Gerd Vandecruys, a Belgian researcher, has been involved in a number of the controversies of the day, such as the dating of the Sphinx(a) and was a frequent contributor to Graham Hancock’s website. He was a supporter of the Canary Islands as the remains of Atlantis, a view he expressed in an essay entitled Insula Atlantidis: A Time Machine of Amnesia”, which, unfortunately, is no longer available on the GH website.
Scott Ogburn is an Adjunct Professor in the department of Landscape Architecture at Temple University, Pennsylvania. His interests include archaeoastronomy, the influence of astronomy on sacred architecture, as well as sacred geometry.
MUFON, possibly the world’s oldest UFO network have sponsored a lecture by Ogburn on the subject of Atlantis entitled Legends and the Sacred Architecture of Ancient Atlantis, touching on structures at the Great Pyramid, the Sphinx, the Osirian Temple at Abydos, the Gateway of the Sun in Bolivia, and the ruins of Puma Punku(a).
Brinsley Le Poer Trench (1911-1995) was a member of both British and Dutch nobility with the titles of 8th Earl of Clancarty and 7th Marquess of Heusden and had a seat in the British House of Lords. He held a number of extreme opinions regarding extraterrestrial visitors, UFO’s and the Hollow Earth Theory and wrote a number of books in support of them.
With regard to Atlantis he placed it in the Atlantic with the Azores as its remnants and claims that those who survived its destruction became what we know as Basques, Berbers and the Celts of Britain and Ireland. He goes further and links Atlantis with Egypt together with its Sphinx and pyramids. Not content with that, he also ventures to associate the Glastonbury Zodiac with Atlantis calling it the Temple of the Stars, the title of one of his books.
While his location theory is fairly standard fare he obviously forgot what he had written,
when eight years later he produced Finding Lost Atlantis Inside the Hollow Earth!!
Alexandre Saint-Yves d’Alveydre (1842 – 1909) was a French occultist, who placed the destruction of Atlantis around 12,000 BC and attributed the building of the Sphinx to Atlantean refugees.
His belief regarding the age of the Sphinx inspired one of his followers, R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz, to develop his ideas further.
Robert K. G. Temple (1945- ) is the American bestselling author of The Sirius Mystery. In it he supports the idea of extraterrestrial influence on human cultural development, citing as evidence, the ‘knowledge’ of the Dogon people regarding the Sirius star system before verification by modern astronomy.
*Temple’s claims were mainly based on the work of Marcel Griaule (1898-1856) and Germaine Dieterlen (1903-1999).*
This idea has now come under serious attack with the claim that Sirius C does not even exist(c). The controversy is still raging as the Bad Archaeology website demonstrates(d) as well as an article from the Armagh Planetarium website(e).*The refutation of the Sirius ‘mystery’ was achieved through the fieldwork of anthropologist, Walter E. A. van Beek, among the Dogon, which produced no evidence to support Temple’s claims(h). He published his findings in a 1991 paper  and it is worth noting that van Beek’s criticisms were aimed at fellow anthropologist, Griaule, rather than Temple.*
Temple contends that this interaction took place between 5000 and 3000 BC and refers to that era as the ‘Contact Period’. He goes further and claims that these ‘visitors’ were responsible for the building of the Sphinx and the pyramids and that later efforts by the Egyptians to build other pyramids on the same scale failed. However, some of the Mayan pyramids are equally impressive although built later than the magnificent Giza monuments, but Temple does not explain the source of the Mesoamerican structures.
In 2000 Temple published The Crystal Sun in which he outlined the evidence for early optical science, including its possible use in the lighthouse at Pharos(f).*The matter of ancient lenses is discussed online(g).* 2013 saw the publication of Ancient Glass by Prof. Julian Henderson in which he pushes back the earliest production of crude glass to the middle of the third millennium BC. Temple has a degree in Oriental Studies and Sanskrit from the University of Pennsylvania. He has written a number of sometimes controversial books on various historical subjects(a). Jason Colavito has cast doubt on Temple’s academic credentials in a September 2012 blog(b). However, it was not until his 2010 book, Egyptian Dawn, that he touched on the subject of Atlantis. In it declared that the “true ‘Atlantis’ was the Atlantic Coastal civilisation of the megalith builders.” He further proposes that the story of Atlantis was concocted by those megalith builders “for consumption by the people of the Mediterranean, as a kind of disinformation campaign.” Temple has hinted that he may devote an entire book to the subject of Atlantis sometime in the future!
Robert M. Schoch is a Yale scholar, geologist and palaeontologist. At the invitation of John Anthony West he agreed to inspect the Sphinx and offer an opinion of the nature of the erosion to be seen on it. He found that the cause of this erosion was due to precipitation rather than windblown sand. As Egypt has had an arid climate for many thousands of years, Dr Schoch reached the conclusion that at least the front of the Sphinx had been carved between 7000 and 5000 BC, when the climate had been considerably wetter.
In the same book, Voices of the Rocks, he endorsed (p.123) the conclusions of Mary Settegast who claimed that Plato’s Atlantis story was a reference to the Magdalenian culture that inhabited the coastal regions of the Western Mediterranean during the 9th millennium BC. Schoch devotes a chapter to the subject of Atlantis and interestingly lists (p.87) a number of sites to which the Greeks applied the appellation ‘Pillars of Heracles’ apart from the Strait of Gibraltar.
In his Voyages of the Pyramid Builders he reiterates his conviction “that Plato’s story is, at least in part, a fictionalized account of a great Mediterranean war at a time of intense climatic change between the tenth
and eight millennia BC.” A highly critical review of Schoch’s Book can be read online(n).
This 1990 declaration regarding the Sphinx generated an international reputation for Schoch. Such a controversial conclusion was obviously greeted warmly by the supporters of the 9,000 year old date for Atlantis allegedly given by the Egyptian priests to Solon. This accidental intervention by Schoch in the debate regarding the dating of Atlantis has unfortunately done nothing to resolve the issue. Fierce debate continues regarding the date of the Sphinx. However, there appears to be a gradual acceptance of Schoch’s views by other professional geologists such as David Coxhill. Another geologist, Colin Reader, while not accepting all of Schoch’s conclusions, believes that the Sphinx predates King Khufu, the father of Khafre, who has been traditionally accepted as the builder of the Sphinx, with the monument bearing his image.
It appears that Schoch’s experiences regarding the Sphinx has whetted Schoch’s appetite for prehistory as he has now written a further book, again with R.A. McNally about the origins of the pyramid builders. Unfortunately, he includes a reference to Ireland’s Newgrange as a form of ‘pyramid building’, an idea I reject since it shares neither form nor function with the Egyptian pyramids. Dr.Greg Little has written a very critical review of this book.
Schoch appears to be venturing further and further from his natural comfort zone of geology. In 2007 he wrote an article on Telepathy(d) and was later due to address the Electric Universe Conference in Las Vegas in 2012(c) and deliver a paper entitled The Catastrophic Termination of the Last Ice Age. In it, he will claim that that around 10,000 BC the Earth underwent ‘dramatic catastrophic changes’ as a result of ‘our unstable Sun erupting at the end of the last Ice Age, melting the extensive glaciers and triggering climate warming.*The full paper should be an interesting read. He continues to argue against the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis(r).*
His retreat from conventional science may be now complete as he delves into the strange world of lycanthropy (the study of werewolves)(o).
Schoch’s work is now promoted through his own website(b), which includes a wide range of articles. On it both he and his associate, Colette Dowell, have been very critical of the Bosnian pyramid claims of Semir Osmanagic following a visit there in 2006. However, in what appears to be an article(l) written in 2011 or 2012, Osmanagic responds with a scathing criticism of Schoch’s work.
Schoch has now turned his attention to the emergence and demise of very early civilisations, before that of dynastic Egypt or Sumeria. When he combined his early date for the Sphinx with other discoveries such as that of Nabta Playa and Göbekli Tepe and Gunung Padang(m), he concluded that the origins of civilisation go back much further than generally accepted. He then looked at the bigger and perhaps more important question of the cause of their collapse. In a 2009 special edition (N0.8) of New Dawn magazine he speculated on the possibility that the ending of such early civilisations was caused by the earth’s encounter with one or more asteroids or comets.
In his book(f), Forgotten Civilization, Schoch claims that coronal mass ejections from the sun around 9700 BC devastated our planet with electrical discharges, the triggering of seismic and volcanic activity as well as ending the Ice Age with its consequent floods. All this ‘eradicated the civilisation of the time and set humanity back thousands of years, only to re-emerge around 3500 BC with scattered memories and nascent abilities.’ In an article written(g) in March 2012, Schoch wrote about the ‘Carrington Event’ of 1859 which resulted from a massive solar event that year.
Schoch’s paper had the somewhat disturbing title of ‘Death Star’ and perhaps even more unsettling was the revelation in March 2019 that evidence of at least three major solar ‘proton attacks’ over the past 3,000 years. The suggestion being that these episodes are to be expected with some degree of regularity, which may create ever increasing disruption as our dependency on electricity expands. The recent report(q) indicates that the most powerful event identified so far, took place around 610 BC. Without power grids to damage at the time, we are unaware of what effect it had on the peoples of that time and I would hope that a review of the literature of that era might reveal some corroboration.
A video clip is from his recent Las Vegas lecture is now available on YouTube(h). His talk is based on an article(i) in the July-August edition of New Dawn magazine, which is now available online and will play a large part in his Forgotten Civilization. He highlights some fascinating similarities between the Rongorongo script of Easter Island, the Nasca petroglyphs and the plasma figures of Dr. Anthony L. Peratt together with their possible association with the ending of the last Ice Age.
For me, the most disturbing aspect of Schoch’s book is his apocalyptic vision of global catastrophes that he anticipates may turn the few survivors back into troglodytes!
However, Jason Colavito has reviewed Schoch’s claims relating to both the Rongorongo script(j) and Göbekli Tepe(k) and has found his ideas wanting. Colavito found further ammunition in the forthcoming book, Origins of the Sphinx, which Schoch co-authored with Robert Bauval, describing it as ‘a virtual rewriting of’ Keeper of Genesis(p). *In 2019, Schoch expanded further on his opinions regarding the importance of Göbekli Tepe with a claim that its builders possessed some level of literacy(s) , provoking further criticism from Colavito(r).*
From Atlantis to the Sphinx: Recovering the Lost Wisdom of the Ancient World  by Colin Wilson, presents the idea that the inhabitants of Atlantis were the precursors of the ancient Egyptians as well as the Maya and Aztecs. He perceives Atlantis as a seafaring nation with worldwide reach. He contends that Atlantis was originally located in Antarctica and was destroyed in a worldwide catastrophe. This theme is developed further in a second book that Wilson co-authored with Rand Flem-Ath. More recently Wilson has altered his views and supported Robert Sarmast’s claim for Atlantis being located off Cyprus.
To support an extended antiquity for Egypt, he outlines evidence for a 10500 BC construction date for the legendary Sphinx. Unfortunately, most of the material is a re-working of information to be found elsewhere.
René A. Schwaller de Lubicz (1887-1962) was a mathematician, Egyptologist and philosopher from Alsace in France. In his early years he studied Theosophy, which I suspect coloured his later thinking. It seems that he also dabbled with alchemy and has also been accused of having supported right-wing politics!
Schwaller spent fifteen years studying the ancient monuments of Egypt, concentrating on the Temple at Luxor studying its dimensions and its relationship to ancient mysticism. Schwaller’s stepdaughter, Lucie Lamy, personally gathered the numerous measurements at Luxor.
Schwaller questioned conventional views of Egypt’s cultural development, mathematical sophistication and religious symbolism. He published his findings in a monumental work that has now been translated into English(a). His work is difficult to read which may explain why he has had such a low profile.
His view of the ancients is perhaps summed up by one quote from him; “Can it really be said that before the day of our pretentious science, humanity was composed solely of imbeciles and the superstitious?”
Schwaller came to the attention of a wider audience when John Anthony West highlighted his comments on the evidence of water erosion on the Sphinx that indicated a much greater age for the structure than generally accepted. West followed up Schwaller’s observations with a study of the Sphinx by the geologist Robert Schoch whose report started one of the greatest controversies in modern Egyptology.
A recent report(b) found on a number of sites, by Shérif El Morsi, an Egyptian researcher, documents evidence of a ‘relatively recent’ incursion by seawater onto the Giza Plateau.
Lost Civilisations have been the subject of many books in recent years and invariably include a reference to the Atlantis mystery. Some writers have confined their analysis to the discoveries of conventional archaeology, while others have soared into cyber-speculation. The controversial books of Graham Hancock is perhaps the best known, while others, such as the British anthropologist, Richard Rudgley, have produced valuable books on mankind’s prehistory. For those that are focused on the enigma of Atlantis they have concentrated on various anomalous discoveries, such as the underwater Yonaguni ruins, the age of the Sphinx, the accounts of what appear to be flight and nuclear warfare in ancient India and the disputed date of the enormous Baalbek megaliths, all in an attempt to demonstrate that powerful civilisations existed during the last Ice Age and so add some credibility to Plato’s early date for Atlantis. Unfortunately, undisputed proof for such great antiquity is rarely available to support such propositions.
Klaus H. Aschenbrenner was born in 1932 in Germany and works as a software architect in Vienna. He is the author of two books on Atlantis in which he supports the view that a collision with an asteroid in
the Atlantic around 10500 BC caused the demise of Atlantis.*He wrote a short paper(b) outlining his reasons for arguing against the Azores as the location of Atlantis, although he had previously supported that idea.*
In 2011 he published a paper(a) entitled Gizeh und die erste Hochkultur (Giza and the first advanced civilization) in which he adds his support to the idea of a much earlier date for the Sphinx than is conventionally accepted. He associates the erosion of the Sphinx with increased acidity in rain caused by a cometary impact around 7600BC, which has been identified by Alexander Tollmann. English readers can use their Google translator.