An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Hitler

Espejo, José Luis

José Luis Espejo (1965- ) is a Catalan researcher and prolific writer(a). His subjects range from Leonardo da Vinci to comparative mythology to Hitler.

In 2009 he published Los hijos del Edén: toda la verdad sobre la Atlántida [1607] (The Children of Eden: The whole truth about Atlantis), described at the time as the definitive Atlantis book. In this 680-page offering he insists on the reality of Atlantis, but not necessarily with that name.

His latest book, Ecos de la Atlántida [1606] (Echoes of Atlantis), reviews the destruction and aftermath of an ancient civilisation, which he contends was destroyed 11,500 years ago. He equates Atlantis with Atalaentre of the Hindus, Aztlan of the Amerindians as well as the Hebrew Garden of Eden.

It would appear that the nature of this 512-page book required an understandable amount of speculation.
(a) https://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.joseluisespejo.com/&prev=search

Invasion

Invasion today, as in the past, is usually the consequence of a shortage of resources (food, metals, oil, water), climate change (affecting food supply), overpopulation (also affecting food supply) or political upheaval. Although I do not speak as a military strategist, it would seem obvious that if, for any of these reasons, a state is forced into an expansionism, it will first look at their nearest neighbours and assess the chances of military success. It is obvious that before the introduction of airborne attacks, propinquity in the form of contiguous territory or short sea journeys have always been critical for a successful invasion(a) and the continued control of occupied territories. This is borne out by the simple historical fact that all the earliest empires, which were located in what we now call the Middle East, expanded through the invasion of its neighbours.

However, over-expansion can be costly and potentially dangerous. With particular reference to the fall of the Roman Empire, Rachel Nuwer noted in a recent BBC article(c) that. “By the end of the 100 BC the Romans had spread across the Mediterranean, to the places most easily accessed by sea. They should have stopped there, but things were going well and they felt empowered to expand to new frontiers by land. While transportation by sea was economical, however, transportation across land was slow and expensive. All the while, they were overextending themselves and running up costs.

Many people think that military intelligence gathering is a relatively modern development. However, ancient documents, including the Bible, have accounts of spying thousands of years ago. Mary Rose Sheldon has produced an invaluable sourcebook[1445] on the subject, as well as a volume on Spies in the Bible[1446], while Peter Dubovsky, in his Hezekiah and the Assyrian Spies[1568], focuses on espionage described in 2 Kgs 18-19. It is reasonable therefore to assume that Atlantis also exercised due diligence and endeavoured to assess their opponents strengths and weaknesses before invading.

Boris Rankov has noted(b) in The Encyclopedia of Ancient History that military intelligence in ancient times had its value limited by the “slowness of communications, which meant that it was often out of date before any response could be brought to bear.” This, of course, ties in with the then established practice of invading those within your immediate proximity; supply lines are shorter and information more up-to-date. In turn, it implies that Atlantis was within relatively easy striking distance of Athens!

Even in modern times the same constraints determined the actions of invaders. Hitler could not have invaded Russia without first controlling Poland and Romania. Even expansionist Japan, although an island nation, expanded into Korea and Manchuria (China) and following the attack on Pearl Harbour spread even further within the same region.

The ancient land-based empires were dependent on military might, whereas others, such as the Phoenicians, expanded their influence through trade, supported by extensive merchant fleets. However, over time, Phoenician or more correctly Carthaginian rivalry with Rome led to disastrous wars.

One of the primary military concerns today, as in ancient times, will be to ensure that its men are fed and watered and consequently there will be a need to keep its supply lines as short as possible.

The nearest possible belligerent to the west of Athens was across the Adriatic in Italy. I argue elsewhere that according to Plato, southern Italy constituted part of the Atlantean domain (see Etruscans). I suggest that the Atlantean invasion of Greece was probably launched from there. The motivation is unclear, but we can speculate that success in Greece would have been followed by the control of the entire Aegean, including Crete, offering a huge expansion in trade.

The alternative is that the nearest part of Atlantis was elsewhere, necessitating the bypassing of other territories on the way and stretching supply and communication lines more than desirable. Italy looks the best bet, with forces added from the Atlantean HQ in Sicily or Sardinia, possibly travelling through the Strait of Messina, sometimes identified as the location of the Pillars of Heracles.

In the south, the Atlantean forces in North Africa (Ancient Libya), if not augmenting the attack on Greece, were probably planning their invasion of Egypt (Timaeus 25b & Critias 114c). Success there would have been followed by a two-pronged attack by both northern and southern Atlantean forces on the eastern Mediterranean coast, later known as the Levant, giving them total control of the eastern Mediterranean Basin.

Invasion requirements are the strongest argument against any of the fanciful Atlantis theories that place Plato’s Atlantis in Antarctica, the Andes, or North America. It is ludicrous to claim that any invasion force came across the Atlantic to attack Greeks and Egyptians. That there were remarkable early cultures in both North and South America is absolutely undeniable, however, it is foolishness to claim that they had any connection with Plato’s story.

(a) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_invasions

(b) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338386.wbeah26323/abstract

(c) http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20170418-how-western-civilisation-could-collapse

Serrano, Miguel

Miguel Serrano (1917-2009) was a former Chilean diplomat in which capacity he was MIGUEL SERRANOappointed ambassador to India from 1953 until 1962. He was also an unrepentant nazi sympathiser since 1939 and over time he developed what became known Esoteric Nazism, which continues to have support particularly in his native Chile, where there are still substantial numbers of Nazi followers(a).

*Joscelyn Godwin relates[789.126] how Serrano claimed that “the Germans also found there was a way of communication with the Hollow Earth and its secret cities, where the First Hyperboreans had taken refuge from the disaster that reversed the Poles. There a secret base was prepared during the war years, and thither Adolf Hitler escaped in a vimana (flying saucer plane) to direct the “esoteric war” to this day.”*

The spitfirelist website notes that when “Serrano returned to Chile after the Pinochet coup in 1973. Finding the regime unsympathetic to his ideas, he adopted “the role of intellectual gadfly“.[9] In May 1984, Serrano gave the Nazi salute at the funeral in Santiago of SS Colonel Walter Rauff.[9] He convened a rally in Santiago on 5 September 1993, in honor of Rudolf Hess, and in memory of the 62 young Chilean Nazi supporters who were shot dead while occupying a social security building during an abortive coup in 1938.[1][10] “(c) 

Two books by the Chilean historian, Rafael Videla Eissmann, are concerned with Serrano’s views on Atlantis. Many of his other works, mainly in Spanish, are available as pdf files(b).

(a) http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/fellows/chile_2008/

(b) http://www.pdfarchive.info/index.php?pages/Se

(c) http://spitfirelist.com/for-the-record/ftr-873-the-new-age-fascism-and-the-atlantis-myth/

 

Dacqué, Edgar

dacqueEdgar Dacqué (1878-1945) was a leading German Professor of Palaeontology. We are told by a Dutch website(b) that he thought Atlantis to have been situated on a submarine ridge stretching from Cape Verde to the Caribbean. This sounds like a revised version of the Atlantic landbridges concept that was popular with some scientists at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries.

It is reported that he supported (1927) the idea of Cape Verde as the site of Atlantis, but I have been unable to confirm this. His adherence to Theosophy coloured his professional writings, for example with his claim that homo sapiens existed at the time of the dinosaurs. Similar ideas are promoted today by other theosophists such as John S. Gordon, who has written two Atlantis related books.

It has been claimed(a) that Dacqué wrote to Hitler in the 1920’s regarding some of his (Dacqué’s) occult ideas.

(a) http://www.freemasonrywatch.org/hitler_occult.html (offline June 2016) (see Archive 2795)

*(b) http://www.kunstgeografie.nl/atlantis/atlantis04.htm (offline Dec.’15) See: Archive 2796*