An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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The Deluge

Bergquist, Nils Olof

Nils Olof Bergquist (1897-1989) was a Swedish engineer with an interest in ancient history. In 1954 he published The Moon Puzzle[786]  which is probably a reworking of his 1946 Swedish publication[1186]. In it he describes a very close encounter of the earth with a large extraterrestrial body some millions of years ago. As it grazed the earth it caused the ejection of a large mass from what is now the Pacific Ocean. This mass became our Moon.

Although his theories differ in many respects from those of Hörbiger, Bergquist never once referred to Hörbiger’s ideas, which were still popular at that time. Berquist was content to link together the Deluge of Genesis, the Atlantis story and the Nordic Niflhem saga.

In 1971, he published, in Swedish, Ymdogat-Atlantis[785]which looked at Atlantis in the light of Norse mythology. He also studied The Oera Linda Book and in the end endorsed the Dogger Bank as the most likely location of Atlantis.

Bangert, Kurt (L)

Kurt Bangert is a German humanitarian working with the World Vision relief Bangertorganisation, who has written extensively on issues such as HIV/AIDS, boy soldiers and poverty. Among his many essays are a couple relating to Atlantis. A 2007 paper(a), in German, entitled The Sinking of Atlantis and the Black Sea Flood gives support to the Black Sea location for Atlantis promoted by Christian and Siegfried Schoppe.

He has also written about a number of ancient subjects including the Nebra Sky Disk and the Deluge(b).

(a) http://kurtbangert.de/downloads/2_6_Der_Untergang_von_Atlantis_und_die_Schwarzmeerflut.pdf

(b) http://www.kurtbangert.de/aufsaetze_mythologie-und-wirklichkeit.html

 

Charpentier, Louis (m)

Louis_CharpentierLouis Charpentier (1905-1979) was a French journalist with a fascination for the mysteries of ancient history. He has written books on the Basques and the Templars,*[the latter were considered by Charpentier to have built Chartres Cathedral as a repository for ancient wisdom.]*

In 1975 he produced a paper in which he speculated on the existence of Atlantis and concluded that it probably existed as a Cro-Magnon society on an island in the Atlantic that was destroyed by the Deluge.

Bab-el-Mandeb

Bab-el-MandebBab-el-Mandeb, which means gate of tears, is the name given to the strait at the southern end of the Red Sea and identified by some researchers as the location of the Pillars of Heracles referred to by Plato. This idea is advocated by Jacques Hébert, Thérêse Ghembaza and Sunil Prasannan who have respectively located Atlantis at Socotra, Meroë and Sundaland.

The French historian Philippe Potel-Belner also identifies Bab-el-Mandeb as the Pillars of Heracles(c) beyond which lay Atlantis on a long plain on the west coast of India(b).

A fictional account of the destruction of Atlantis in the Red Sea and its relationship with the biblical Deluge by Orson Scott Card is now available on the Internet(a).

(a) http://www.hatrack.com/osc/stories/atlantis.shtml   

(b) http://www.academia.edu/3480936/Atlantis_myth_legend_History  (French) (offline Nov. 2015)

(c) http://www.academia.edu/3339364/PLATO_revisited_what_he_precisely_said_about_Atlantis (French) (offline Nov.2015)

 

Dodwell, George F.

Dodwell1George F. Dodwell (1879-1963) was a leading Australian astronomer, who made an extensive study of ancient gnomons and discovered that they deviated from the expected. A gnomon is the part of a sundial that casts the shadow. He concluded that there was consistent evidence that the tilt of the earth’s rotational axis was altered around 2345 BC. This view supported those that have claimed that the poles shifted within the memory of man, possibly as a result of a close encounter or impact with an extraterrestrial body such as a comet. Some have gone further and attribute the destruction of Atlantis to this clash. Dodwell’s complete work on the subject can now be read on Barry Setterfield’s website(a).

Dodwell, a devout Christian, concluded that it was this sudden shift of the earth’s axis that led to the Flood of Noah. Rene Noorbergen (1928-1995) mentions in his Secrets of the Lost Races[612.20] that Dodwell wrote to Professor Arthur J. Brandenberger of Ohio State University, outling his theory in the following manner; “I have been making during the last 26 years an extensive investigation of what we know in astronomy as the secular variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic. From a study of the available ancient observations of the position of the sun at the solstices during the last three thousand years, I find a curve which, after allowing for all known changes, shows a typical exponential curve of recovery of the Earth’s axis after a sudden change from a former nearly vertical position to an inclination of 26½ degrees, from which it was returned to an equilibrium at the present inclination of 23½ degrees during the interval of the succeeding 3,194 years to A.D. 1850. The date of the change in the Earth’s axis, 2345 B.C., is none other than that of the flood recorded in the Bible, and the resulting conclusion is that the Biblical account of the flood as a universal one, together with its story of Noah’s Ark, is historically true’.

*Dodwell was also impressed by the work of the creationist, George McCready Price (1870-1963), who had also concluded[1616] that the Earth’s axial tilt had been altered as a result of an impact with a celestial body. Price also linked the event with the biblical Deluge.*

Dodwell referred to a paper of F.S.Richards on the orientation of the Temple of Ammon at Karnak(b), which indicated an anomalous obliquity of the ecliptic of 25°9’55”. This led to considerable debate(c) regarding the age of the temple. William Fix drew attention[871.264] to the widespread reuse of very ancient sacred sites by successive cultures, which might explain the incompatibility between the apparent age of the most recent temple and the greater antiquity suggested by the obliquity of the ecliptic. Alternatively, it might also indicate an encounter with an extraterrestrial body that affected the Earth’s axis and caused widespread destruction, including, according to some theories, the destruction of Atlantis!

In the interests of balance, I must refer readers to an extensive 2013 paper(f) by a creationist, Dr. Danny Faulkner, who has cast doubts on Dodwell’s conclusions.

Another interesting comment is offered by Barry Setterfield, who wrote(a) that Dodwell has assumed here that the original axis tilt of the earth, before 2345 B.C., was nearly upright.  For that reason, he supposed a very strong impact was necessary to jolt the earth from that position to its current 23.5 degree tilt.  This is why a number of astronomers have rejected Dodwell’s work in this area.  However, if the axis tilt was greater than its current axis tilt before 2345 B.C., then an impact of much less force would have been required to restore the earth to a slightly more upright position.  The evidence for this greater axis tilt may be seen in the evidence of the ice age which covered most of Europe prior to 2345 B.C.”

Malcolm Bowden, author of True Science Agrees with the Bible[1612]also wrote a pamphlet[590] supporting Dodwell’s findings and later produced an YouTube video explaining in detail Dodwell’s axial tilt theory(g).

In 2011, Mike Baillie, the renowned dendrochronologist, gave a PowerPoint presentation(d) at the Quantavolution Conference in Athens, which offered tree-ring evidence that clearly demonstrated an ‘event’ in 2345BC, which has counterparts in early Chinese and Middle East records suggesting a cometary encounter/impact! Baillie also notes that Isaac Newton and Edmund Halley both thought that Archbishop Ussher’s Flood of 2349 BC was due to a comet.

As early as 1696, William Whiston claimed that the earth’s encounter with a comet led to the biblical Deluge.

More recently, Andrew Bourmistroff, a Russian researcher, has determined that the orientation of the Great Pyramid at Giza is off by 9.85 degrees west of true north(e). The significance, if any, of all these details has yet to be fully determined.

*(a) http://setterfield.org/Dodwell/Dodwell_Manuscript_1.html *

(b) https://www.nakala.fr/nakala/data/11280/a6d0f289

(c) http://infinitybiblecode.zoomshare.com/files/2345bc_Dodwells_Graph_Showing_Earth_Tilt.html (offline July 2015)

(d) http://www.qconference-athens-2011.grazian-archive.com/the2345topicmbai/index.html

(e) http://www.world-mysteries.com/andb1.htm#Has

(f) https://answersingenesis.org/astronomy/earth/an-analysis-of-the-dodwell-hypothesis/

*(g) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=21WvVH4CXR4*

 

 

 

Aboulfotouh, Dr. Hossam

Dr. Hossam Aboulfotouh (1960 – ) is Assistant Professor at the Department of Architecture in the Egyptian University of Minia. He has daringly suggested that Atlantis was sited in the Nile Delta*and destroyed in 3070 BC(f).

Unfortunately, he has supported this contention with very little evidence. In his website(a) he wanders somewhat, discussing ancient metrology and hieroglyphics. He also offers a decoding of the Dendera Zodiac(e).

R. McQuillen offers a much stronger case for an Egyptian location. However, both Aboulfotouh and McQuillen have opted for the west of the Nile delta near Canopus as having been the location of the Pillars of Heracles referred to by Plato. It is interesting to note that the late Ulf Richter studied the topographical details provided by Plato and concludes that the capital city of Atlantis was constructed on a river delta.

In three rather technical papers(d) Aboulfotouh calculates the date of the building of the Great Pyramid at Giza as 3055 BC, which he claims was also the time of the Deluge or what he refers to as the “tsunami of the Mediterranean”. He also outlines his views on the methods used to design the Giza complex using ‘The Horizon Theory’.

He also has written a paper on the tilt of the Giza pyramids’ entrance passages proving “that the pyramids’ designer was able to include the geographic, astronomical and time parameters in one relativistic equation, encoding the date of the design of the Giza pyramids in the tilt of the entrance passage of the Great Pyramid.”(c)

(a) http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php?topic=1062.0

*(b) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266350431_THE_HORIZON_THEORY_PART-I_ORIGINAL_CONCEPT_PLAN_OF_THE_PYRAMIDS_PLATEAU

(c) http://maajournal.com/Issues/2007/Vol07-1/Full3.pdf

(d) https://web.archive.org/web/20190603114325/http://www.geocities.ws/fotouh28/H-Aboulfotouh-Horizon-II.pdf

(e) https://web.archive.org/web/20190603115830/http://www.geocities.ws/fotouh28/Decoding-Dendera-Zodiac.pdf

(f) https://web.archive.org/web/20100708140347/www.fotouh.netfirms.com/Aboulfotouh-Atlantis.htm*

Formorians

The Formorians are reputed to have been the earliest occupiers of Ireland after the last Ice Age, according to the Book of Invasions(e). Although the etymology of their name is uncertain a commonly accepted theory is that the term Formorian is supposed to be derived from ‘Firmorrichi’ meaning ‘men of Morocco’ conforming to a tradition that they came from North Africa. Thomas Dietrich is happy to accept[0217] the Moroccan connection as he considers early Morocco to have been a colony of Atlantis and so by extension to have brought Atlantean culture to Ireland.

Ignatius Donnelly in Part V, chapter 7(f) of his now rather dated 1882 book, Atlantis: The Antediluvian World also designates Ireland as a former colony of Atlantis. He also disputes the generally accepted etymology for the name ‘Formorian’, preferring to adopt the views of Col. Francis Wilford[0114] to support his contention that it means ‘from the west’, which according to Donnelly could only be a reference to Atlantis in the Atlantic.

However, the Irish Annals of Clonmacnoise(g) claim that the Formorians were descended from Noah’s youngest son Cham who according to the Bible was born 100 years before the Flood (Genesis 7).

The Ancient Pages.com website had an article in July 2017 with the misleading headline of “Formorians: Supernatural Race Of Giants Who Came From Atlantis”, without a single mention of Atlantis in the body of the text(h). Readers can draw their own conclusions about the reliability of A. Sutherland, the author.

Ronan Coghlan has suggested that “the CHAM referred to in the Annals of Clonmacnoise is not SHEM but HAM, noting that in the Vulgate translation of the Bible, Ham is CHAM”!

Robert Stacy-Judd[0607.237] followed Donnelly and accepted that the ancient Irish annals(b) describe the Formorians coming to Ireland ‘before the Deluge’ and having a fleet of sixty ships and a strong army. He also quotes the Annals of Clonmacnois which records that the Formorians ‘were descended from Cham, the son of Noeh and lived by piracy and spoil of other nations and were in those days very troublesome to the whole world.’ Stacy-Judd also speculates that Noah and his sons were Atlanteans!

The reliability of the Irish annals as historical documents is highly questionable, particularly when dealing with very early events.

James I. Nienhuis seems to have adapted some of Dietrich’s ideas for his Dancing from Genesis blog (Nov. 2007)(a) , although he does not seem to be clear on the difference between Ireland and Britain, as he places Newgrange in the United Kingdom and has the Formorians settling in Britain rather than Ireland!

The excellent Migration and Diffusion website(c) has a paper by Stuart L. Harris who puts more flesh on the bones of the idea of the Formorian invasion of Ireland from Galicia in Spain, which he dates at 2186 BC. However, Harris’ claims that “the Formorians spoke and wrote in Finnish” and that “until about 1200 BC, Ireland spoke Finnish, not Gaelic”, reflecting his obsession with the ancient Finns. Such a claim would be guaranteed the raise the eyebrows, if not the hackles, of many Irish academics.

Dale Drinnon has an extensive article on the Formorians in his Frontiers of Anthropology website(d).

(a) http://dancingfromgenesis.wordpress.com/

(b) https://www.scss.tcd.ie/misc/kronos/chronology/synchronisms/Edition_4/K_trad/K_synch.htm

(c) http://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?year=2012&id=333

(d) http://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.com/2012/03/more-on-fomorians.html (Link broken August 2018) See: Archive 3570

*(e) http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/leborgabala.html (link broken Oct.2018) See: Archive 3628*

(f) http://www.sacred-texts.com/atl/ataw/ataw507.htm

(g) http://archive.org/stream/annalsofclonmacn00mage/annalsofclonmacn00mage_djvu.txt

(h) http://www.ancientpages.com/2017/07/18/fomorians-supernatural-race-giants-came-atlantis/