in the submarine. He currently estimates the basic cost to be €2,000 and €100,000 for each of the 8/10 submariners(d). I think comment is unnecessary!

His theories are published in Swedish as Flykting från Atlantis[753] (Refugees from Atlantis)(a).

(a) http://www.resmalet.se/ 

(b) http://www.resmalet.se/Atlantis.htm

(c) http://www.resmalet.se/FindPos.htm

(d) http://www.resmalet.se/PoseidopolisC.htm

Atlantrope

Atlantrope in spite of its name has no connection with Atlantis. It was in Herman Sorgelfact the name of an enormous dam building project first proposed in 1928 by the German architect Herman Sörgel (1885-1952). Ironically, he was hoping to create artificially what some think had existed in reality and within the memory of man and whose destruction may have led to the destruction of Atlantis.

His idea was to create dams at Gibraltar, the Dardanelles and the Strait of Sicily and gradually reclaim land by lowering the level of the Mediterranean and incorporate hydro-electric plants into the scheme(a)(b). He went further and  suggested flooding large sections of the Sahara Desert. For a few years after Sörgel’s death, efforts were still being made to gain support for the idea.

>In 1997, Robert G. Johnson, a retired professor, also proposed the damming of the Mediterranean at Gibraltar(c).<

Sörgel’s proposal was briefly referred to in SKY TV’s second series of The Man in the High Castle.

(a) http://longstreet.typepad.com/thesciencebookstore/2011/04/jf-ptak-science-books-llc-post-691-blog-bookstore-simply-the-thing-i-am-shall-make-me-live-from-jorge-luis-borges-sha.html

(b) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantropa

>(c) https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/97EO00180<

Strabo

Strabo (c. 64 BC – 23 AD) was an important Greek geographer and historian Strabowho wrote (i) of his full agreement with Plato’s assertion that Atlantis was fact rather than fiction.  An English translation of his Geography (Geographica) in three volumes can be read online [1647].

The location of the Pillars of Heracles, mentioned by Plato, is assumed by many to have always been situated near the Strait of Gibraltar. Other researchers have claimed that this was not the only location and have referred to various classical writers to support this contention, one of whom was Strabo, who records (ii) the variety of opinions regarding the location of the Pillars of Heracles among classical writers, adding that Alexander the Great on reaching the easternmost point in his military campaign erected an altar with ‘Pillars of Heracles’, giving further support to the view that the ‘Pillars’ were not a singular landmark but a feature that was to be found at different locations at different points in history. Strabo produced a map of Europe on which he located the ‘Pillars’ at Gibraltar in his day (1st century AD). Strabo also noted that, in the distant past 300 cities lined the coasts on either side of the Pillars.

Strabo also wrote (iii) of Hera’s Island as being one of two islands located near the Pillars of Heracles, beyond which was Gades in Spain. The two islands have not been identified. He was writing some centuries after Erathostenes had been the first to place the ‘Pillars’ at the western end of the Mediterranean.

James Bramwell has cast some doubt on the reliability of ancient geographers in general and Strabo in particular, whom he claims[195.129] oriented the Pyrenees as running north-south rather than their actual east-west.>Nevertheless, Strabo’s reputation would appear to have been enhanced by the discovery a few years ago that Piraeus, a small peninsula near Athens had been an island around 6,000 years earlier. Over time, sedimentary deposits had gradually built into an isthmus joining the island to the mainland. Strabo had recorded the earlier island status of Piraeus two thousand years ago, millennia after the event and unconfirmed until now(a).<

I should mention that, coincidentally, a temple of Hera was discovered near Marsaxlokk on Malta, the larger of the two principal Maltese islands.

>(a) http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2011/06/07/ancient-greek-knew-geology-thousands-of-years-before-his-time<

(i) Geographia (2.3.6/7)

(ii) Geographia (3.5.5)

(iii) Geographia (3.5.3)

Mediterranean Sea Level

Mediterranean Sea Level. There is general acceptance that, on more than one occasion, the Strait of Gibraltar was closed completely. Tectonic plate movement, worldwide sea level drops due to the onset of Ice Age glaciation or a combination of both, could have caused this. There is also clear undisputed evidence that the Mediterranean Sea has dried out completely on a number of occasions. What is not clear is when the last desiccation or partial drying-out of the Mediterranean ended. The conventional date given for the last breaching of a Gibraltar Dam is 5 million years ago. However, there is a small but growing opinion that there was a more recent breach of a dam within the memory of modern man and preserved in history and myth.

bathymetric medWhere one theory on the location of Atlantis is concerned, the existence of a Gibraltar dam before the end of the last Ice Age is critical, namely that Atlantis was situated near modern Cyprus. The site chosen by author Robert Sarmast is 1650 metres beneath the present level of the Mediterranean. His theory is totally dependent on proving the existence of this dam. It would seem prudent to have carried out a more detailed study of the evidence for a relatively recent removal of the dam before engaging in a very costly exploration over a mile under the eastern Mediterranean.

There are a number of facts that appear to suggest a more recent Mediterranean inundation but even collectively they do not offer any more than circumstantial evidence.

(i) The Mediterranean sea level must have dropped by as much as from 150 to 300 meters or more. Several years ago, by chance divers found submerged entrances (below sea level) in Southern France, which subsequently led them to discover the now famous prehistoric cave paintings there. There are many man-made stone structures around the Mediterranean that are now under water as well.

Cosquer Cave, near Marseilles, has its entrance 37 metres underwater. It contains several dozen works painted between 25000-17000 BC. The opening was once several miles inland until about 10000 BC when the sea began to rise at the end of the last Ice Age. It has been estimated that that it was originally at a height of 80 metres above sea level, according to anthropologist, James Q. Jacobs(a).  This cave art depicts the Auk, which had never been found this far north.

(ii) Submerged Maltese structures, although their inundation may have been caused by local seismic activity rather than global sea level changes.

(iii) H. S. Bellamy claimed[091] that ancient geographers hinted at the non-existence of the Strait of Gibraltar within human memory.

(iv) A modern Guide to Provence(b) also claims a relatively recent removal of the Gibraltar land bridge.

(v) Medieval Arab writers such as Al-Biruni, Al-Idrisi and Al-Mas’udi suggest the existence of a Gibraltar landbridge, again within the memory of man.

(vi) The sunken port of ancient Syedra in Turkey.

(a) http://www.jqjacobs.net/rock_art/dawn.html

*(b) Landmark Visitors Guide – Provence & Côte D’Azure by Richard Sale. (p.16)*

Rousseau-Liessens, Auguste (L)

Auguste Rousseau-Liessens (1894-1954), a Belgian, was of the opinion that the Pillars of Heracles were located in the Gibraltar region. To support his view he wrote a book[443], in French, that was recommended by the renowned Jean Gattefosse.

Rousseau-Liessens concluded that the plain of Atlantis was four-sided with sides having a ratio of 1:2:3:4 giving the dimensions of those sides as 184, 368, 552 and 736 km.

Peripheral to the study of Atlantis are the works of Homer, on which subject Liessens has also written[444].

Floods

Floods on a catastrophic scale have been recorded in the mythologies and histories of all ancient civilisations. There are various possible causes for such devastating floods. Undoubtedly, many of these legends originated with the raising of sea levels that followed the de-glaciation at the end of the last Ice Age.

Other floods may have been caused by tsunamis resulting from underwater earthquakes or storegga. Quite recently it was discovered(a) that around 6000 BC a calamitous tsunami was generated in the Mediterranean when Mt. Etna in Sicily sent approximately 6 cubic miles of rock and rubble crashing into the sea. One could be forgiven for speculating that this event may have triggered the flooding of the Black Sea, which is dated to this same period.

Since writing, as we know it, did not develop until long after de-glaciation, it is virtually impossible to precisely identify the date, location or extent of any of the early myths relating to these possible de-glaciation inundations.

Flood Myths are found throughout the world and for centuries were seen as confirmation of the reality and universality of the Biblical Flood of Noah. However, when it was discovered that the Earth had endured a series of Ice Ages and that following each of these, the melting ice caps led to worldwide inundations with a consequent immortalisation of these events through locally developed myths, it led to speculation that Noah’s Flood may have been just a regional but nonetheless a catastrophic event. It is also probable that separate regional inundations would have occurred as deglaciation continued at the end of the last ice age, so when recounted through mythology many centuries later they may appear to refer to a single global event. It is also probable that separate regional inundations would have occurred as deglaciation continued at the end of the last ice age, so when recounted through mythology many centuries later they may appear to refer to a single global event.

Nevertheless, megafloods are not necessarily only caused by tsunamis and melting glaciers. A 43-day storm that began in December 1861 put central and southern California underwater for up to six months” a catastrophic event that is now generally forgotten. An extensive 2013 article(f) in Scientific American has full details.

China has its own ‘Great Flood’ tradition, which in the August 2016 edition of Science journal had its reality given strong support in a paper(e) by a mainly Chinese team of researchers. They date the event to 1920 BC.

Recent years have seen the above-mentioned flooding of the Black Sea or even more controversially, the flooding of the Mediterranean basins, following the breaching of a suggested landbridge at Gibraltar, proposed as possible sources of the story of Noah in the Bible. These inundations are dated at around 5600 BC and their memory should have survived in the traditions and mythologies of the region. In addition to that, the Persian Gulf is also accepted by many to have been dry during the last Ice Age but also began to flood around 5000 BC. In Northern Europe, the Baltic Sea and the Celtic Shelf both suffered post-glacial inundations, while around the same time in the South China Sea the enormous Sunda Shelf suffered extensive flooding.

The flooding of the Celtic Shelf along with parts of southwest Britain and southeast Ireland is the subject of a 2016, thought provoking book[1166] by Philip Runggaldier.

Plato’s Atlantis story contains a curious reference in Timaeus (23a-c) to a series of floods having apparently occurred in the Eastern Mediterranean. If based on historical fact, on its own, the Biblical Flood or the breach of a land bridge cannot explain this succession of inundations, but suggests that there could be a much more complex story, still to be revealed, that was spread over millennia.

Anastasios Stamou presented a paper[0750.183]to the 2008 Atlantis Conference in which he reviewed the evidence relating to three floods that befell ancient Greece and alluded to by Plato. Drawing on ancient Greek texts including the Parian Marble, he places these events in chronological order  beginning with the flood of Ogyges, then Deucalion’s and finally that of Dardanos.

Stamou accepts that convention wisdom has it that these flood events occurred in the 2nd millennium BC and based his paper on that assumption. However he expressed serious doubts about this dating suggesting a much earlier date for some inundations and promising a future paper dealing with this revision.

*In an August 2017 paper, on the Migration & Diffusion website(g), Stuart L. Harris has put forward his reasons for dating the Flood of Noah to 3161 BC and the Exodus Flood to 1445 BC.*

An extensive and more general collection of Flood myths can be found on the internet(b). A USGS list of the world’s greatest floods, ancient and recent, is available as a pdf file(c). Similarly, a website by Mark Isaak offers an extensive overview of flood myths around the world, although the site does not appear to have been updated for some years(d).

(a) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/11/061128083754.htm

(b) http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html

(c) http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circ1254/pdf/circ1254.pdf

(d) http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/flood-myths.html

(e) http://science.sciencemag.org/content/353/6299/579

(f) https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/atmospheric-rivers-california-megaflood-lessons-from-forgotten-catastrophe/

*(g) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?year=2017&id=540*