An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Oera Linda Book

Frisland

Frisland is the name given to one of the legendary islands of the North Atlantic, ‘located’ just south of Iceland. The story goes that it was discovered around 1380 by the Venetian, Nicolo Zeno (1326-1402) and that a record of his adventures there, together with a now famous map (see below), were published in 1558 by a descendant. A decade later the celebrated Flemish cartographer, Geradus Mercator (1512-1594), published a comparable map, which also showed Frisland at much the same location and with a similar outline. Cornelius Wytfliet produced a map of the North Atlantic in 1597 depicting Frisland at the same location(c). It did not take long for doubts to be expressed about both the map and its accompanying narrative. Donald S. Johnson in his excellent Phantom Islands of the Atlantic[0652] concluded that Frisland was probably a case of ‘mistaken identity’, incorporating “the geography of the Faroe Islands and the contour of Iceland.”

A January 2018 National Geographic article(e) also discusses the story of non-existent islands, including Frisland, which are the subject of a new book, The Un-Discovered Islands[1545], by Malachy Tallack.

*Stuart L. Harris has identified Frisland as the Hyperborea of Greek mythology and Atland in the controversial Oera Linda Book. (i)*

Riaan Booysen who controversially locates Atlantis on a large landmass of which Australia is a ‘remnant’(a) has also written about Frisland(b). He concluded that Frisland along with many other ‘mythical’ North Atlantic can be matched with present-day underwater features in ‘relatively’ shallow waters suggesting that they were dry land during the last Ice Age when sea levels were considerably lower. He believes that their inclusion on extant maps is the result of copying much earlier charts that recorded those exposed landmasses.

D.S. Allan & J.B. Delair in their acclaimed book Cataclysm[0014] discuss the Zeno map at some length and concluded that its depiction of Greenland is based on earlier maps, “which apparently antedate Greenland’s present glacial regime” and “there are, apparently no genuine arguments for regarding the Zeno map – curious though it may seem to modern eyes – as portraying anything but that which actually once existed on Greenland in the not so very remote past.” (p.249)

Jason Colavito has highlighted the controversy surrounding the Zeno Map (see below)(d).

At the end of September 2018, the UK’s Daily Star, a well-known comic for adults, tried to revive the idea of Atlantis in Frisland(f). They based their brief article on the speculations of Matt Sibson, presented as an ‘expert’, who admits that “there are still some questions that need clearing up.” I would like to know why Frislanders in the middle of the last Ice Age would want to attack a non-existent Athens 4,000 km away? If Sibson is considered to be an expert historian, my cat is a brain surgeon. Colavito had a few words to add regarding Sibson’s pathetic claims(g).

Incredibly, a week later the same ‘newspaper’ cited Sibson again, this time claiming that Rockall was the remains of Atlantis(h), an equally silly idea that is not new.

Zeno-map

Zeno-map

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a) http://www.riaanbooysen.com/terra-aus

(b) http://www.riaanbooysen.com/terra-aus/87-terraproof1?start=7

(c) http://libweb5.princeton.edu/visual_materials/maps/websites/northwest-passage/wytfliet.htm

(d) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/apps/search?q=Zeno+Map

(e) https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/01/maps-undiscovered-fake-islands-cartography/

(f) https://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/weird-news/732388/Atlantis-found-Brit-historian-sunken-lost-city-coast-Ireland-conspiracy-video

(g) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/dissecting-this-past-weekends-faulty-claims-about-ancient-history

(h) https://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/weird-news/734235/Atlantis-pictured-tip-lost-city-discovered-Ireland-British-historian-video

*(i) https://www.academia.edu/36044603/Identification_of_Hyperborea_with_Atland_and_Frisland*

 

Atlantis II Deep (l)

Atlantis II Deep is the name of the largest submarine basin in the Red Sea reaching a maximum depth of 7,160 feet where hot brine is produced at 56°C. The Red Sea is an extension of the Rift Valley and is in a tectonically active region.

Atlantis II Deep

Gene Matlock quotes Rajeswar Gupta(a), the Bengali historian, who states that the Red Sea and the Mediterranean had in earlier times been connected by a strait. Coincidentally, the controversial Oera Linda Book supports this contention(b).

(a) http://www.mondovista.com/ancientturks.html

(b) http://www.sacred-texts.com/atl/olb/olb29.htm
(p.105)

Bergquist, Nils Olof

Nils Olof Bergquist (1897-1989) was a Swedish engineer with an interest in ancient history. In 1954 he published The Moon Puzzle[786]  which is probably a reworking of his 1946 Swedish publication[1186]. In it he describes a very close encounter of the earth with a large extraterrestrial body some millions of years ago. As it grazed the earth it caused the ejection of a large mass from what is now the Pacific Ocean. This mass became our Moon.

Although his theories differ in many respects from those of Hörbiger, Bergquist never once referred to Hörbiger’s ideas, which were still popular at that time. Berquist was content to link together the Deluge of Genesis, the Atlantis story and the Nordic Niflhem saga.

In 1971, he published, in Swedish, Ymdogat-Atlantis[785]which looked at Atlantis in the light of Norse mythology. He also studied The Oera Linda Book and in the end endorsed the Dogger Bank as the most likely location of Atlantis.

Linear A

Linear A (1800-1450 BC) is the designation given to one of two scripts used by the Minoans. Although Linear B, which has been deciphered, is similar to Linear A, there have been many failed attempts to decipher it, variously linking it to the Greek, Etruscan, Tyrhennian, Anatolian or Persian(d)  languages.

Linear A-2

However, there is some evidence that a writing system was in use in Greece as far back as the sixth millennium BC and was not adopted from the Phoenicians(h).

Patrick Archer moved further east for a solution, claiming that Linear A is possibly related to Chinese pictographs!*Gretchen Leonhardt also sought a solution in the East, offering a proto-Japanese origin for the script, a theory refuted by Yurii Mosenkis(j) , who promotes Minoan Linear A as proto-Greek. Mosenkis has published a number of papers on the Academia.edu relating to Linear A(k) .

Another of the many exotic solutions was offered by the American, Stuart Harris, who identified the language as being related to Finnish(a)(f)(g). Harris also quotes the controversial Oera Linda Book as evidence that the Cretans spoke Finnish (e). He follows Felice Vinci in identifying the Baltic as the source of much of Greek culture including Homer’s epics(b), in which connection they both locate Troy in Finland.

So far, no single translation theory has gained general acceptance.

Nevertheless, I have always been surprised that the British who managed to unravel the workings of the German Enigma Machine during World War II have failed to decipher Linear A, even though today’s supercomputers are so far ahead of what Alan Turing had to work with, Linear A remains undecoded!

In 2018, Brent Davis, one of the leading experts on Bronze Age Aegean scripts and languages published a paper in which “based on a close statistical analysis, shows that the while both the Phaistos Disc and Linear A are undeciphered writing systems, he can demonstrate that the both are, with a high degree of certainty, encode the same language!”(i)

(a) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?subject=linguistics&id=281

(b) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?subject=linguistics&id=301

(c) http://patrickofatlantis.com/

(d) http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/episodes/sinking-atlantis/90/

(e) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?year=2011&id=279

(f)  http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?year=2011&id=282

(g) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?year=2011&id=283

(h) http://www.historydisclosure.com/greek-writing-system-spans-millennia-and-did-not-originate-from-the-phoenicians/

(i) https://gath.wordpress.com/2019/01/30/brent-davis-on-the-languages-of-the-phaistos-disc-and-linear-a/

*(j) https://linearbknossosmycenae.com/2017/03/22/gretchen-leonhardt-is-up-against-some-stiff-competition-from-urii-mosenkis-concerning-her-so-called-proto-japanese-origins-of-minoan-linear-a/

(k) https://www.academia.edu/31443689/Researchers_of_Greek_Linear_A*

Raubenheimer, Alewyn J.

Alewyn J. Raubenheimer is a retired South African engineer and a member raubenheimerof the South African Archaeological Society. In 2010 he published Survivors of the Great Tsunami[0744], in which he links Noah’s Deluge with the flood, dated at 2193 BC, which is referred to in the controversial Oera Linda Book. He suggests that this flood was caused by the impact of the asteroid which created the submarine Burkle Crater in the Indian Ocean.

Raubenheimer touches on the subject of Atlantis, but is reluctant to identify it with the Atland destroyed in the Oera Linda Book.

Raubenheimer’s defence of the OLB has generated considerable support(a)(b).

On the other hand while there is little doubt that the OLB is also widely believed to be a hoax or a forgery, a contribution to Wikipedia on the subject notes that “The current article mentions several times that the book is a hoax/parody/forgery. The sources (from the article) which I have been able to check do not go in to detail about why the book is a hoax.(c)

*(a) http://www.merkuriusz.wieczorna.pl/historia-starozytna/pseudohistoria-czy-autentyczna-relacja-ksiega-oera-linda  (Polish) (offline Jan. 2018)*

(b) http://home.nordnet.fr/~jacfermaut/pointdevueheemstra02.html  (offline Dec. 2017)(French)

(c) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Oera_Linda_Book

North Sea

The North Sea has been advocated by a variety of writers as the original site of Atlantis. Jürgen Spanuth specified his native Heligoland as its location in his well-researched work, Atlantis of the North[015].

Robert Scrutton drew heavily on the contents of the controversial Oera Linda Book to support his view of an Atlantis or Atlantean colony in the Frisian Islands of the North Sea[117][118].

Georg Lohle in his book[446] on world history identifies a location between England and Denmark that was inundated about 2000 BC. He also makes extensive use of the Oera Linda Book. His German language website(a) has a wide range of photos and diagrams. Lohle daringly resurrects the old idea of the Earth being hollow and then combines it with another controversial concept, namely that it is still expanding(b).

In the middle of the 20th century we find Robert Graves and Rachel Carson were probably the first to suggest the Dogger Bank as the location of Atlantis. More recently Jean Deruelle(e), Sylvain Tristan(c) and Guy Gervis(d) have all opted for a location near the Dogger Bank, now more popularly known as Doggerland.

The most recent challenger for the Atlantis title is located in the vicinity of Rockall, an uninhabited islet north west of Ireland.

(a) http://www.erdexpansion.de/atlantis.htm  (offline Dec. 2017) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20161113122829/http://www.erdexpansion.de/atlantis.htm

(b) http://www.grisda.org/origins/15053.htm (link broken Oct. 2018) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20180307141731/http://www.grisda.org/origins/15053.htm

(c) http://www.visionary-knowledge.com/Atlantis/Atlantis%20the%20First%20European%20Empire.pdf (link broken Sept. 2018) See: http://spcov.free.fr/site_nicoulaud/en/empire.php

(d) http://www.nwepexplore.com (Link broken Sept. 2018) See: Archive 3606

(e) http://doggerbank.org/

 

Niroma, Timo (m)

Timo Niroma (? – 2009) from Helsinki in Finland had an extensive website(a) that discusses various worldwide catastrophes including two main events around 2200 BC and 3100 BC. The former supports the suggested Atlantis destruction date of Anton Mifsud while the latter date agrees with the work of Duncan Steel and David Furlong. Niroma touched on the Atlantis question and seemed to support an Atlantic location destroyed by an extraterrestrial impact. He also seemed inclined to accept that Oera Linda Book may have some historical value.

Niroma was an astrophysicist who was convinced that global warming was about to change and that based on his study of sunspot activity over the past three centuries he anticipated(b) a return to a mini Ice Age!

As early as the 1960’s Niroma identified Lake Lappajärvi in his native Finland as an impact crater, an idea that was greeted with almost universal scorn. In time he was proven correct and subsequently a further seven impact sites have been found in Finland(c).

*[Niroma has also examined the distribution of the planets in an effort to understand the mechanics behind Bode’s Law(d).]*

Readers are encouraged to study Niroma’s work.

(a) http://personal.eunet.fi/pp/tilmari/tilmari.htm

(b) http://personal.eunet.fi/pp/tilmari/tilmari3.htm

(c) http://list.uvm.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A3=ind9801&L=TIE-L&E=0&P=92156&B=–&T=text%2Fplain

*[(d) https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2014/05/03/as-above-so-below-timo-niroma/]*

Lohle, Georg

Georg Lohle is a German researcher, but unfortunately, he has had his book, Die Weltgeschichte – Der wahre Ursprung[446], only published in German. However, Lohle’s website(a) has a considerable amount of its content in English. There are a number of excerpts from his book, in German, that can be read online(c).

His book has chapter two focused on Atlantis, in which he relies heavily on the controversial Oera Linda Book and not surprisingly leads Lohle to believe that its location was in the middle of the North Sea.

Lohle is also a keen exponent of the ‘Expanding Earth Hypothesis’ and he has compounded his nonconformist views with his acceptance of the old theory of a ‘hollow’ Earth.

The prominent Australian geologist Dr. James Maxlow is also a supporter of the idea of an expanding Earth and estimates that it is currently doing so at a rate of 22mm per year. A more technical explanation of the theory, in English, can be found elsewhere on the Internet(b).

A report in early 2007 added a further confusing element to the subject when it was announced by Dr. Chris MacLeod, of Cardiff University, that the earth’s crust appeared to be completely missing in an area thousands of kilometres across in the Atlantic between Cape Verde Islands and the Caribbean on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

*(a) http://www.vanaheim.de (offline Dec. 2017)

See: https://web.archive.org/web/20160731211043/http://www.vanaheim.de

(b) http://www.grisda.org/origins/15053.htm (link broken Oct. 2018)

See: https://web.archive.org/web/20180307141731/http://www.grisda.org/origins/15053.htm*

(c) http://www.hohle-erde.de/?s=Georg+Lohle

 

Herrmann, Albert

Albert Herrmann (1886-1945) was Professor of Geography at Berlin University. He was very interested in oriental geography and is perhaps best known for his 1935, Historical and commercial Atlas of China, which was widely used

His other passion was Atlantis, so that between 1927 and 1931 he declared support for Borchardt’s Atlantis theory in a number of publications. In 1938 he used is influence to mount a large exhibition in Berlin about Atlantis(a).

He agreed that a large dried up saltwater lake in Tunisia called Shott el Djerid was originally Lake Tritonis and known during Solon’s time as the Atlantic Sea and further claimed that it had been the location of Atlantis; a theory supported by of a number of investigators. Herrmann suggested that it was the result of an upheaval of the land, which extended a land barrier between the Shott and the sea. He locates the Pillars of Heracles where this barrier was created. Anton Mifsud has pointed out that the 1st century BC writer Apollonius Rhodius located the Strait of Heracles in ancient Syrtis Minor, now the Gulf of Gabés, apparently supporting Herrmann’s contention. At one point, Herrmann cited as Atlantis, the village of Rhelissa, near the mouth of the old River Tritonis, which flowed into the Gulf of Gabes.

Herrmann disagreed with Plato’s 9,000 years and proposed that he had instead been referring to the 13th or 14th century BC.

Finally, Herrmann, in an effort to match this location with the Platonic narrative, felt obliged to reduce its dimensions by a factor of thirty. He claimed that the priest or interpreter at Sais had erred in the conversion of the Egyptian ‘schoinos’ into Greek stadia. The schoinos was adopted by the Greeks, where it must be noted that it, as well as the Geek stadion, had variable regional values; the number of schoeni per stadion varied between 30 and 120.

In a later book[386], Herrmann shifted his view from his original stance suggesting that Tunisia had been just a colony under the influence of a culture originating in Friesland, later to become famous as the source of the Oera Linda Book. It is not impossible that the introduction of a Northern European slant to his theories were the consequence of political pressure in Germany at the time, typified by Borchardt being imprisoned because of his Jewish background. Vidal-Naquet describes Herrmann as ‘an avowed Nazi’ [580.121] so pressure may not have been necessary.

(a) http://what-when-how.com/the-atlantis/they-found-atlantis-to-tlaloc/ offline October ’14

 

Atland

Atland is a place name mentioned in the Oera Linda Book that has been equated by some with Atlantis, thus placing Plato’s story somewhere in the region of the North Sea. Robert Scrutton wrote two books[117][118] devoted to the Oera Linda Book and its connection with Atlantis. Jürgen Spanuth observes that Atland, Adalland and Oatland are common place names around the North Sea and notes that Atland has been interpreted as ‘sea king’!

In his eBook(a) on the Oera Linda Book, Anthony Radford suggests that Atland is a corruption of Aldland meaning ‘old land’ or ‘home country.

*Alewyn J. Raubenheimer suggests that Frisland and Atland may be identical and was located north-west of Scotland.

*Guy Gervis offered a paper entitled Atland and After, in which he supports the veracity of the OLB and a North Sea Atlantis, the destruction of which he accepts to have occurred to 2193 BC(b).*

(a) https://www.earth-history.com/Europe/God-king/radford-intro.htm

*(b)  See: http://atlantipedia.ie/samples/archive-3606/*