An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis
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Plato

Origin of the Atlantis Narrative

The Origin of the Atlantis Narrative is declared by Plato to have been Egyptian as it was brought to Athens from Egypt by Solon. This is the almost universally accepted provenance of the story. However, other suggestions have emerged from time to time.

Felice Vinci, who is probably best known for his Homer in the Baltic believes that the origins of most of Greek mythology are to be found in northern Europe.

Another even more exotic claim(a) is that Plato’s Atlantis story was a reworking of the destruction of Lankapura as recorded in the Ramayana(b) , one of the two great Hindu epic poems.

Dhani Irwanto claims that its origins lie in Indonesia and were later carried by refugees to Egypt, presumably via the Indus Valley and Sumeria!

Ashok Malhotra believes that the Atlantis tale originated in the Indus Valley(c) , inspired by the submergence of Dwarka and then moved westward via Sumeria.

*(a) http://archives.sundayobserver.lk/2001/pix/PrintPage.asp?REF=/2013/03/17/mon06.asp (Offline Sept.2017 – See Archive 2058)*

(b) http://www.valmikiramayan.net/

(c) http://ezinearticles.com/?In-Search-of-Atlantis—-Getting-CloserHYPERLINK “http://ezinearticles.com/?In-Search-of-Atlantis—-Getting-Closer&id=313482″&HYPERLINK “http://ezinearticles.com/?In-Search-of-Atlantis—-Getting-Closer&id=313482″id=313482

Flambas, P.P.

P.P. Flambas is the author of Plato’s Caribbean Atlantis[1368]. The self-explanatory title makes Dr. Flambas’ objective clear. The book was published in Australia and is a hefty 932 pages and is also available as a Kindle ebook. The book is so enormous that a full critique would require another book.

In my opinion, the book has many flaws and is just a case of quantity masquerading as quality. One of my first gripes is that the author places Atlantis in the 10th millennium BC, a period during which there is NO archaeological evidence for any structured societies in either Egypt or Athens.

Even more ridiculous is his suggestion that the Atlantean Empire was centred in the Caribbean and included what are now the U.S. states around the Gulf of Mexico, all of MesoAmerica and all the countries along the northern coast of South America. Then realising that Plato had also described Atlantean territory that included parts of Europe and North Africa, Flanbas added them as well for good measure. Flambas accepts that the Atlantean territory included parts of Europe and North Africa but that, apparently unknown to Plato, the capital of this empire was in the Caribbean! I don’t find that credible, but readers will have to decide for themselves.

Eleven millennia later Europe could not keep control of its American colonies even with improved navigation, vessels and weaponry, so how did his Caribbean Atlantis manage the control its European territory?

Furthermore, Flambas is incorrect in saying that Plato noted that part of Atlantean territory extended as far as the Tyrrhenian Sea, in fact, he said that they controlled as far as Tyrrhenia (Timaeus 25b & Critias 114c), in other words they held part of southern Italy. Even without that, if parts of the Western Mediterranean had been occupied by Atlanteans from the Caribbean, it is hard to believe that some knowledge of the existence of the Americas was not well known throughout the whole Mediterranean region, sailors not being known as the most tight-lipped people. But Flambas claims that this knowledge was not available to Europeans until Columbus, eleven thousands years.

Flambas has a large section on empires and their development through the occupation of contiguous territory, which I fully agree with, yet he proposes that these ancient Atlanteans preferred to expand across the wild Atlantic to colonise the Mediterranean rather than the easier option of pushing either north into North America or south into the equally valuable South America with shorter supply lines. Expansion across the Atlantic makes no sense.

On a more positive note, as a layman, I think that Dr. Flambas has done creditable original work with his “Hydraulic Hypothesis” which relates to a modification of our view of Plate Tectonics. The extensive geological research carried out by him is admirable, but for me, his attempt to link it with Plato’s story of Atlantis is just a speculation too far.

Finally, his book is well illustrated, but to produce a volume of this size without an index is unforgivable. I was also disappointed to find that much of Flambas’ Chronology of Atlantis Theories was copied from this site, including errors, without any attribution!

 

Luongo, Marilyn

Marilyn Luongo is a South African entrepreneur involved in social projects there(b). Her website has an unexpected section dealing with the history of the Middle East(a) of which the second half involves a review of Plato’s Atlantis account. She attempts to link Mesopotamia with Atlantis, beginning with locating the ‘Pillars of Heracles’ at the Strait of Hormuz and then using the highly controversial interpretation of ‘meizon‘ meaning ‘between’ rather than ‘greater’ she proceeds to argue that Mesopotamia is ‘between’ Asia and Libya and therefore is the home of Atlantis!

(a) http://www.middle-east.mavericsa.co.za/history.html

(b) http://www.holdings.mavericsa.co.za/founders.html

La Peyrére, Isaac (L)

Isaac La Peyrére (1596-1676) was a French philosopher and diplomat. Although brought up a Calvinist he was later la-payrereforced to convert to Catholicism. His theological interests centred on the idea that Adam was not the first human, an viewpoint he expressed in Prae-Adamitae[1300]. He argued that there must have been two creations; first the creation of the gentiles and later that of Adam, as father of the Hebrews. He also cited Plato’s 9,000 years for Atlantis existing before Solon as adding justification for his theory.

It was the publication of his Pre-Adamite book, denounced as heretical, which led him to his enforced coversion to Catholicism. Some of his ideas are widely accepted today(a).

(a) http://www.religioustolerance.org/pers01.htm

 

Kocsis, Laszlo (L)

Dr. László Kocsis is an associate professor at South East European University, in Tetovo, Macedonia. He has contributed to two chapters in S.L. Danver’s Popular Controversies in World History[1269]. The first is entitled the existence of Atlantis is not entirely mythical which is a half-hearted support for the reality of Plato’s lost land. The second relates to Lemuria and is equally anodyne.

Part of the text is available online(a).

(a) http://sangu.ge/images/Popular1.pdf (offline Jan. 2017)

Durrett, Reuben T. (N)

Reuben T. Durrett (1824-1913) was a lawyer, historian and bibliographer, who had a library of some 50,000 volumes.  reuben-t-durrettAmong his many works was Traditions of The Earliest Visits of Foreigners to North America[1283] in which he devoted considerable space to the subject of Atlantis, which he viewed as a large Atlantic island. He suggested that instead of the belief that the inhabitants of this island peopled America, that we should consider the possibility that the original Americans peopled this Atlantic island!

Regarding the demise of Atlantis he suggests that “All of Plato’s island, however, might not have gone down. Indeed, it is possible that the Azores, the Madeiras, the Canaries, and even the British Islands, as parts of the ill-fated island, may have been left above water when the main island went down amid earthquakes and inundations.”

Anderson, James H. (N)

James H. Anderson is a name shared by a number of authors. The person I am concerned with here, wrote Riddles of Prehistoric Times[1281]. He discussed the various prehistoric mysteries that held public attention in the early part of the 20th century. Understandably, Anderson included the subject of Atlantis, which he envisaged as a huge continental sized island in the Atlantic, noting that “Atlantis is not a myth, but was in fact a large island in the Atlantic Ocean, long since engulfed in the seas, during a glacial period.” He also included large sections of Plato’s text.

King, Jesse

Jesse King of Norristown, PA, was the late 19th century author of The Mosaic Account of the Creation Affirmed[1278], which was an attempt to reconcile Biblical history with the evidence of science. The author frequently refers to Atlantis, identifying it as a large island or even a landbridge between the Old and New Worlds. He expresses the opinion that remains of this landbridge are today “the Azores, Madeiras, and Teneriffe islands, about twenty in number.” He quotes, Plato and Euclid in support of his view and dates the end of Atlantis to around 1200 BC.    

Houston, Edwin J. (N)

Houston, Edwin (1847-1914) was an American professor of civil engineering, a consulting electrical engineer and a prolific author. One of his business ventures led to the formation of General Electric.

Included in his output is The Wonder Book of Volcanoes and Earthquakes[1280] that had a section on Atlantis, in which he found the idea of an Atlantic Atlantis quite credible along with the then popular idea that the Azores and the Canaries, along with other islands further south, were the remains of Plato’s lost land. He quoted in full Plato’s Atlantis texts.