Civilisation Collapse has occurred many times over past millennia in all parts of the world. Joseph A. Tainter defines collapse as “a rapid shift to a lower level of complexity(a) .” Societal disintegration immediately brings to mind the Maya, the Indus Valley and in what are relatively more modern times, the Western Roman Empire.
The causes are usually a combination of factors, such as, climate change, warfare, disease or excessive expansionism. Global catastrophes such as encounters with comets or asteroids are rare, while more local events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or tsunamis can also be thrown into the mix. These have all been encountered from time to time, but have rarely been blamed for the collapse of a society; recovery from such limited regional events is usually possible.
The Mediterranean has seen its share of all these catastrophic events. A major tsunami on Sardinia, volcanic eruptions in Italy, earthquakes in North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean. Close encounters with extraterrestrial bodies have also been proposed in that region.
Perhaps the best documented civilisation collapse is that which occurred around 1200 BC and affected many societies, particularly in the Middle East(b) . Israel Finkelstein, a leading Israeli archaeologist, has attributed this event to climate change and is of the view that this disruption was global in extent.
Inevitably, Atlantis has been cited as an example of civilisation collapse, particularly supporters of the Minoan Hypothesis, who link the 2nd millennium BC eruptions of Thera with the demise of the Minoans on Crete. Also popular is the idea that Atlantis had been a large island in the Atlantic Ocean destroyed by a cometary impact or the rising sea levels as the glaciers melted at the end of the last Ice Age.
A variety of other theories have associated Atlantis with the collapse of a civilisation. For example, Frank Joseph claims that 40,000 years ago “sudden sea-level rises triggers migration from Mu around. The Pacific motherlanders settle on a large, fertile island about 380 kilometers due west from the Straits of Gibraltar. There, the newcomers merge with the native Cro-Magnon inhabitants, resulting in a new, hybrid culture – Atlantis.”
*(a) http://www.historytoday.com/christopher-chippindale/collapse-complex-societies (link broken June 2018)*
Charles J. Cazeau & Stuart D. Scott, Jnr were Associate Professors of Geology and Anthropology respectively at Buffalo’s State University of New York. They are the authors of Exploring the Unknown, in which they sceptically examine some of the mysteries that have been most popular with the general public.
Naturally, Atlantis features in this collection with a review of some of the best known theories. However, the authors seemed constrained by Sprague deCamp’s warning that “you cannot change all the details of Plato’s story and still claim to have Plato’s story.” Consequently, they have accepted Plato’s very early date for the demise of Atlantis in spite of the fact that it conflicts with both archaeology and commonsense.
The result is that Caseau & Scott concluded that the Atlantis narrative includes a distorted memory of the global flooding that followed the last Ice Age.*However, they ignore the fact that the retreat of the Ice Age glaciers raised sea levels quite gradually, if erratically, and that Plato’s account of the inundation of Atlantis describes it taking place over a day and a night as a result of earthquakes.*
Jon Nelo Juganaru (1948- ) is Romanian by birth, but emigrated to the United Staes, where he laboured as a glass artist and now writes under the pen-name of ‘Raven Alb J.’
His 2012 book, Why and How the Ice Age Ended, is a large tome that should have been edited to fraction of its size. As the title suggests it deals with the ending of the of the last Ice Age, which he claims was caused by an asteroid impact that also led to a Pole Shift. Another consequence was the destuction of Atlantis, which Juganaru identifies as Europe with its capital city situated in the Black Sea.
Among a number of his odd claims is that Göbekli Tepe is a miniature of Atlantis!
Throughout the book the author constantly introduces Romanian words for explanation, to the point where it quickly becomes irritating. Furthermore, he is also guilty of what for me is the publishing crime de la crime relating to non-fiction books, there is no index.
Robert John Langdon is the Brighton based British author of Prehistoric Britain: The Stonehenge Enigma, the first part of a trilogy(b). The book was first published in 2010 with a second edition brought out in 2013. The final chapter of the second edition is now available online(a). In it, he contends that the megalith builders came from Africa to Doggerland at the end of the last Ice Age, however, as the waters rose submerging Doggerland, the megalith builders had to move to higher ground on what we now know as Great Britain, eventually constructing Stonehenge as a memorial!
Langdon claims that the Altar Stone at Stonehenge points to Doggerland, which he identifies as the location of Atlantis. He also claims that the Slaughter Stone is in fact a representation of the flooded world of those megalith builders.*Langdon is highly critical of the generally accepted interpretation of various features found at Stonehenge, listing 13 items that he claims “don’t make sense”(f).*
Another of Langdon’s claims is that “Cro-Magnon/Atlanteans colonised America” based on a study of blood group distribution(e).
In September 2014, Langdon changed his website(c) and published further excerpts(d) from his books.
His second volume was published in 2016.*There are also a number of related free pdfs books available on his website.*
Brien Foerster is an American writer who now lives in Cuzco, the former Inca capital in Peru. He has studied the ancient cultures of the Andes and believes that many predated the Incas and had advanced technologies that permitted the precise drilling of stone(a). His fully illustrated Kindle book, Lost Ancient Technology of Peru and Bolivia, provides many examples. The book is worth purchasing for the images alone. There is now a video(d) that complements Foerster’s book.
Foerster has now studied the stonework of the ancient Egyptians and like Chris Dunn concluded that their level of accuracy could not have been achieved without possession of a high technology, now lost(i). He has expanded on this in his 2014 book, Lost Ancient Technology of Egypt.
However, Foerester has recently stepped out of line when he apparently chipped fragments from stones at the Bolivian Puma Punku site with a view to having them tested for age. The laboratory refused to test the fragments as Foerester did not have the appropriate export document from Bolivia(e). It would appear that Foerster is either stupid or criminally irresponsible or both. This episode is reminiscent of the two German idiots who recently removed part of the ‘Vyse cartouche’ in the Great Pyramid and illegally smuggled it out of Egypt. Apparently, Foerester now claims that details of this report are inaccurate and may be libellous(f).
Elsewhere with regard to Atlantis he claims “the most plausible idea is that Atlantis was not a single land mass that sank, but was a series of smaller states in the Atlantic area 12,000 years ago.”
In recent interviews Foerster has proposed that the story of Atlantis is based on an Ice Age civilisation(g). His latest attention-seeking claim is that the Maya visited ancient Egypt, a trip that had some form of Atlantis connection(h).
He has also co-authored with David Hatcher Childress a book on South American cranial deformation and elongated skulls. These are reminiscent of similar skulls found in Malta(c) and Egypt as well as elsewhere around the world and dating back many thousands of years(b).
Carl Feagans’ website(j) has a number of articles that are highly critical of Foerster’s methods and motivation.
*(d) http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.ie/2013/12/puma-punku-ancient-alien-technology.html (link broken Sept. 2018)*
(h) https://verumetinventa.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/brien-foerster-good-evidence-of-maya-culture-in-egyptian-pyramids/(offline October 2017)
George Firman published a 1978 speculative map of Atlantis, on which he located it in the Atlantic. Firman’s ‘portolan’ is allegedly based on “ancient charts drawn during the Ice Age circa 15,100 BP.”) He included Mediterranean details based on Angelino Dulcert’s 14th century charts.
In 1985 Firman published Atlantis, A Definitive Study, a 125-page offering with 45 maps, photos and diagrams. The author touches on Phoenicians, dolphins(!), Edgar Cayce and of course ancient maps.
Joseph P. Skipper has devoted a number of years to the study of apparent Mars anomalies as seen on Google images. His interest in satellite imagery led him to a review of images of a number of sites in the Atlantic that appear to show features on the sea floor that are too regular in shape to be considered natural. These are located off the west coast of Ireland. A close look at the image used by Skipper shows what appears to be striations, which run east – west and look exactly the same whether they run over higher or lower sections of the seafloor. They also cover an area greater in size than the British Isles and so cannot be streets. The lines shown would indicate ‘streets’ many kilometres wide!
Google’s explanation that these are the result of some sort of sonar glitch is not accepted by Skipper. This might be a valid view to hold, but his additional claim that other images show what he considers to be ancient writing on the ocean bed inscribed on a gigantic scale does little to portray him as a rational commentator.
Skipper’s review of the Atlantis narrative is fairly standard(a), placing Atlantis in the Atlantic and probably established during the last Ice Age.
The Cherokee Indians of the southwestern states of America have an oral tradition which tells of ‘star people’ coming to earth from the Pleiades and settling on five islands in the Atlantic known as Elohi Mona. Following the destruction of these islands the survivors migrated to the Americas. A Cherokee contributor to an online forum relates(a) how he always understood Elohi Mona to be a reference to Atlantis.
I occurs to me that if the survivors were migrating after a catastrophe they would in all probability head for the nearest landmass, suggesting that Elohi Mona was located in the western Atlantic and could conceivably have been the then more extensive Caribbean lands that were flooded by the rising sea levels following the end of the last Ice Age.
Charla Jean Morris, a journalist of Cherokee and Choctaw extraction has written From the First Rising Sun which deals with the traditions of the Cherokee people regarding their origins. They claim to have come to mainland America from those islands in the Atlantic off the coast of South America. Morris identifies these with Atlantis. She also discusses the Cherokee Flood Myths and compares them with the Genesis accounts.
(a) http://dir.groups.yahoo.com/group/Atlantis_Mysteries/message/940 (offline 1/8/14)
Theodoros V. Paschos is a Greek researcher and the son of Vassilios Paschos (1924-1993) who was also an atlantologist. Theodoros delivered a paper to the 2008 Atlantis Conference in which he placed Atlantis in the Atlantic and focussed on its destruction which claims to have taken place in two stages. The first of these was a partial submergence around 9600 BC resulting from the melting of the Ice Age glaciers. The second and final destruction took place, between 7000 BC and 7500 BC, as a consequence of the seismic instability of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which generated earthquakes and tsunamis.
Paschos formerly supported his work with a website, now closed, which had included some English sections.
A YouTube clip featuring T.V. Paschos is available(a).
(a) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNR7uELdky4 (Greek)
Atlantis and 2012. Some years ago there was a widespread rumour that an impending global disaster that was about to befall us in December, 2012, supposedly based on a particular reading of Mayan inscriptions. However, this interpretation was hotly disputed and of course, nothing happened, apart from the usual assortment of disasters which is the lot of the inhabitants of this cosmic speck that we live on.
A number of commentators attempted to link this ‘promised’ catastrophe with the story of Atlantis. One of the better known is Frank Joseph who has earned a comfortable living over recent years with his output of books on the subject of Atlantis. Not wishing that particular revenue stream dry up added Atlantis and 2012, in which he claimed that the Mayan calendar was developed by Atlanteans and Lemurians. He suggests that we may be nearing the beginning of a new Ice Age invoking Hopi, Inca and Norse mythologies in support of his claims. Joseph’s credibility should now be clear. When the world did not end, Joseph revised his book and republished it as Atlantis and the Coming Ice Age in 2015!
We were then told to forget 2012, in fact, we had only days left. Harold Camping a then ninety year old American fundamentalist Christian decreed that May 21st 2011 was the date of the ‘Rapture’ and the end of the world as we know it and when that passed uneventfully, he then declared October 21st as the date. He had previously suggested May 21st 1988, then Sept. 6th 1994 as the date of the Second Coming of Christ. Understandably, Camping’s biblical interpretation has been heavily criticised by scriptural authorities and lay people alike(a). Camping died December 2013.
Camping had spending large amounts of money publicising his daft ideas. As usual there were fools prepared to believe all this 2011 or 2012 nonsense. For my part I planned a special holiday in 2013 to celebrate my 70th birthday. Which did occur.
Nevertheless the spirit of Camping lived on in the person of Chris McCann who announced that October 7th 2015 would be the Earth’s last day. It seems that this silliness is unending(h).
In 2010 a British service entitled Post Rapture Pet Care, run by atheists, offered to look after the pets of fundamentalist Christians when they are taken up to Heaven in the Rapture, for a fee of £69.99. A similar service is on offer in the US named Eternal Earth-Bound Pets.
National Geographic offers a rational explanation(d) of the reality behind this whole 2012 cynical scaremongering exercise. However, a somewhat less restrained view of the 2012 con job is provided by a ‘must read’ website(e)that highlights the harm being done to young and vulnerable people by this nonsense.
A recent discovery in Guatemala, reported in June 2012(f), has provided further evidence that the 2012 alarmist claims are unfounded and no more credible than the prognostications of Harold Camping. Let me spell it out, the latest find simply records that December 2012 will bring a Mayan time cycle (a baktun) to an end while another one will begin, in the same way that we make a fuss at the end of a year, century or millennium.
However, for those that might be disappointed when 2013 arrives uneventfully, I can now reveal that in 2016 we shall at last have our catastrophe or so says Sylwester Kornowski(g). In a 94-page stew of religion and ‘science’, we are assured that April 2nd 2016 will bring on the cataclysm!
But don’t despair if 2016 fails to destroy us, because a newer prognostication is certain that 2027 will finally finish us off. Nevertheless, before getting too excited, it may be no harm to recall the words of Albert Einstein……“Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I’m not sure about the universe.”
*(b) http://www.postrapturepetcare.com/ (link broken Sept. 2018) See: Archive 2739*
(e) http://www.2012hoax.org/ (offline Oct.’14)
(g) http://www.cosmology-particles.pl/files/GtoG.pdf (Mercifully now offline)