An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Tiahuanaco

Bilau, Kurt (L)

Kurt Bilau (1872-1941) had been a Major in the Kaiser’s Imperial Artillery Corps. He also achieved Bilausome fame as the inventor of a more efficient windmill for generating electricity. He, along with millions of others, was  apparently seduced by the Nazi regime, but still managed to retain some independence of thought regarding Atlantis.

His Atlantis theory incorporated much of Hans Hörbiger’s cosmological ideas. Between 1932 and 1940 he wrote a number of Atlantis related articles for Schluessel zum Weltgeschen, a journal dedicated to Höbiger’s ‘World Ice’ theory.

Bilau considered Atlantis to be a large island sitting on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, inhabited by late Cro-Magnons 11,400 years ago. Bilau considered, the Azores to be the remnants of Plato’s large island. More specifically, he thought that the Atlantean capital had been situated on the Dollabarata Reef south of the Azores.

Bilau also calculated the date of the destruction of Tiahuanaco as circa 9500 BC concurring with the conclusions of PoznanskyBraghine noted that Bilau also calculated that the Andes had at one time been 3,500 metres lower based on the discovery of a 550km stretch in the district of Titicaca of the remains of a particular seaweed which left a white deposit at that height[156.265].

Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco)

Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) is an ancient city whose remains are located over two miles above sea level near the southern end of Lake Titicaca on the Altiplano of Bolivia. It was first encountered by Spanish conquistadors in 1549. Tiwanaku has all the features of a harbour, which has led some to describe it as the seaport of nearby Puma Punku another remarkable ancient site(o).

tIWANAKUThe ruins are scattered over a number of square miles through which the Guayqui-La Paz railway was constructed, which was responsible for the breaking up of many monuments to provide ballast. Prior to that, stone from the site was used in the construction of nearby homes and a church.

Belisario Díaz Romero believed that Tiwanaku had been built by a race of people he calls Homo atlanticus, who had come to America from Atlantis over a landbridge from the east, outlined in his 1906 book Tiahuanacu[1235]. Heather Pringle notes(t) that before Romero, Francis de Castelnau (1810-1880), for example, proposed in the mid-19th century that Tiwanaku was the work of wandering Egyptian pharaohs, as opposed to the ‘imbicilic race that inhabits the country today’.”

The controversial Arthur Posnansky, who linked Tiahuanaco with Aztlan, the mythical “white” island homeland of the Aztecs investigated them in the early 20th century. The similarity of Aztlan with the name of Plato’s city has excited some straw clutching Atlantis seekers into claiming a definite connection between the two.

Posnansky also noted that the expected alignments of structures at Tiwanaku were offset by an amount which suggested their construction at a time when they would have been correctly aligned with respect to the cardinal points. He, after many years of study, was convinced that Tiahuanaco was the oldest civilisation on Earth[516] dating it to around 15,000 BC. Charles Orser jnr. debunked Posnansky’s dating in a 2001 article(k) as did Paul Heinrich(n).

Some researchers, including Jim Allen, have studied Tiwanaku’s remarkable Gate of the Sun and identified the figures carved on it as a sophisticated calendar(v) . Ashley Cowie has recently proposed that Tiwanaku was located on an ancient Prime Meridian(w).

In the 1920’s Edmund Kiss studied the ruins of Tiwanaku and concluded that it had been constructed by Nordic refugees from Atlantis which had been destroyed by a falling moon! His ideas were enthusiastically received back in Nazi Germany. A further expedition was planned, but never materialised because of the start of World War II.(u)

In sharp contrast is the claim(l) by Roger Elefant that later construction at Tiwanaku was carried out by the Vikings!

However, a more recent, but catastrophic, explanation is offered by Stephen Smith(d) on the Thunderbolts.info website. Perhaps Smith’s ideas might be combined with the studies of George Dodwell to produce a more comprehensive hypothesis. Posnansky’s date is greatly at variance with conventional dating that puts the flourishing of Tiwanaku at 1200 BC until 1200 AD. The latter part of that period roughly coincides with the existence of the Wari Empire, a possible rival of Tiwanaku(e).(e).

The claim of a direct connection between Tiahuanaco and Atlantis is hard to accept on a number of grounds; for example, the idea of an army travelling from the west coast of South America to attack Greece in the east of the Mediterranean is not tenable. That there was an advanced culture in the Andes is undeniable but to link it to Plato’s story is stretching credibility to extremes. Lake Titicaca and Tiahuanaco have plenty of mysteries still to be explained. In 1980 the Bolivian scholar, Hugo Boero Rojo, aided by one of the local natives, Elias Mamani, located underwater ruins off the coast of Puerta Acosta[576]. His discoveries included megalithic temples, flights of stairs and stone roads.

Way of ViracochaMore recently, Dave Truman has written about an alignment known as ‘The Way of Viracocha’ that runs from Cajamarca in the north, through Cuzco and Tiwanaku and finishing at Pukara Grande(p), oriented exactly 45° west of true north. Truman has built on the work of Maria Sholten d’Ebneth (1926-2007), who wrote of the La Ruta de Wiracocha[1236] in the 1970’s(q). Others have expanded on her work, but usually in Spanish. Truman has speculated on whether “Viracocha, the great teacher and restorer of civilisation in the Andes, in some way embodied the scientific knowledge of a sophisticated, but long forgotten high culture?” Truman

Chakana

Chakana

also discusses the ‘chakana’ or Andean stepped cross and it possible meaning.

It was reported in October 2013(g) (that a team of Belgian and Bolivian archaeologists had found an assortment of ceramics, gems and gold objects at an apparent ceremonial site beneath the waters of Lake Titicaca, which was sacred for the Incas and Tiwanakus.*It was not until 2019 that images of some of the artefacts recovered from the lake were widely published(x).*

We cannot leave the matter of mysterious Tiahuanaco without referring to the fact that some miles further south is Lake Poopó beside which Jim Allen is convinced that the city of Atlantis was located. Allen claims that the large plain to the west of the lake is the plain mentioned by Plato as being adjacent to the city of Atlantis. In a recent documentary “Atlantis in the Andes” broadcast by ‘Discovery Civilization’, Allen identified Tiahuanaco as one of the ten kingdoms of Atlantis.However, I cannot help noticing that while Tiwanaku, claimed to be 17,000 years old, provides us with an astonishing wealth of structures, Allen’s chosen Atlantis site, Pampa Aullagas, offers little more than rubble!

Another supporter of an Andean Atlantis is Sean Bambrough, who has been developing a theory since 1999 that identifies Tiwanaku as the city of Atlantis(h). In February 2015, Marcelo Ozorio also suggested a link with Plato’s Atlantis and most interesting is the huge number of images included on his site(i). There is also a large collection of related images on a YouTube clip(m).

James Bailey was an early advocate[149] of a Peruvian Atlantis with its capital at Tiwanaku or Chan Chan, which was probably the largest pre-Colombian city in South America.

In 2008 David E. Flynn brought to public attention an astonishing series of satellite photos(a) that show a vast network of the remains apparently of human structures that extend for many miles around Lake Titicaca. These ‘geoglyphs’ encompass Tiahuanaco.

The most remarkable collection of early photos of the Tiwanku site can be found on the Above Top Secret website(b). The accompanying text makes a strong case for treating the location as archaeologically contaminated and as a consequence that many of the dates proposed for the site should be considered suspect. Other mysteries are the fact that saltwater Lake Titicaca contains known sea life and that old waterlines are slanted(c).

In late March 2015, the Bolivian government announced(j) that ground-penetrating radar had identified what appeared to be a buried pyramid in the Tiwanaku complex as well as other ‘anomalies’ and that excavations may start in May or June.

A mixed Spanish and English website(f) offers a number of interesting papers including a chapter from Posnansky’s book Tiahuanaco: The Cradle of American Man.

Archaeology magazine has an interesting Q & A paper relating to the history and current state of preservation at the Tiwanaku site(s).

A May 2017 report(r) confirmed that the Tiwanaku complex is much more extensive than previously thought, covering an area of at least 650 hectares (1,675 acres).

(a) http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1977971/posts

(b) http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread732575/pg1

(c) http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2012/04/30/tiwanaku/

(d) http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2013/04/03/tiwanaku-3/

(e) http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/science-wari-tiwanaku-rival-empire-01473.html

(f) http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/arqueologia/esp_tiahuanaco5.htm

(g) 10-bolivia-lake-titicaca-yields-trove.html”http://phys.org/news/2013-10-bolivia-lake-titicaca-yields-trove.html#jCp

(h) https://2rbetterthan1.wordpress.com/atlantis-south-americatiahuanaco/

(i) http://documentaries.camera/tiwanacu/ (offline Sept 2015)

*(j) http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/entertainment/2015/03/27/bolivia-detects-buried-pyramid-at-tiahuanaco-site/print  (offline April 2019) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20170319193806/http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/entertainment/2015/03/27/bolivia-detects-buried-pyramid-at-tiahuanaco-site/print*

(k) https://www.mail-archive.com/ctrl@listserv.aol.com/msg62910.html

(l) http://atlantide-mu.over-blog.com/2013/12/terre-creuse.html

(m) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PkuoXm9uafI

(n) http://www.intersurf.com/~chalcedony/Tiwanaku.html

*(o) http://www.atlantisquest.com/prehistcity.html  (offline March 2018) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20170601230717/http://www.atlantisquest.com/prehistcity.html*

(p) https://grahamhancock.com/trumand1/

(q) http://puri-aprendiendovida.blogspot.ie/2013/02/la-ruta-de-viracocha-camino-de.html

(r) http://www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=2436357&CategoryId=14919

(s) http://interactive.archaeology.org/tiwanaku/qanda.html

(t) http://archive.archaeology.org/blog/the-fantasy-world-of-tiwanaku/

(u) http://theappendix.net/issues/2013/4/andean-atlantis-race-science-and-the-nazi-occult-in-bolivia

(v) http://blog.world-mysteries.com/science/the-gate-of-the-sun-calendar-from-ancient-tiwanacu/

(w) https://www.ancient-origins.net/events/unearthing-lost-meridian-tiwanaku-s-temple-builders-0010322

* (x) https://www.sciencealert.com/stunning-discovery-reveals-mysterious-religion-pre-dating-the-incas-by-500-years*

 

 

          

Posnansky, Arthur (L)

Arthur Posnansky (1873-1946) was a self-taught archaeologist who was born in Vienna, although described as Arthur posnanskyPolish. He is best known for his work at Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) in the Bolivian Andes. In 1943 he published his best known ok, Tiahuanaco: The Cradle of American Man, in four volumes[516]. In this huge work he controversially claimed that Tiahuanaco had been built around 10000 BC. He is also remembered in his adopted Bolivia as having introduced the first car into that country. He died in Bolivia’s capital, La Paz.

Posnansky, in two earlier books, proposed a prehistoric Germanic migration to South America, a theory supported by Edmund Kiss. The two men worked together in Bolivia in the 1920’s. During the Third Reich Posnansky wrote about racial science that supported Nordicism, which underpinned a lot of Nazi ideology. In the course of these writings he used the term Nordic-Atlantean implying a belief in Atlantis. Kiss and Posnansky were of the opinion that Tiahuanaco had been built by Nordic survivors from Atlantis. The idea may have gone down well with Himmler but was derided by the scientific community at large.

Jim Allen has included an extensive article on the life and research of Posnansky, including excerpts from his work(a). On the other hand his early dates for Tiwanaku are serious challenged by Orser(b) and Heinrich(c).

(a) http://www.atlantisbolivia.org/posnansky.htm

(b) http://www.intersurf.com/~chalcedony/Tiwanaku.html

(c) https://www.mail-archive.com/ctrl@listserv.aol.com/msg62910.html

Kiss, Edmund

Edmund Kiss (1886-1960) was a German*architectural student with an interest in archaeology. After the First World War he wrote a number of adventure novels. In the 1920’s he began his foray into the world of ‘alternative archaeology’. Later in that decade he made his first visit to Tiahuanaco.

The only known official photo of Kiss

The only known official photo of Kiss

During this period Kiss worked with Arthur Posnansky and advanced the idea that Tiahuanaco had been built by Nordic refugees from Atlantis (Thule) more than 17,000 years ago. Their work included a search for evidence to support the theories of Hanns Hörbiger.*

During the Third Reich was requested by Heinrich Himmler to take a team of researchers from the Ahnenerbe to continue his studies at Tiahuanaco but the expedition was called off. Following that he briefly joined the Waffen SS. After the war he continued his interest in Atlantis, writing a book on Plato’s Critias and contributing to Egerton SykesAtlantean Research newsletter in the 1950’s.

Rafael Videla Eissmann is an historian at the Catholic University of Chile, has written a number of articles in Spanish(a) regarding Kiss, as well as a wide range of other historical subjects.

(a) http://charlasylecturas.blogspot.com/

Bellamy, Hans Schindler

Hans Schindler Bellamy (1888-1970), appears to be one of the pseudonyms of Rudolf Elmayer von Vestenbrugg, a.k.a. Elmar Brugg. H. S. Bellamy, with one exception, was the pen name used on English language books. He was probably Austrian, or Anglo-Austrian as Trevor Palmer designates him[0888.127] Furthermore, there is no clear agreement regarding the exact year or place of either his birth (sometimes 1901)(b) or death (sometimes 1982). Atlantisforschung.de records(c) his life as (1901-1982) and refers to a lecture that Bellamy gave in 1975 to the World Congress of the Ancient Astronaut Society in Zurich, which presumably he delivered while still alive. Until now, I have also been unable to locate any photos of Bellamy.

bellamy1During the Nazi reign he wrote a number of regime friendly works under the name of Elmar Vinibert von Rudolf with the SA rank of Obersturmführer including a volume of SA stories covering the war years 1939/40. After the war he was usually published in the German language as Elmar Brugg.

Bellamy is probably best known for his adoption of some of the strange cosmological ideas of Hanns Hoerbiger, with whom he developed a friendship and has written about these theories in both English and German. He gathered an extensive collection of worldwide myths to support the view that the Earth had lost a previous moon and captured our present satellite within the last 50,000 years. He developed his views in his first book, Moons, Myths and Man[092] which was published shortly before the Second World War. After the war Bellamy was instrumental in establishing the British Hoerbiger Institute which contributed to Egerton Sykes’ bi-monthly Atlantis magazine.

Bellamy wrote a short monograph for the Hoerbiger Institute’s newsletter in March 1948, in which he reiterated his belief that the capture of our Moon caused the destruction of Atlantis(d).

In 1949 Bellamy was invited by Sykes to visit Britain, presumably from Austria, and give lectures on Hörbiger’s theories. In Vol.1 No.6 of Atlantean Research there is an article(a) written by Bellamy, he seems to be ingratiating himself with the British with glowing references to the Pound Sterling. This could be interpreted as part of a process of rehabilitation following his wartime activities.

He directly dissects the Atlantis story in his book, The Atlantis Myth, in which he never misses an opportunity to link the details of the Plato’s narrative with the ‘captured Moon’ theory of Hoerbiger. He also refers (p.78) to classical writers such as Strato and Seneca who wrote, “that originally the Straits of the Pillars (Straits of Gibraltar) did not exist, but the rock was eventually broken through in a cataclysm.” Bellamy logically comments that such an event could only be known if there were witnesses to it.

He also produced a volume[097], The Book of Revelation is History, devoted to demonstrating that the last book of the New Testament is in fact a coded description of the catastrophes that accompanied the capture of our moon. He claimed that the reference to the ten horns is an allusion to the ten Atlantean kings. He also interpreted the Book of Jeremiah I & II as well as Ezekiel as containing references to aspects of the Atlantis story.

Bellamy devoted a lot of his energies to the study of Tiahuanaco and co-authored two books[093][094] with Peter Allan (1898-1974) on the subject. Both Bellamy and Allan were awarded honorary professorships in the University of La Paz in recognition of their work at Tiahuanaco.

He also wrote an appreciation of Ignatius Donnelly in the 1950 edition of Atlantis:The Antediluvian World[1167], edited by Egerton Sykes.

He believed that he had found evidence of a shorter year of 290 days in ancient times but within the memory of man. Bellamy studied the calendar on the Sun Gate of Tiahuanaco and believed that he had found evidence of a shorter year of 290 days in ancient times but within the memory of man. He subscribed to the theory that a pre-lunar satellite orbited our planet 100,000 years ago and that it rotated so close to the Earth, eventually crashing into it, that it caused a more rapid rotation of our planet!

What appears to have been his last book[095] was published in German shortly after his death and once again he wrote of the possibility and consequences of cosmic collisions. Unusually, this book was published with the authorship credited jointly to both Rudolf Elmayer von Vestenbrugg and H.S. Bellamy.

(a) http://www.theflatearthsociety.org/home/index.php/flat-earth-library/pamphlets-and-journals

(b) http://elsurdelgrantriangulo-pablo.blogspot.ie/2015/06/civilizaciones-sin-raices-por-hans.html

(c) http://atlantisforschung.de/index.php?title=Hans_Schindler_Bellamy

(d) http://www.theflatearthsociety.org/home/index.php/flat-earth-library/pamphlets-and-journals  (Hoerbiger Monograph No. 1. 2nd Edition. March, 1948)

 

Bailey, James

James Richard Abe Bailey (1919-2000) was born in London and served in the RAF during the Second World War, winning the DFC. His wealthy parents came from South Africa, which he returned to and financed Drum magazine, giving a voice to black Africa.

In 1973 he published The God-Kings and The Titans[149] in which he claims that the Americas were colonised as early as 5000 BC and provided the copper and tin for the development of the Bronze Age in the Old World. He maintains that Atlantis was located in Peru with its capital city being either Tiahuanaco or Chan Chan. Bailey published a follow-up book, Sailing to Paradise[150] in 1994 in which he adds further support for his Atlantis in America belief. He refers to the irrigation systems of Mexico, the ability to raise three crops a year in Mexico and the coastal plains of Peru as all echoes of Plato’s description of Atlantis.

However, the principal objection to Bailey’s theory is the fact that bronze artefacts dated earlier than the middle of the 2nd millennium BC have not been found in South America. While in North America, it is generally accepted that there was no ‘Bronze Age’, although some use was made of the copper found around the Great Lakes. Probably, the scarcity of tin in an easily extractable form in the region worked against the emergence of a bronze ‘industry’.