An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Maya

Civilisation Collapse

Civilisation Collapse has occurred many times over past millennia in all parts of the world. Joseph A. Tainter[1539] defines collapse as “a rapid shift to a lower level of complexity(a) .” Societal disintegration immediately brings to mind the Maya, the Indus Valley and in what are relatively more modern times, the Western Roman Empire.

The causes are usually a combination of factors, such as, climate change, warfare, disease or excessive expansionism. Global catastrophes such as encounters with comets or asteroids are rare, while more local events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or tsunamis can also be thrown into the mix. These have all been encountered from time to time, but have rarely been blamed for the collapse of a society; recovery from such limited regional events is usually possible.

The Mediterranean has seen its share of all these catastrophic events. A major tsunami on Sardinia, volcanic eruptions in Italy, earthquakes in North Africa and the Eastern Mediterannean. Close encounters with extraterrestrial bodies have also been proposed in that region.

Perhaps the best documented civilisation collapse is that which occurred around 1200 BC and affected many societies, particularly in the Middle East(b) . Israel Finkelstein, a leading Israeli archaeologist, has attributed this event to climate change and is of the view that this disruption was global in extent.

Inevitably, Atlantis has been cited as an example of civilisation collapse, particularly supporters of the Minoan Hypothesis, who link the 2nd millennium BC eruptions of Thera with the demise of the Minoans on Crete. Also popular is the idea that Atlantis had been a large island in the Atlantic Ocean destroyed by a cometary impact or the rising sea levels as the glaciers melted at the end of the last Ice Age.

A variety of other theories have associated Atlantis with the collapse of a civilisation. For example, Frank Joseph claims that 40,000 years ago “sudden sea-level rises triggers migration from Mu around. The Pacific motherlanders settle on a large, fertile island about 380 kilometers due west from the Straits of Gibraltar. There, the newcomers merge with the native Cro-Magnon inhabitants, resulting in a new, hybrid culture – Atlantis.”

*(a) http://www.historytoday.com/christopher-chippindale/collapse-complex-societies (link broken June 2018)*

(b) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Bronze_Age_collapse

Landa, Diego de

Diego de Landa (1524- 1579) was the Franciscan bishop of Yucatán who played a significant part in promoting the idea that the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel had migrated to the Americas, citing local Mayan legends that their ancestors had come from the East, aided by divine intervention! Others, such as Brasseur de Bourbourg, seized on this idea and expanded it to link the Maya with Atlantis.

Landa was ‘a nasty piece of work’, showing great cruelty towards the indigenous people and little respect for their culture. He is also considered to have produced a truly dreadful decipherment of the Mayan script. Later attempts by Brasseur de Bourbourg and Augustus le Plongeon were equally unsuccessful.

Pleiades, The

The Pleiades in Greek mythology is the collective name for the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione, while in astronomy, it is one of the nearest star clusters to Earth and the most obvious to the naked eye in the Taurus constellation. They were identified among the famous prehistoric paintings on the walls of the Lascaux Cave (16,500 BC).

The Danish independent researcher, Ove Von Spaeth, has a wide-ranging article on cultural references to the Pleiades including the Nebra Sky Disc(a). He also touches on the subject of Atlantis.

David Zink in his search for Atlantis in the Bahamas used the services of psychic, Carol Huffstickler, who was happy to inform him that around 28,000 BC, the Gods came to Earth from the Pleiades(d)!

However, Jack Countryman has devoted his book, Atlantis and the Seven Stars[1312], to the idea that extraterrestrials from the Pleiades “had initiated human civilisation through Atlantis and the Mediterranean.” A comparable idea has been proposed by Semir Osmanagic, promoter of the Bosnian pyramids, who has suggested[0519] that the Maya were descendents of the Atlanteans who in turn arrived on Earth from the Pleiades(b)!

Frank Joseph claims that the Pleiades, ”like the kings (of Atlantis) listed by Plato, they correspond, through their individual myths, to actual places within the Atlantean sphere of influence, and thereby help to illustrate the story of that vanished empire.” Joseph, concludes by associating each with particular realms within that empire, including the Azores, Morocco. Troy, Yucatan, Italy and the Canaries.[104.227]

The Cherokee Indians also have have an oral tradition which tells of ‘star people’ coming to Earth from the Pleiades and settling on five islands in the Atlantic known as Elohi Mona. Following the destruction of these islands the survivors migrated to the Americas. A Cherokee contributor to a, now offline, forum related how he always understood Elohi Mona to be a reference to Atlantis. Another site offering further ‘insights’ into the Atlantean and Cherokee linkage to the Pleiades is available(c).

Edward Alexander, in a slight twist to the tale, also claims to have been reincarnated many times on Earth, over the past 9,000 years from his distant origins in the Pleiades.

The Pleiades are known as Subaru in Japanese, giving its name to the car brand and inspiring their logo design.

*(a) http://www.thirax.dk/artikler/OveSpaeth/Ove39/index-UK.htm (offline May 2018) See: Archive 3363*

(b) http://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/osmanagic/

(c) https://www.tokenrock.com/explain-pleiadians-138.html

*(d) http://www.tulsaworld.com/archives/legend-of-atlantis-lives-in-bimini/article_d5552245-820b-510a-bb96-c295f7947300.html (June 2018-Not available in Europe because of the GDPR)*

Bugby, William

William Bugby (1852-1928) was an Australian schoolteacher who frequently wrote to his local Daily Post in Hobart, Tasmania on the subject of Atlantis. He was a keen supporter of Le Plongeon’s theories(a)(b)(c), placing Mu (Atlantis) in the Atlantic and that the survivors of its destruction fled to the Yucatan, where they established what became the Mayan civilisation.

(a) http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/187875670?searchTerm=Atlantis discovered&searchLimits=sortby=dateAsc

(b) http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/187876598?searchTerm=Atlantis discovered&searchLimits=sortby=dateAsc

(c) http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/187880760?searchTerm=Atlantis discovered&searchLimits=sortby=dateAsc

Quetzalcoatl (m)

QuetzalcoatlQuetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity, whose name in the local Nahuatl language means ‘feathered serpent’. To the Aztecs he was a creator god and also had a parallel in Mayan culture to whom he was known as Kukulcan or Gucumatz. It is a commonly held belief among Mormons that Quetzalcoatl was Jesus Christ!

Harold T. Wilkins claimed[363.97] that Quetzalcoatl was from Atlantean Brazil.

*[Pierre Honoré claimed[0956] that these white gods had come from the region of Crete and had brought with them their script. As Linear A & B had ceased being used by 1400 BC, Honoré surmised that visits of these deities had taken place before that date.]*

Lewis Spence also claimed an Atlantis connection for Quetzalcoatl.

These ideas are just pure conjecture but are relatively tame compared with the wilder speculations of writers such as Peter Kolosimo, who claimed that the legends actually describe a race of white men who were born in spaceships and migrated to Atlantis; then, after Atlantis was destroyed, they moved to the Americas to be treated as “white gods” by the “primitive earth-dwellers.”(a)

(a) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_gods

Foerster, Brien

Brien Foerster is an American writer who now lives in Cuzco, the former Inca capital in Peru. He has studied the ancient cultures of the Andes and believes that many predated the Incas and had advanced technologies that  permitted the precise drilling of stone(a). His fully illustrated Kindle book, Lost Ancient Technology of Peru and Bolivia[0923]provides many examples. The book is worth purchasing for the images alone. There is now a video(d) that complements Foerster’s book.

Foerster has now studied the stonework of the ancient Egyptians and like Chris Dunn concluded that their level of accuracy could not have been achieved without possession of a high technology, now lost(i). He has expanded on this in his 2014 book, Lost Ancient Technology of Egypt[1487].

However, Foerester has recently stepped out of line when he apparently chipped fragments from stones at the Bolivian Puma Punku site with a view to having them tested for age. The laboratory refused to test the fragments as Foerester did not have the appropriate export document from Bolivia(e). It would appear that Foerster is either stupid or criminally irresponsible or both. This episode is reminiscent of the two German idiots who recently removed part of the ‘Vyse cartouche’ in the Great Pyramid and illegally smuggled it out of Egypt. Apparently, Foerester now claims that details of this report are inaccurate and may be libellous(f).

Elsewhere with regard to Atlantis he claims “the most plausible idea is that Atlantis was not a single land mass that sank, but was a series of smaller states in the Atlantic area 12,000 years ago.”

In recent interviews Foerster has proposed that the story of Atlantis is based on an Ice Age civilisation(g). His latest attention-seeking claim is that the Maya visited ancient Egypt, a trip that had some form of Atlantis connection(h).

He has also co-authored with David Hatcher Childress a book on South American cranial deformation and elongated skulls. These are reminiscent of similar skulls found in Malta(c) and Egypt as well as elsewhere around the world and dating back many thousands of years(b).

Carl Feagans’ website(j) has a number of articles that are highly critical of Foerster’s methods and motivation.

(a) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR7of1Lkef0

(b) http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/head-space-artificial-cranial-deformation

(c)  http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.ie/2013/03/ancient-elongated-skulls-and-cranial.html

*(d) http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.ie/2013/12/puma-punku-ancient-alien-technology.html (link broken Sept. 2018)*

(e) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2014/04/purdue-refuses-to-test-stone-pieces-brian-foerster-claimed-to-have-chipped-from-puma-punku.html

(f) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2014/04/brien-foerster-accuses-me-of-libel-says-puma-punku-stones-came-from-outside-fenced-area-at-site.html

(g) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/l-a-marzulli-and-brien-foerster-discuss-megalithic-ruins-decide-native-people-couldnt-have-built-any-of-them

(h) https://verumetinventa.wordpress.com/2016/06/28/brien-foerster-good-evidence-of-maya-culture-in-egyptian-pyramids/(offline October 2017)

(i) http://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-ancient-technology/evidence-cut-stone-compelling-argument-lost-high-technology-ancient-021545

(j) http://ahotcupofjoe.net/

 

Teleguin, Sergey

Sergey Teleguin is a Russian professor of Philology and a leading advocate of the idea that the city of Tripura (Triple City) in Vedic tradition was the original inspiration behind Plato’s city of Atlantis. In support Teleguinof his contention he has outlined a number of parallels between Plato’s account and the sacred texts of India, the Puranas and Mahabharata, in an extensive English excerpt(a) from his 2005 Russian book, Anatomy of a Myth[1122].

A further claim by Teleguin is that the Popol Vuh, the sacred book of the Maya gives clears evidence that they came from the far north – Ultima Thule.  He goes further and attributes a North Pole origin to both the Maya and the Indo-Europeans(b).

He has recently outlined his ideas further in an article for (Nov/Dec 2013) Issue 102 of Atlantis Rising magazine.

He recently reiterated, in an email, his view that Plato’s Atlantis story should only be accepted literally or not at all. It is difficult to accept that an academic could write such nonsense. He cannot be unaware that Plato’s narrative is composed of mythology, history and within the bounds of literary licence, some embellishment of his own. Otherwise, according to Teleguin, we are expected to believe that Clieto actually gave birth to five sets of male twins, that Athens fought a war before it existed and that Poseidon and Atlas were real people! The same absence of critical thinking allows people to believe that the world was created in seven days.

(a) http://atlantida.primordial.org.ua/archives/251

(b) http://mayanarchaeology.tripod.com/id23.html

Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica is the term used to describe a region which includes Mexico and Central America that was home to a number of important pre-Columbian cultures including that of the Mixtec, Toltec and Maya peoples. When news of Columbus’ rediscovery of America got back to Europe it did not take long for theories linking the ‘New World’ with Plato’s Atlantis to develop. While most initial speculation focussed on the idea that America was Atlantis. As time went by, this concept was downgraded to just identifying America as the home of refugees from Atlantis, usually located in the Atlantic.

By the 19th century the similarity between the pyramids of Mesoamerica and those of Egypt began prompting the thought that Egypt may also have been home to Atlantean refugees. However, further comparisons of ancient Indian architecture with that of ancient Central America has led to a set of new theories(a) that generally excludes Atlantis. While Jim Allen has illustrated(c) a number of interesting cultural links between Mesopotamia and Bolivia, Richard Cassaro has published(b) an extensive series of images linking Egypt and Mesoamerica.

(a) http://www.hinduwisdom.info/Pacific.htm

(b) http://www.richardcassaro.com/suppressed-by-scholars-the-mystery-of-twin-cultures%e2%80%95egyptians-incas%e2%80%95on-opposite-sides-of-the-globe

*(c) http://www.atlantisbolivia.org/boliviaandthesumerianconnection.htm*

Alphabet of Atlantis, The

The Alphabet of Atlantis according to Ignatius Donnelly was the inspiration for the Phoenician alphabet. In fact, one of the objectives of Donnelly’s 1882 book was to prove “that the Phœnician alphabet, parent of all the European alphabets, was derived from an Atlantis alphabet, which was also conveyed from Atlantis to the Mayas of Central America.” (Pt.III chap.7)

R. Cedric Leonard has explored this possibility in a series of articles(a) and concluded that the hypothesis has merit. However, the Phoenician ‘alphabet’ lacked vowel signs and so should perhaps be called a betadelt? It took the Greeks to introduce vowel symbols and give us a writing method superior to that of the Phoenicians and which, by extension, if we accept the views of Donnelly and Leonard, is more flexible than the Atlantean system. The earliest Indian symbol has been dated to the 9th century AD in Gwalior, however, the mathematician, Amir Aczel has now traced an earlier zero from the 7th century AD in Cambodia(c).*Suggestions of even earlier dates are strongly disputed(e).*

The imaginative William Scott-Elliot had a slightly different view which he expressed as follows; “It is probable that the earliest form of alphabet was hieroglyphic, “the writing of the Gods,” as the Egyptians called it, and that it developed later in Atlantis into the phonetic. It would be natural to assume that the Egyptians were an early colony from Atlantis (as they actually were) and that they carried away with them the primitive type of writing which has thus left its traces on both hemispheres, while the Phoenicians, who were a sea-going people, obtained and assimilated the later form of alphabet during their trading voyages with the people of the west.”(b)

Others have suggested that Ogham was a writing system that could be traced back to Atlantis, but, understandably,  without offering any supporting evidence, the entire subject is fertile ground for speculation. There are around 400 examples of Ogham writing worldwide of which 360 are in Ireland(d)!

The Disney film, Atlantis:The Lost Empire, included a language and script created by Marc Okrand who also invented ‘Klingon’ for the Star Trek TV shows and films. Some New Age writers, who are even less convincing than Disney, have also tried to connect the Runic script of Northern Europe with Atlantis.

Lucile Taylor Hansen devotes chapter 59 of The Ancient Atlantic[572] to a general review of similarities between aspects of the ‘alphabets’ of the Maya, Phoenicians and Greeks among others.

(a) http://www.atlantisquest.com/alphabet.html (offline March 2018)

(b) http://www.sacred-texts.com/atl/soa/soa04.htm

(c) http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/origin-number-zero-180953392/

(d) http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/preserving-irelands-ancient-mysterious-treebased-alphabet

*(e) https://www.archaeology.org/news/6054-171027-bakhshali-manuscript-zero*

Stacy-Judd, Robert B. (L)

Robert B. Stacy-Judd (1884-1975) was born in London where he trained as an architect. He moved to Canada before going south and establishing a Stacy-Juddpractice in California in 1920. He was totally fascinated by Mayan culture, particularly its architecture which led him to promote the ‘Mayan-Revival’ style of architecture in the United States.

His interest in the Maya went further leading him to write a number of books on the subject including The Ancient Mayas: Adventures in the Jungles of  Yucatan 19340902] and the still very impressive Atlantis: Mother of Empires[607], in which he produced a chart (p.254) showing many parallels between the ancient cultures of the Americas and those of the Old World together with the suggestion that many of these perceived common features had their origin in Atlantis.

He suggested that Atlantis was situated in the Atlantic and that it suffered three major inundations in 23,000 BC, 14,000 BC and 9,600 BC (p.174/5) leading to a succession of migrations and cultural diffusion. He believed that the Akkadian civilisation of ancient Mesopotamia was founded by colonists directly from Atlantis or by Cro-Magnons from Spain (p.162)!

He also totally rejected Churchward’s claim that the lost continent of Mu was ‘positively’ the birthplace of the Mayan civilisation, saying that Churchward’s arguments “lack corroboration, are illogical and unconvincing.”

A biography [596]of Stacy-Judd has been written by David Gebhard. An aspect of Stacy-Judd that I had not been aware of, was his psychic abilities, revealed in an online article(a) by Franklin Loehr, a Congregational minister.

(a) http://www.religiousresearch.org/loehrstudy/ALPart%20I.htm  (offline /8/14)