An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Incas

Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu is generally accepted to have been an Incan retreat, built in the middle of the 15th century on a barely accessible mountaintop of Peru about fifty miles northwest of Cuzco. It was apparently abandoned a century later and only brought to the attention of the outside world in 1911, when it was rediscovered by Hiram Bingham.

machu picchu

Mark Adams, the American writer, wrote an account of his retracing of Bingham’s journey to Machu Picchu[976]. Along with the narrative of his pilgrimage, Adams has also interwoven a valuable history of the region.

In 2013, a Polish-Peruvian team, while exploring a previously unexcavated building on the site, claimed to have discovered that the structure was astronomically aligned(a).  The following year saw a newly discovered section of the Inca Road, which leads to Machu Picchu, announced by the Andina News Agency(c).

In July 2016, it was reported that what are considered pre-Inca petroglyphs were discovered in the Machu Picchu region(d)(e). Research is proceeding.

*It was revealed in 2019 that work had commenced on the building of a new interational airport to service Machu Picchu, a development has been vigorously opposed as a threat to the already fragile site. It is worth noting that in 2017, 1.5 million visitors, nearly twice the limit recommended by UNESCO, came to Machu Picchu(g).*

Some pathetic attempts have been made to link Machu Picchu with Atlantis. One of them claims that “This was the (summer?) residence of the continental governor, who at the time of the destruction of Atlantis was a woman.”(b) Others, such as Rand Flem-Ath along with the late Colin Wilson[063], as well as Jim Alison, have included the Andean site in proposed global grids linking prehistoric sites.

A less-known Inca site is that of Choquequirao(f), sometimes referred to as the ‘sister’ of Machu Picchu. Only a third of the site has been excavated so far.

(a) http://www.ancienthistoricalresearchfoundation.com/index.php/news/item/66-new-archaeoastronomical-alignments-found-at-machu-picchu

(b) http://www.thelighthouseonline.com/articles/atlantis3.html

*(c) https://web.archive.org/web/20190105000701/https://www.livinginperu.com/news-new-inca-road-to-machu-picchu-discovered-103165/*

(d) http://www.ancient-code.com/researchers-find-pre-inca-petroglyphs-at-machu-picchu-that-could-rewrite-andean-history/

(e) http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/new-rock-paintings-discovered-machu-picchu-006393?nopaging=1

(f) http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/choquequirao-sister-site-machu-picchu-still-holds-hidden-secrets-003025?nopaging=1

*(g) https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2019/may/15/archaeologists-outraged-over-plans-for-machu-picchu-airport-chinchero*

 

 

Foerster, Brien

Brien Foerster is an American writer who now lives in Cuzco, the former Inca capital in Peru. He has studied the ancient cultures of the Andes and believes that many predated the Incas and had advanced technologies that  permitted the precise drilling of stone(a). His fully illustrated Kindle book, Lost Ancient Technology of Peru and Bolivia[0923]provides many examples. The book is worth purchasing for the images alone. There is now a video(d) that complements Foerster’s book.

Foerster has now studied the stonework of the ancient Egyptians and like Chris Dunn concluded that their level of accuracy could not have been achieved without possession of a high technology, now lost(i). He has expanded on this in his 2014 book, Lost Ancient Technology of Egypt[1487].

However, Foerester has recently stepped out of line when he apparently chipped fragments from stones at the Bolivian Puma Punku site with a view to having them tested for age. The laboratory refused to test the fragments as Foerester did not have the appropriate export document from Bolivia(e). It would appear that Foerster is either stupid or criminally irresponsible or both. This episode is reminiscent of the two German idiots who recently removed part of the ‘Vyse cartouche’ in the Great Pyramid and illegally smuggled it out of Egypt. Apparently, Foerester now claims that details of this report are inaccurate and may be libellous(f).

Elsewhere with regard to Atlantis he claims “the most plausible idea is that Atlantis was not a single land mass that sank, but was a series of smaller states in the Atlantic area 12,000 years ago.”

In recent interviews Foerster has proposed that the story of Atlantis is based on an Ice Age civilisation(g). His latest attention-seeking claim is that the Maya visited ancient Egypt, a trip that had some form of Atlantis connection(h).

He has also co-authored with David Hatcher Childress a book on South American cranial deformation and elongated skulls. These are reminiscent of similar skulls found in Malta(c) and Egypt as well as elsewhere around the world and dating back many thousands of years(b).

Carl Feagans’ website(j) has a number of articles that are highly critical of Foerster’s methods and motivation.

(a) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR7of1Lkef0

(b) http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/head-space-artificial-cranial-deformation

(c)  http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.ie/2013/03/ancient-elongated-skulls-and-cranial.html

*(d) http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.ie/2013/12/puma-punku-ancient-alien-technology.html (link broken Sept. 2018)*

(e) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2014/04/purdue-refuses-to-test-stone-pieces-brian-foerster-claimed-to-have-chipped-from-puma-punku.html

(f) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2014/04/brien-foerster-accuses-me-of-libel-says-puma-punku-stones-came-from-outside-fenced-area-at-site.html

(g) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/l-a-marzulli-and-brien-foerster-discuss-megalithic-ruins-decide-native-people-couldnt-have-built-any-of-them

(h) https://verumetinventa.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/brien-foerster-good-evidence-of-maya-culture-in-egyptian-pyramids/(offline October 2017)

(i) http://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-ancient-technology/evidence-cut-stone-compelling-argument-lost-high-technology-ancient-021545

(j) http://ahotcupofjoe.net/

 

Huari Román, Americo

Americo Huari Román (1950 – ) is a Peruvian electrical engineer who was Americo Huariborn in the former Inca capital of Cuzco. He is the author of La Atlantida y el Imperio de los Incas (Atlantis and the Empire of the Incas)[1127]. This is a bilingual book with a somewhat flawed English translation.

He contends that originally Atlantis had been an island in the Atlantic from where their influence spread to the the cultures of Europe, Africa and South America.Huari enters the realms of speculation with the wild claim that the Atlanteans used some form of levitation using anti-gravity fields! At the same time he also claims that they did not have the wheel as they did not need it! He quotes Blavatsky and other theosophists and psychics, which is probably where he got his ideas of advanced technology in Atlantis that is comparable with our own.

Even more disappointing for me was Huari’s failure to address Plato’s account, in particular the control of the Western Mediterranean by the Atlanteans from North Africa northward as far as modern Tuscany, and does not adequately explain the war with Egypt, if, as he claims[p.211] it was already an Atlantean colony!

Before the Great Deluge, Huari claims that most of central Brazil had been a huge inland sea and that Atlanteans and  Arawaks lived around this lake and that one artifact left by them is the enormous carved Ingá Stone(c).

After the Deluge a cataclysm inundated Atlantis and Brazil rose 100 metres, which got rid of the inland sea. Some groups fled to the Andean highlands of Peru, eventually developing the Empire of Tiwanaku which later morphed into the Incan Empire.

Huari supports his views with a number of video clips (a) which unfortunately are only in Spanish. Huari published a new video(b) in July 2014.

(a) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVzhBgn_am8

(b) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXMunaa3Q0I

(c) http://www.messagetoeagle.com/unsolved-enigma-of-the-inga-stone-and-its-mysterious-ancient-undeciphered-signs/

Atlantis and 2012

Atlantis and 2012. Some years ago there was a widespread rumour that an impending global disaster that was about to befall us in December, 2012, supposedly based on a particular reading of Mayan inscriptions. However, this interpretation was hotly disputed and of course, nothing happened, apart from the usual assortment of disasters which is the lot of the inhabitants of this cosmic speck that we live on.

A number of commentators attempted to link this ‘promised’ catastrophe with the story of Atlantis. One of the better known is Frank Joseph who has earned a comfortable living over recent years with his output of books on the subject of Atlantis. Not wishing that particular revenue stream dry up added Atlantis and 2012[0694], in which he claimed that the Mayan calendar was developed by Atlanteans and Lemurians. He suggests that we may be nearing the beginning of a new Ice Age invoking Hopi, Inca and Norse mythologies in support of his claims. Joseph’s credibility should now be clear. When the world did not end, Joseph revised his book and republished it as Atlantis and the Coming Ice Age[1074] in 2015!

harold-campingWe were then told to forget 2012, in fact, we had only days left. Harold Camping a then ninety year old American fundamentalist Christian  decreed that May 21st 2011 was the date of the ‘Rapture’ and the end of the world as we know it and when that passed uneventfully, he then declared October 21st as the date.  He had previously suggested May 21st 1988, then Sept. 6th 1994 as the date of the Second Coming of Christ. Understandably, Camping’s biblical interpretation has been heavily criticised by scriptural authorities and lay people alike(a). Camping died December 2013.

Camping had spending large amounts of money publicising his daft ideas. As usual there were fools prepared to believe all this 2011 or 2012 nonsense. For my part I planned a special holiday in 2013 to celebrate my 70th birthday. Which did occur.

Chris McCann

Chris McCann

Nevertheless the spirit of Camping lived on in the person of Chris McCann who announced that October 7th 2015 would be the Earth’s last day. It seems that this silliness is unending(h).

In 2010 a British service entitled Post Rapture Pet Care, run by atheists, offered to look after the pets of fundamentalist Christians when they are taken up to Heaven in the Rapture, for a fee of £69.99. A similar service is on offer in the US named Eternal Earth-Bound Pets.

National Geographic offers a rational explanation(d) of the reality behind this whole 2012 cynical scaremongering exercise. However, a somewhat less restrained view of the 2012 con job is provided by a ‘must read’ website(e)that highlights the harm being done to young and vulnerable people by this nonsense.

A recent discovery in Guatemala, reported in June 2012(f), has provided further evidence that the 2012 alarmist claims are unfounded and no more credible than the prognostications of Harold Camping. Let me spell it out, the latest find simply records that December 2012 will bring a Mayan time cycle (a baktun) to an end while another one will begin, in the same way that we make a fuss at the end of a year, century or millennium.

However, for those that might be disappointed when 2013 arrives uneventfully, I can now reveal that in 2016 we shall at last have our catastrophe or so says Sylwester Kornowski(g). In a 94-page stew of religion and ‘science’, we are assured that April 2nd 2016 will bring on the cataclysm!

But don’t despair if 2016 fails to destroy us, because a newer prognostication is certain that 2027 will finally finish us off. Nevertheless, before getting too excited, it may be no harm to recall the words of Albert Einstein……Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I’m not sure about the universe.

(a) http://www.cogwriter.com/harold-camping-may-21-2011.htm

*(b) http://www.postrapturepetcare.com/ (link broken Sept. 2018) See: Archive 2739*

(d) http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/12/111220-end-of-world-2012-maya-calendar-explained-ancient-science/

(e) http://www.2012hoax.org/ (offline Oct.’14)

(f) http://phys.org/news/2012-06-maya-archaeologists-unearth-monument.html

(g) http://www.cosmology-particles.pl/files/GtoG.pdf (Mercifully now offline)

(h) https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/wp/2015/10/10/what-happens-when-your-end-of-the-world-prediction-is-wrong/?utm_source=Secular+Sunday&utm_campaign=cc9e003fa2-198_copy_01_10_16_2015&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_09cfdc0dd4-cc9e003fa2-113411293

Atlantology

Atlantology as a distinct field of study is accepted by most to have begun with the works of Ignatius Donnelly, however flawed many of his ideas may have been. Since Donnelly, it has developed into a very complex multidisciplinary subject. Students of the topic are known today as Atlantologists although an earlier designation was Atlantists, a term now used to describe supporters of political and economic co-operation between the USA and western Europe. The inventive Zia Abbas prefers to use the term ‘Atlantisology’!

N. Zhirov, the leading Russian Atlantologist, has offered the following formal definition of the subject: “It may be regarded as a department of the biogeography of the modern, Quaternary period (Anthropogen) of the Earth’s geological history, a department chronologically relating to the period of the emergence of intelligent man, a period directly preceding our historical epoch beginning with the last glaciation.” He believed that Atlantis was primarily a geological problem that could only be resolved through a study of the geological history of the Atlantic Ocean.

A less cumbersome definition might be “the study of all aspects of Plato’s references to Atlantis”

A forum dealing with Atlantology(a) and suggested parameters for its study may be found interesting by readers. I personally disagree with a number of the headings proposed for inclusion, such as ‘Rudolf Steiner’, ‘Ireland & Tara’ and ‘Shangri-la’, as I consider them unrelated to Plato’s Atlantis.

Over the years that I have spent compiling Atlantipedia it became clear that different theories became ‘fashionable’ from time to time, because of new discoveries, the opinions of prominent individuals or as a consequence of heavily publicised books. The 15th century saw Gutenberg develop the printing press in 1436 and the first complete works of Plato, translated by Marsilio Ficino were published in 1484, so when Columbus discovered the New World in 1492, there were many who speculatively identified the Americas as Plato’s Atlantis. This idea persisted until the end of the 19th century*and even today some think it a possibility.*

More specifically, when the monumental structures of the Maya and Incas were gradually revealed to Europeans, once again a link with Atlantis was proposed for South America and still has some support today.

However the most popular and enduring theory is that Atlantis had been situated in the Atlantic Ocean, with the Azores as the prime candidate. It received a boost in support with the discovery of the Mid Atlantic Ridge in the 19th century and was used by Ignatius Donnelly in the formulation of his Atlantis theory.

In 1872, the elements of the Minoan Hypothesis began to appear when Louis Figuier was first to link Atlantis with the 2nd millennium eruption of Thera. Today, this idea is probably the most accepted, apart from the Atlantic location.

There are many other theories regarding Atlantis, some more exotic than others, but, in my opinion, none that match all the criteria that can be gleaned from Plato’s account, although their authors would disagree.

In 1971, John S. Bowman [193] apparently coined the term ‘atlantist’ as an improvement on ‘atlantologist’ to describe those who have a keen interest in the study of Atlantis.

A potted history of Atlantology from Donnelly until Sykes, is available at the Atlantis Online website(b).

(a) http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread412294/pg1

(b) http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php?action=printpage;topic=778.0

Incas

The Incas or at least their ancestors are claimed by Jim Allen to have ruled Atlantis, which he insists exited on the Altiplano of the Andes in Bolivia. However the idea of a connection between Atlantis and the cultures of Central and South America is not new, having been first mooted by Pedro Samiento de Gamboa in 16th century. Supporters of the theory today cite the extremely controversial Oera Linda Book which states that one of the Frisian naval commanders named Inka reached America after the destruction of Atlantis. With this tenuous etymological link they conclude that he was the founder of the Inca civilisation, ignoring the fact that the earliest evidence for the Inca tribe dates to around 1200AD while the Oera Linda Book puts the destruction of Atlantis circa 2200BC, leaving an unexplained gap of nearly 3500 years. A Frisian–Inca connection is also proposed on the Stepping Stones website(a) which for good measure endeavours to link them with the Shang Chinese, the Magyars and, of course, the Atlanteans(b).

The great tragedy of the Inca culture is that they left no written records with the exception of the knotted strings known as quipu (khipu)(d). Gary Urton is a Professor of pre-Columbian Studies and has a website dedicated to the study of quipu(e). In April 2017, Sabine Hyland published a paper on some late 18th century khipus made of animal hair, which according to local Peruvian villagers contained an account of an uprising against the Spaniards(g)(i).

*But now, Urton and Alejandro Chu, of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima have studied a collection of khipus at the Inkawasi site have concluded that the khipus in question probably recorded taxes levied on local crops(j).*

Cusco-Inca-WallLeaving aside any consideration of an Atlantean link with the Inca people, there is no doubt that that the Incas possessed remarkable construction capabilities. It has been estimated that they constructed nearly 25,000 miles of roadway in a period of around 100 years(f)! This network, known as Qhapaq Ñan, extends over six countries and is now a Unesco World Heritage Site, the largest on the planet. Unfortunately it has been allowed to deteriorate. Efforts are being made to redress this unfortunate situation(h).

The megalithic masonry to be found in Cusco, their ancient capital, further highlights their outstanding construction abilities. A recent well-illustrated book by Brien Foerster, Lost Ancient Technology of Peru and Bolivia[923] examines a range of Incan sites and their often enigmatic monuments. This is a valuable addition to the literature on the subject.

In 2007 the Peruvian engineer and writer, Jesus Americo Huari Roman (1950-), wrote a book (for private circulation) entitled La Atlantida y el Imperio de los Incas (Atlantis and the Empire of the Incas), in which he also argues that then Incas were descendants of the Atlanteans. He has video clips on YouTube supporting his theory(a), unfortunately, with Spanish dialogue only.

(a) http://www.youtube.com/user/JESUSAMERICO100/feed

(b) http://all-ez.com/epigraphy.htm

(c) http://all-ez.com/frisian-inka.htm

(d) http://enperublog.com/2009/06/30/unlocking-the-secrets-of-the-quipus/

(e) http://khipukamayuq.fas.harvard.edu/Researchers.html

(f) http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/inca-empire-constructed-over-40000-kms-roads-and-superhighways-100-years-021248?nopaging=1

(g) https://www.sciencenews.org/article/twisted-textile-cords-may-contain-clues-inca-messages?tgt=nr

(h) http://www.bbc.com/travel/gallery/20170912-a-30000km-road-network-from-the-andes-to-the-amazon

(i) https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/unraveling-an-ancient-code-written-in-strings/

*(j) https://www.sciencenews.org/article/khipus-knotted-cords-incas-taxes*

 

Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro

sarmiento de gamboaPedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1532-1592) was a Spanish explorer who has given us a valuable insight into history of the Incas with an important 16th century perspective on their Spanish conquerors. De Gamboa was convinced that the Native Americans were originally of European origin and speculated that they were in fact the descendants of refugees from Atlantis, which he calculated to have been destroyed in 1320 BC. He referred to Atlantis as Atlanticus.

What is also interesting is that he was also one of the earliest to suggest the application of months or lunar ‘years’ to the problem of Plato’s date for Atlantis. De Gamboa’s book has recently been republished as The History of the Incas[309], with a free English translation is also available as an eBook on the Internet(a).

(a) http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/20218

Cuzco

 

Cuzco is a provincial capital of modern Peru, which in the 11th century was the capital of the Inca Empire. One remarkable sight in the city is the 12-angle stone in the wall on Hatun Rumiyoc Street, which has now been outdone by a 13-angle stone recently identified built into an irrigation system at the Inkawasi archaeological site, located in Huancavelica region’s Huaytará district(c). A few years ago Davide Andrea published his theory on how the Incas fitted those multi-angled stones(d).

The city of Cuzco contained The Corichancha, (Place of Gold), which the Incas dedicated to Viracocha and which astounded the Conquistadors in the 1530’s when confronted with its opulence(b). It was Cusco-Inca-Wallcovered inside and out with over 700 sheets of gold and silver. The nearby Garden of the Sun contained golden animals, birds and plants. Pipes, aqueducts and basins were also made of gold. The complex was fed by natural hot and cold springs. Apart from all this ostentatious wealth, some writers have drawn further parallels between Plato’s Atlantis, Homer’s Phaeacia and the Cuzco of the Incas. Although nobody, so far,  has suggested that Cuzco had been the location of Atlantis it has been mooted that it may have been constructed as a reminder of the glory of a previous homeland. Donnelly considered Peru to be an Atlantean colony. Local people are clearly not unaware of the suggestion that Cuzco has been associated with Plato’s lost city and so you will find the Atlantis Hotel within a few blocks of the main square.

The astonishing mortarless Inca masonry in the town has to be seen to be believed.

Frank Joseph states[102] that north-west of Cuzco there is a sacred mountain whose summit and a village on its southern slope are known as Atalaia. Pre-Inca remains are also to be found in the vicinity of Cuzco, an ancient sun-worshipping city, which was recently discovered to have the highest ultra-violet levels on our planet. For centuries rumours have persisted(a) that a series of tunnels existed under Cuzco. In 2000, a 2km tunnel was discovered under the city by the Spanish archaeologist, Anselm Pi Rambla.

Yale University in the United States, and the Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cuzco (UNSAAC) in Peru, announced the establishment of a International Center for the Study of Machu Picchu and Inca Culture, in Cuzco. The Centre opened in 2011(a) following the return of hundreds of items looted by Hiram Bingham.

Brian Foerster is convinced that pre-Incan advanced technology was used in the earliest construction of Cusco, an idea that he expands on in a short YouTube video(e).

(a) http://news.yale.edu/2011/10/06/peru-yale-center-study-machu-picchu-and-inca-culture-opens

(b) http://www.world-mysteries.com/mpl_9.htm (offline Feb. 2016) see Archive 2921

(c) http://www.peruviantimes.com/24/thirteen-angled-stone-found-at-inca-site-of-inkawasi/23139/

(d) http://www.davideandrea.com/personal/ideas/inca_stones/index.html

*(e) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XwDRZ-u8E2Q*

Blashford-Snell, Col. John

Col. John BlashfordSnell was born in 1936 and educated at Victoria College, Jersey and then entered The Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, followed by 37 years in the Army. He is married with two daughters and lives in Dorset. His interest in blashford-snellexploration led him and some colleagues to set up the Scientific Exploration Society of which he is now chairman. He has organised and led over sixty expeditions and has received a number of awards including an OBE. On top of all that he has written thirteen books. His 2001 Koto Mama II expedition to Bolivia in search of Paititi a legendary lost city of the Incas generated some criticism by environmental interests for his use of dynamite, to clear a six-mile path through the rainforest(c). Paititi remains just a legend in spite of a number of expeditions during the decade following Koto Mama(d). A more extensive biography can be found on his website(b).

Blashford-Snell has also written an introduction to Atlantis: The Andes Solution by Jim Allen who places Atlantis on the Bolivian Altiplano near Lake Titicaca. In 2000, an expedition led by the Italian, Lorenzo Epis, discovered a temple 660 x 160ft at the bottom of Titicaca(e). Allen claims in his book that the Koto Mama expedition was inspired by his own search for Atlantis in Bolivia.

In February 2010, Blashford-Snell claimed(a) to have found a possible  ancient water route in Nicaragua linking the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans hundreds of years before the Panama Canal. The 74 year old veteran explorer is planning a further expedition to demonstrate that he can travel coast to coast by water alone using natural features that include a lake, a river and a flood plain.

(a)  http://insidecostarica.com/special_reports/2010/2010-02/nicaragua_canal.htm

(b) http://www.johnblashfordsnell.org.uk/biography/

(c) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/3292608/Blashers-under-fire-for-worthless-expedition.html

(d)  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paititi

*[(e)  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/892616.stm]*