Tom T. Moore is an American self-help author and self-declared telepath, who has written on a variety of subjects including Atlantis and Lemuria(a). He conventionally places Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean and Lemuria in the Pacific. According to Moore, Atlantis was destroyed by a natural disaster 31,000 years ago and again 12,500 years ago as a result of a war!
Lemuria was larger than Australia and was formerly connected to Japan and for thousands of years was an idyllic place with its inhabitants vacationing in Hawaii!
However, Lemuria, also known as Mu, destroyed itself in an atomic war 7,500 years ago.
This ‘male cow effluent’, is expanded on in his Atlantis & Lemuria: The Lost Continents Revealed .
William Bugby (1852-1928) was an Australian schoolteacher who frequently wrote to his local Daily Post in Hobart, Tasmania on the subject of Atlantis. He was a keen supporter of Le Plongeon’s theories(a)(b)(c), placing Mu (Atlantis) in the Atlantic and that the survivors of its destruction fled to the Yucatan, where they established what became the Mayan civilisation.
Hyperdiffusion with Atlantis at its centre was argued at great length by Ignatius Donnelly when he proposed Atlantis as the mother culture, located in the Atlantic. Through colonisation and migration their civilisation was brought to the Americas and the Mediterranean, particularly Egypt. The idea received widespread support at the time and has persisted until today(a). A similar proposal was made by James Churchward in connection with his Pacific island of Mu.
Since Atlantis in the Atlantic is considered by many to be highly improbable and Mu only existed in Churchward’s imagination, a more likely explanation is that diverse ideas emerged independently in different locations, possibly around the same time. These developments then diffused through trade and migration in various directions, sometimes returning in an improved format. The result is that today we are finding that most ancient civilisations show evidence of cultural influences from more than one source.
Richard Cassaro and Jim Allen have both published online large collections of images(b)(c)(d) that clearly demonstrate widespread diffusion. This is particularly so in the case of South America where influences from both east and west are clearly evident. While it is regularly claimed that Egypt influenced South American civilisations it is obvious that Asian inspiration was equally, if not solely, at work. The existence of pyramids in both Egypt and Mesoamerica is put forward as evidence of contact between them. However, the problem is that the American pyramids were constructed hundreds if not thousands of years later than the Egyptian ones. However, in spite of this separation by time and distance, the Egyptians and the Aztecs also shared feathered-serpent deities(g)! What appears to be overlooked is the fact that the Chinese pyramids are more like Mesoamerican examples and are dated to the second half of the first millennium BC, again closer to the development of pyramids in Mesoamerica.
An even more unusual hyperdiffusionist opinion was expressed by the Argentine paleontologist, Florintino Ameghino (1854-1911), who thought that mankind originated in South America(h).
A 1986 paper(f) by Ben Urish entitled Cultural Diffusion should be read in this connection..
(g) http://atlantisquest.com/Quetzal.html (offline Mar. 2018) See Archive 2827
John Macmillan Brown (1845-1935) although Scottish by birth, he spent his academic life in New Zealand where he was a professor of Classics and English at Canterbury College in Christchurch.*He had an enlightened attitude towards the education of women.*
In 1924 he published Riddle of the Pacific in which he expressed the view that there had been a continent in the Pacific with some of today’s island groups its only remnants. This was some years before James Churchward started publishing his books on Mu.
Costantino Cattoi (1894-1975) was an officer in the Italian Air Force during the First World War, during which he developed the cartographic value of aerial photography. In 1955 he got considerable media coverage for his concept of lost civilisations, which included Lemuria, Mu and Atlantis in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans respectively. He also posited an extension of Atlantis reaching into the Mediterranean as far as Italy and added his view that just offshore from Ansedonia, 70 miles north of Rome, may have been the location of the Atlantean capital!
Cattoi also announced that he had located three of the cities of Tirrenide between Porto Santo Stefano and Isola del Giglio, but he died without being able to find funding for the underwater exploration that would have proved his hypothesis(b).
(Toledo Blade Pictorial, June 5, 1955)
(b) http://www.tuttomisteri.it/tirrenide/ (Italian) (link broken May 2019)*
L. C. Geerts is the Dutch author of the earth-history.com website. His background provides interesting reading(a). He has an extensive section regarding Atlantis, where he concludes as follows:
“In my book I will explain that there were at least 3 sunken continents (islands) in ancient times :
1. Atlantis, situated in the Atlantic Ocean, about 9,000 BC.
2. Lemuria (Mu), situated in the Pacific Ocean, about 20,000 BC.
3. The Egyptian Keftiu, situated in the Aegean See (Santorini, Thera), about 1,600BC.”
The working title of the book referred to by Geerts was ‘Earths Ancient History, a theory about ancient times and dawn of Mankind’ and was due for publication in 2013 – so far only available on his website(c).
Geerts has also written a history of Dordrecht, Holland’s oldest city(b).
Even though Geerts ventures on to subjects even more contentious than Atlantis, his site is worth a visit.
*In April 2018 Geerts’ website appeared to go offline. However, some of his ideas could still be read elsewhere(d). However, Geerts revamped his site and it is now available again with slightly modified web addresses..
Nan Madol is a large stone city on the Micronesian island of Pohnpei. The city has a series of canals connecting the structures, which were built on nearly a hundred artificial islands. It has been called both the ‘Venice’ and the ‘Atlantis’ of the Pacific. Conventional archaeology dates the site to around 1200AD.
James Churchward claimed Nan Madol as part of his concocted Mu. David Hatcher Childress has claimed that the site was part of Lemuria, another invention. Erich von Däniken in his The Gold of the Gods was happy to claim that as a result of extraterrestrial intervention, the ancient Micronesians, had mastered flight and used this ability to transport the stone for the construction of the city!
*Recent archaeological research in 2017, led by Mark McCoy from Texas Southern Methodist University, has, not unexpectedly, regenerated foolish speculation that the remarkable site might in some way be connected with Plato’s Atlantis(a) .
Albert Churchward (1852-1925) was a younger brother of James Churchward, the ‘inventor’ of Mu. Although trained as a medical practitioner, his real passion was the study of the early development of religion and the later development of Christianity from Egyptian origins. In that respect he was greatly influenced by the work of Gerald Massey(a)(c). He makes no reference to Mu or Atlantis, because he either disagreed with his brother’s views or just did not wish to tread on his literary toes! His book The Origin and Evolution of the Human Race can now be read online(b).
*(c) http://gerald-massey.org.uk/massey/cmc_churchward.htm (link broken April 2019) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20180316022505/http://gerald-massey.org.uk/massey/cmc_churchward.htm*
John Van Auken is a well-known lecturer on the ‘readings’ of Edgar Cayce. He is a Director at the Edgar Cayce organization, the Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E) having been associated with the A.R.E. since the late 1960s. He is the author of many books dealing with mysticism and ancient mysteries. He co-authored with Greg and Lora Little, Edgar Cayce’s Atlantis and Ancient South America. The latter mentions Plato just once, while an article on Van Auken’s own website(a) entitled Atlantis& Mu (Lemuria) has Plato completely ignored, which in my opinion leaves him unfit to discuss Atlantis.
Even more disturbing is his association with the rather dubious ‘diploma mill’, The International Metaphysical University(b), considered by some(c)(d) to be fraudulent.
Some years ago Van Auken was challenged by William Hutton to give the references of the six Cayce ‘readings’ that he had referred to in a lecture. The readings did not exist and the best that Van Auken could do was claim to have “misspoken”(e)!
(a) http://www.johnvanauken.com/atlantismu.htm (deleted April 2014)
(c) http://www.examiner.com/article/fraud-the-paranormal-field-goes-up-a-few-degrees (offline May 2015)
Pan was an 19th century name given to a supposed Pacific continent which was submerged many thousands of years ago(a). It is referred to in Oahspe – A New Bible, a concoction that was produced by ‘automatic writing’(b). Dr. Henry S. Tanner, famous for fasting for 40 days, was apparently a student of Oahspe and claimed that Pan was sometimes erroneously called Atlantis. Tanner was also an active Mormon. However, he was not too sharp on details, describing Tristan da Cunha as being in the Pacific South Sea, while in fact it is in the South Atlantic.
The concept of Pan has now been revived by an American linguist and paranormal researcher, Susan B. Martinez in a new book, The Lost Continent of Pan. The author is overly influenced by the highly questionable content of Oahspe and has done nothing but replace Mu with Pan.