An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis
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orichalcum

Silvertsen, Harry & Redman, Stephen

Harry Silvertsen & Stephen Redman are the authors of two volumes which combined are over 1000 pages entitled Deluge: From Genesis to Atlantis[843] and Measurements of the Gods[844]. In

Harry Silvertsen

Harry Silvertsen

 

broad terms the books are an intense study of the origin of the mythology of the Great Flood as well as the history of measure. Chapters 13 & 14 of Deluge are devoted to the story of Atlantis. Both books can be read online(a).While dealing with specifics such as, the etymology of Atlantis, Orichalcum and the Pillars of Heracles, I think the authors unusual conclusion is best expressed in their own words;

Stephen Redman

Stephen Redman

“It is found then, that Plato’s Atlantis ultimately is no more than another rendition of the ‘Great Flood’ mythology, in this case utilised by him to illustrate his importance in lawgiving. If the Ten Commandmentswere given to Adam and Eve instead of Moses then there would be a direct Biblical comparison. In essence, the story of Atlantis reinforces the analysis of the flood and creation legends as outlined in Deluge as in addition to the celestial events described therein, there is the devastation caused by known flood events at Sundaland to which his description decidedly points, some 11,000 years ago. This approximate date is dictated not merely by Plato’s ‘9,000 years’ for Atlantis’s demise, but also his depiction of its City and its central mound [the World Mountain supporting the axis of the heavens] as symbolically representing the constellation of Hercules when Tau Hercules was the Pole Star.”

Silvertsen and Redman were guest authors on Graham Hancock’s website with a paper(b) entitled Science versus Religion.

*(a) http://www.completelynovel.com/readers/harry-sivertsen (offline July 2017)*

(b) http://grahamhancock.com/sivertsenh1/

Nondik, Zatoz (L)

Zatoz Nondik (1945- ) is a German researcher and founder of the Prehistoric Research Society Zatoz Nondik(FGUD). He supports the idea of a pole shift 13,000 years ago(a), based on the orientation of various ancient monuments such as Stonehenge, Tikal and Nazca, among others[1084]. He has also written a book about Plato’s ‘orichalcumFrom 2012 to Oreichalkos[841], in which he describes in detail how the orichalcum may be related to Japanese lacquer and suitable for coating walls as described in the Atlantis(b).

Nondik argues that to coat walls something other than a metal or molten amber was involved. However, I can’t help being reminded of the comments of Helen O’Clery who did note[494.52] that the ancients had mixed liquid amber with an oil to produce a form of paint.

(a) http://www.polverschiebung.de/ (offline May 2015)

(b) http://www.polverschiebung.de/resultate_e.html (offline May 2015)

Mining

Mining as a human activity dates back many thousands of years in various parts of the world Recently, the earliest example of mining in the Americas was an iron oxide mine in Chile dating back to around 10,000 BC(a).*However, metals, such as gold, silver, copper and tin were not the only material extracted in this way, pigments, flint and salt were also mined in ancient times. The silver mines of Lavrio in Greece employed 29,000 slaves at its peak.

In the Mediterranean itself, Cyprus was an important source of copper, giving the island its name. However, the most important mineral source was probably Sardinia, which for the Romans was one of the three most important sources of metals, along with Spain and Brittany. Although there was a limited amount of tin mined in the Mediterranean region, most came from Spain, Brittany as well as Devon and Cornwall.*

Mining in Atlantis is recorded by Plato in Critias 114e where he states that there were many mines producing orichalcum as well as other metals. Mrs. Whishaw contended that the pre-Roman copper mines of Southern Spain was the source of the Atlantean orichalcum.

However, the most extensive ancient mines were probably those of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan where copper mining was carried on between 3000 and 1200 BC. It has been guesstimated that up to 1.5 billion pounds of the metal was extracted. It is further speculated that much of this was used to feed the Bronze Age needs of Europe and the Mediterranean(b)(c).*This is hotly disputed by local archaeologists(d).

(a) http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-05/uocp-auo051811.php

(b) http://www.grahamhancock.com/forum/WakefieldJS1.php

(c) http://www.superiorreading.com/copperhistory.html

*(d) http://www.ramtops.co.uk/copper.html   (offline Sept. 2017) (see Archive 2102)*

Rivaud, Albert (L)

Albert Rivaud (1876-1955) was a French professor of philosophy and a classical scholar.  Ivar Lissner commenting[725.158] on the unfinished nature of theRIVAUD trilogy of Plato’s Dialogues which included Timaeus and the incomplete Critias, quotes Rivaud as saying that what we have contains “not only ancient traditions but also the results of the latest contemporary research carried out during Plato’s lifetime.”

Rivaud published a translation of the complete works of Plato in the early 1920’s. Volume 10 was Platon. Oeuvres complètes, Tome X.: Timèe, Critias. In it, according to James Bramwell[0195.91], he demonstrated that the term ‘orichalcum’ was known before Plato and not just an invention of his.

Later in his life Rivaud blotted his copybook with expressions of anti-Semitism and admiration for Hitler.

Tournier, Ivan

Ivan Tournier was regular contributor to the French journal Atlantis. In the Feb/Mar 1950 edition of Egerton Sykes’ Atlantean Research an English translation of an article of his entitled ‘The Orichalcum of the Atlanteans’ was published.  In it he claims that orichalcum as described by Plato appears to be a specific metal rather than an alloy. However, he goes on to suggest that orichalcum or ‘mountain copper’ may have been an alloy of copper and beryllium. Tournier’s conclusion seems to have been influenced by the discovery in 1936 at Assuit in Upper Egypt of a type of scalpel made from such an alloy.

Assuit (Asyut) was the location of alleged appearances of the Virgin Mary at the Church of St.Mark in 2000 and 2001(a).

(a)  http://www.zeitun-eg.org/assiut.htm

Bryusov, Valery (L)

Valery Bryusov (1873-1924) was a Russian poet, dramatist and historian. In

ibryuso001p1

1917 he wrote a paper on Atlantis in which he reviewed all the theories of the day. He believed that Atlantis had flourished at the end of the last Ice Age. Bryusov speculated that Plato’s orichalcum was in fact aluminium-bronze, an unlikely possibility considering the high temperatures needed to produce such an alloy.He also expressed a very sceptical view of the occult theories relating to Atlantis.

Bryusov was of the opinion that “Underlying all ancient cultures there must be a single influence”, which he believed to be Atlantis.

Nikolai Zhirov relates[0458.9]  how on the recommendation of Maxim Gorky, Bryusov wrote a review of the historical and ethnical aspects of the Atlantis problem.

Ghembaza, Thérêse (t)

Thérêse Ghembaza is a French researcher who has a website, in French and English, entitled The Great Enigmas of Antiquity(a) in which she discusses matters such as the Hyksos, the identity of Moses and the Kushites. The site also deals with her theory that Atlantis had been situated in Meroë on the Upper Nile, a theory that she developed in  another paper(c), which is  worth a read.

While at first sight this might be seen as a wild claim, Ghembaza offers a well reasoned theory which was presented to the 2nd Atlantis Conference held in Athens in 2008. She has imaginatively linked aspects of Meroitic geography and history with Plato’s story of Atlantis. For example, she identifies Tyrrhenia with Tyre in Lebanon and claims that Tyrrhenia in Italy was a later colony of Tyre! While some of her ideas are convincing I found others a little threadbare. Nevertheless Ghembaza must be applauded for her efforts to construct a scientific explanation for the Atlantis narrative.

In April 2015 Ghembaza offered a short paper(d)  in support of identifying Bab-el-Mandeb as the location of the Pillars of Heracles.

Ghembaza has kindly drawn my attention to two quotations from Pliny the Elder and Ovid  that offer possible explanations for Plato’s orichalcum (see Document 091011). The former refers to a Cypriot copper mixed with gold which gave a fiery colour and called pyropus, while Ovid also refers to a cladding of pyropus, a term often translated as bronze. She also mentions auricupride(Cu3Au), an alloy that may be connected with orichalcum.

(a) http://www.antiqua91.fr/

(c) http://www.antiqua91.fr/atlantis_en.html

(d) See {2526}

Slosman, Albert

Albert Slosman (1925-1981), was a French professor of mathematics and an expert in computer science, having helped NASA with some of their programs. As a member of the French Resistance, he was captured and tortured by the Gestapo. Ironically, after the Liberation of France, he was unjustly accused of desertion and deported to Cameroon. While there, he heard of a local myth that told of a great cataclysm with which God had punished the wickedness of man and almost completely inundated a large continent in the Atlantic, where we now have Fernando Poo (Macias Nguema Biyogo). Afterwards Slosman travelled to Egypt and while there began to study hieroglyphics and also engaged in a serious investigation of the Denderah Zodiac.

While travelling in the Moroccan Middle Atlas Mountains, near Midelt, he was interested in the metals found there thinking that there was a connection between Moroccan oricalcita, a copper derivative, and Plato’s orichalcum!

His Egyptian studies led him to conclude that (i) Atlantis existed in the Atlantic and that after its submergence survivors migrated across North Africa and eventually became settled in Egypt and that (ii) the Denderah Zodiac indicated a July 27th 9792 BC date for this destruction of Atlantis[0550]! He managed to publish ten books, two of which related to Atlantis, before his tragic death following a fall in 1981. Unfortunately, many more publications were still at various stages of development.

Wolter Smit, on his website, appears to accept Slosman’s interpretation of the Denderah Zodiac regarding the destruction of Atlantis. Likewise, Patrick Geryl and Gino Ratinckx were so impressed by Slosman’s interpretation that they incorporated parts of it into their book[066] on an impending catastrophe in 2012. Carlos Barceló is also a fan of Slosman’s interpretation.

More about Slosman can be found at the following Spanish language website(a).

(a) http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/egipto/egipto_remotosorigenes.htm

NOTE: Juan Garcia Atienza also wrote a book entitled Los Supervivientes de la Atlantida.

Schoppe, Christian & Siegfried

Siegfried Schoppe

Siegfried Schoppe

Christian & Siegfried Schoppe are a father and son team of German researchers who firmly assert that Atlantis was located in the Black Sea. More specifically they suggest that Snake Island(b) situated 35 km east of the Danube Delta, was the location of the Atlantean capital. Snake Island has also been referred to in a Russian website(c) that discusses a Black Sea Atlantis. It includes a number of videoclips with Russian dialogue.

Their contention is that before 5500 BC there was a great plain in the north-west of the area, now occupied by the Black Sea, which was then a much smaller freshwater-lake. Atlantis in their view was situated on what was formerly the shore of this lake. The Schoppe’s echo the

christian schoppe

christian schoppe

view of Ryan and Pitman who were probably the first in 1998, to advance the idea that around 5500 BC the barrier at today’s Bosporus broke open due to the rising world sea levels and raised the level of the Black Sea, flooding a huge area of cultivated land, an event that lay behind the story of Noah’s Flood.

The Schoppes, on the other hand, identify this flooding of the Black Sea with the flooding of Atlantis and maintain that the Pillars of Heracles are located at the Strait of Bosporus. They further suggest that the Orichalcum mentioned by Plato was in fact obsidian that used to be a cash-equivalent at that time and was replaced by the spondylus shell around 5500 BC. This geocatastrophic event, according to the Schoppes, led to the Neolithic diaspora in Europe that also began around 5500 BC.

They also claim to have identified the location of the ten kingdoms of the Atlantean empire through an investigation of placenames for both meaning and sound. The theories of the Schoppe’s are contained in their book, Atlantis und die Sintflut [186] and outlined on their website(a).

In 2005 the Schoppes offered their theory to the Atlantis Conference on Milos and have published their presentation online(g).

In June 2015 Siegfried Schoppe offered the latest paper in support of their Black Sea location for Atlantis(d) for publication on the Atlantipedia.ie website, as well as a shorter note, also in support of their theory(e).

In a short paper(f), the Schoppes also compared the effects of the fall of Rome with the consequences of the demise of Atlantis.

The Atlantis theory of the Schoppes, along with many others matches many of the clues offered by Plato, but for me, I find it difficult to understand how an Atlantis situated east of Athens and north of Egypt in the Black Sea could attack them from the west! *In fact what Plato said was that the invasion came from the Atlantic Sea (pelagos). Although there is some disagreement about the location of this Atlantic Sea, all candidates proposed so far are west of both Athens and Egypt (Tim.24e & Crit.114c).*

(a) http://www.atlantis-schoppe.de/

(b) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snake_Island_(Black_Sea)

(c) http://survincity.com/2010/04/conspiracy-theory-black-sea-atlantis-the-case-of/

(d) Archive ((5098)) (German)

(e) Archive ((5099)) (English)

(f) http://www.atlantis-schoppe.de/rom.html (German)

(g) http://www.black-sea-atlantis.com/milos.pdf

Lee, Sir Henry Desmond Prichard (L)

Sir Henry Desmond Prichard Lee (1908-1993) was a translator of Plato’s two ‘Atlantis’ dialogues[435].  He taught for many years at Cambridge. Desmond, who clearly did not believe in Atlantis, described Plato’s story as the earliest work of science fiction. He had great difficulty with Orichalcum, which he considered to be a completely imaginary metal and was of the opinion that Plato erroneously added a zero to the original dates given to Solon.

In May 2014, Thorwald C. Franke published his investigation into the fact that an appendix to Lee’s 1971 translation of Timaeus and Critias, concerning Atlantis, was removed from the 2008 edition. His examination of the excised text led him to conclude that Lee had unexpectedly argued for the reality of Atlantis(a).

(a) http://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis-desmond-lee.htm