An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Yashwant Koak

Koak, Yashwant (I)

Yashwant Koak is a consultant surgeon working in Britain. He is a Yashwant Koakproponent of the idea that Dholavira, a recently discovered city of the Indus civilisation, provided the inspiration for the Atlantis story. Koak has offered six papers to the 2008 2nd Atlantis Conference in Athens. His essays cover Vedic mythology, topography, Dwarka and Indus migration to Europe.

Apart from all that he enjoys cricket and playing the didgeridoo, not, I should add, at the same time.

Dilmun (m)

Dilmun is a legendary island paradise referred to in the mythology of Sumeria. Today Bahrain is generally believed to harbour the location of this renowned city.

Thirty years ago George Michanowsky proposed[282] that the Sumerian inscription NI-DUK-KI was the equivalent of the Akkadian ‘Dilmun’ and that it probably referred to Bahrain. He went further and identified Dilmun as Atlantis, which he contended was inundated when sea levels rose as a consequence of global warming caused by a supernova that was noted by the Sumerians 7,000 years ago.

However, in 2001 Radek Brychta published a book[203] that refutes this. Instead, he identifies Dilmun with the Indus civilisation city of Dholavira and proceeds to argue cogently for its acceptance as the original inspiration behind Plato’s Atlantis tale. He contends that the city declined at the end of the 3rd or beginning of the 2nd millennium BC as a result of natural catastrophes in the region. Brychta notes how flooding created swamps that impeded access to Dholavira reminiscent of Plato’s shoals preventing navigation where Atlantis had subsided. Brychta outlines the contacts between the Indus civilisation and Sumeria and between Sumeria and Egypt and proposes this as the route of the story of Dholavira’s demise, which eventually was related to Solon. Brachta’s book was published in the Czech Republic but extensive excerpts are available on the Internet(a) and well worth a viewing.

Brachta’s theory is supported by Yashwant Koak, who is due to publish a book on his concept of Atlantis in India. Koak claims that investigations at Dholavira have shown a 92% match with Plato’s description of Atlantis.

*[The Malagaybay website has an interesting illustrated article about Dilmun.(b)]*

(a) http://www.i-atlantis.com/enindex.htm (Offline)

*[(b) https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/10/26/the-arabian-horizon-the-lost-lands-dilmun/ ]*

Dholavira

Dholavira is a recently discovered city of the Indus Valley civilisation, and is now estimated to be one of the five largest (out of 700) Harappan sites, covering an area of up to 100 hectares.* It is known locally as Kotada. Only 10% of the site has been excavated, leaving a promise of further important discoveries still to come.*

Its foundation is dated to around 3000 BC and it flourished until approximately 1500 BC(a). 2010 saw the first discovery in Dholivira of an inscription on natural stone in the Indus script. 2011 produced a report(b) that what may be the world’s oldest theatrical stage had been found on the Dholavira site.

DholaviraIn October 2014 it was reported that a stepwell, dated to 3000 BC, had been discovered at Dholivara that was three times the size of the ‘Great Bath’ at Mohenjo Daro(c).

The city has number of special features outlined on a Pakistani website in 2015. The same posting(f) suggests that “the Indus Valley civilisation. Ideally it should be called Indus-Saraswsati civilisation, but the work to trace the path of saraswati is still in progress.”

At least two writers have claimed Dholavira as the source of Plato’s Atlantis story. Radek Brychta who has already written(d)(e) on the subject of an Atlantean connection and Yashwant Koak who is planning to publish in the near future,*although, as of May 2018 nothing further has been heard of this.*One claim is that “the archaeological discoveries at the site of Dholavira matches 90% of the description of the Atlantis city.”

*Brychta wrote an article on his Atlantean Dholavira for the Atlantisforschung.de website(d)..

(a) https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/dholavira-ancient-wonder-of-gujarat.html*

(b) http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/rajkot/Will-Dholavira-ruins-rewrite-history-of-ancient-theatre/articleshow/7400422.cms

(c) http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/5000-year-old-Harappan-stepwell-found-in-Kutch-bigger-than-Mohenjodaros/articleshow/44638220.cms 

(d) http://atlantisforschung.de/index.php?title=Die_Entdeckung_von_Platons_Atlantis_VII_b (German)

*(e) http://atlantis.brychta.org/en7.htm (English)*

(f) http://defence.pk/threads/dholavira-the-zenith-of-harappan-town-planning.372591/

Also See: Dilmun

Indus Valley

The Indus Valley civilisation is dated to 2600-1900 BC (preceded by the Mehrgarh People) and is now referred to as the Harappan civilisation. To date, over a thousand settlements and five cities have been identified, but only 10% have been excavated(v).

The origins of the Indus people has been debated for some time, but a DNA study of four skeletons discovered, some years ago, at Rakhigarhi, in India, may offer some clues. However, three years later the results have still not been made public(z)(aa)!

Indus has recently received a number of nominations as the original source of the Atlantis story. Dr. Ashok Malhotra has identified the submergence of the city of Dwarka as the inspiration for the story, which was then brought to Sumeria and later Egypt Indus Regionalbefore transmission to Greece.

However, Radek Brychta has opted[203] for ancient city of Dholavira as a more likely candidate, while independently Yashwant Koak arrived at the same conclusion and intends to publish soon.

A 2014 blogger offered similar ideas with a paper(n) entitled ‘Atlantis was Indus valley plateau?’ but then proceeds to describe Indonesia as the hyperdiffusionist source for the great civilisations such as those of the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Cretans and the Mesopotamians. These also included the Jews, the Phoenicians, and the Aryans, driven away from their ancestral lands in Indonesia and Southeast Asia.”

In Thorwald C. Franke’s Newsletter No.119 he draws attention to a review by Ptofessor Heinz-Günther Nesselrath of a new over-priced book by Erika Daniels-Qasim. Although the book is published in German[1580], Nesselrath’s highly critical review is in English(ac), Nesselrath reveals that this is just another useless attempt to link Plato’s Atlantis with the Indus Valley civilisation. Franke describes it as a ‘sad book’.

*Although the ‘ancient alien’ idea has nothing to back it up, the claim that a very ancient nuclear war destroyed the Indus civilisation has had some support(ad). However, Jason Colavito has also debunked the story of the radioactive skeleton there(ab).*

In 2012, the Spanish researcher, José Angel Hernández, proposed that the Tarshish of the Bible was to be found on the coast al region of the Indus Valley, but that Tartessos was a colony of the Indus city of Lhotal and had been situated on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar! He also compared the bull cult of Plato’s Atlantis with that of the Indus civilisation(f)(g).

The central Indus city of Mohenjo-Daro was only rediscovered in 1922(m) and a curious more recent discovery there, was that 10% of artifacts found there related to play! Clusters of game pieces suggested the use of communal social centres.  Unrelated, but perhaps more relevant to our study is the fact that there is a dearth of weaponry fortifications or evidence of warfare in the Indus culture(d), which is in sharp contrast to the belligerent Atlantean society described by Plato.

A frequently referred to anomaly at Mohenjo-Daro is evidence of vitrification and radioactivity that some have attributed to attacks by ancient aliens. A more balanced view(k)(l) can be found online. A 2015 article on this subject is also worth a look(o). Jason Colavito has unearthed(ab) the origin of this claim, tracing it back to the 1960’s and an unreliable Russian writer, Alexander Gorbovsky, compouded by later distortions by ‘fringe investigators.

A 2012 conference on Harappan archaeology saw the origins of that culture pushed back to the 7th millennium BC, contemporary with that of Sumer(j). The same conference saw linguistic connections between the two cultures under discussion. However, despite numerous attempts over the past century the Indus Valley script remains undecoded(p), although there are regular claims of successful decipherment, 2007(q), 2009(r), 2011(s), 2013(t), to-date totalling nearly 100, somewhat reminiscent of the constant flow of Atlantis theories. Now linguists are turning to computer technology to finally solve the problem(x).

A radical theory regarding Mohenjo-Daro has been proposed by an Indian researcher, Jeyakumar Ramasami, in which he claims that the city was in fact a necropolis and not a metropolis. His book on the subject can be down loaded as a free Word file(e).  A similar theory was proposed by Hans Georg Wunderlich regarding the Minoan ‘palace’ of Knossos on Crete.

A comprehensive website(a) with many photos and diagrams relating to the Indus Valley civilisation is available. A related article by Patrick Chouinard is also of interest(b).

A recent discovery off the Konkan Coast in the State of Maharashtra in western India has revealed a remarkable structure that based on sea level changes may be 8,000 years old(c). A wall 24 km long, 2.7 metres high and 2.5 metres in width was discovered in just three metres of water. Speculation has centred on the possibility of it being evidence of a completely unknown civilisation that could pre-date that of the Indus Valley. A second site, thought to be pre-Harappan, located in Rakhigarhi village in Haryana’s Hisar district, over 200 km from Chandigarh, is now under investigation.

A 2008 article(i) adds further information about the Indus Valley, which includes a reference to Neolithic site at Mehrgarh a precursor to the Indus civilisation and dated to 7000 BC, a date that has now been pushed back to 8000 BC according to a paper published(u) in the May 25th 2016 edition of Nature.

A recent paper(w) has revealed how the Indus people coped with the consequences of climate change when their civilisation was at its height around. 2500-1900 BC. Until recently it was thought that many the Indus settlements had been dependent on a major Himalayan river, the Ghaggar-Hakra, now dried up. However, recent studies(y) indicate that this river changed course over 8,000 years ago suggesting that when the Indus people settled the area, there was only an abandoned large river valley occupied by seasonal monsoon river flow instead of a large Himalayan river.” So it seems that unlike the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilisations the Indus people did not require a substantial permanent river!

(a) https://www.harappa.com/ 

(b) http://newagearchaeology.weebly.com/the-indus-valley.html

(c) http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report_a-civilisation-as-old-as-indus-valley_1547987

(d) http://www.adventurecorps.com/archaeo/collapse.html

(e) https://archive.org/details/NewInterpretationsOnIndusValleyCivilization

(f) http://joseangelh.wordpress.com/category/mito-y-religion/

(g) http://joseangelh.wordpress.com/category/arqueologia-e-historia/

(h) http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/is-haryana-home-to-older-larger-harappan-era-site-113062400485_1.html

(i) http://wondersofpakistan.wordpress.com/2009/02/21/mehrgarh-the-lost-civilisation-2/

(j) http://transmissionsmedia.com/indus-valley-civilization-may-have-been-as-old-as-7380-bc/  

(k) http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2013/10/21/mohenjo-daro-2/

(l) http://ancientaliensdebunked.com/references-and-transcripts/ancient-nuclear-warefare/ (offline May 2016) See: Archive 3516

(m)  http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2959492/posts

(n) http://indiandefence.com/threads/atlantis-was-indus-valley-plateu.45878/ (offline Feb. 2016) See: Archive 3617

(o) http://dailygrail.com/Hidden-History/2015/2/Mohenjo-Daro-Ancient-Nuclear-Mystery

(p) http://www.nature.com/news/ancient-civilization-cracking-the-indus-script-1.18587

(q) http://www.hindunet.org/hvk/articles/0207/56.html (offline Nov. 2016)

(r) https://www.theguardian.com/science/2009/apr/23/indus-civilisation-language-symbols

*(s) https://www.boloji.com/articles/10657/a-new-light-on-the-decipherment-of*

(t) https://sites.google.com/site/indusharappacivilization/home

(u) http://scroll.in/latest/808978/indus-era-dates-back-further-than-thought-older-than-egypt-mesopotamia-iit-asi-scientists

(v) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3791308/The-forgotten-utopia-Indus-people-lived-700-years-without-war-weapons-inequality.html

(w) http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/winter-2017/article/the-ancient-indus-civilization-s-adaptation-to-climate-change

(x) http://www.theverge.com/2017/1/25/14371450/indus-valley-civilization-ancient-seals-symbols-language-algorithms-ai

(y) https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171128112209.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ffossils_ruins%2Fancient_civilizations+%28Ancient+Civilizations+News+–+ScienceDaily%29

(z) https://www.quora.com/When-will-Rakhigarhi-excavations-DNA-results-be-published

(aa) https://www.quora.com/Shouldn%E2%80%99t-the-Rakhigarhi-DNA-research-papers-be-further-delayed-and-gradually-released-to-prevent-possible-shock-waves-and-unrest-in-southern-parts-of-South-Asia-where-lots-of-people-were-in-a-low-social-status-due-to-the-Vedic-traditions

(ab)  http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/the-radioactive-skeleton-of-mohenjo-daro-how-soviet-propaganda-spiraled-into-a-extreme-fringe-history-claim

(ac) http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2018/2018-08-23.html

*(ad) https://www.matrixdisclosure.com/nuclear-war-ancient-times/*

India

India, which at first sight might appear an improbable candidate, has not escaped the attention of Atlantis seekers. For the the sake of simplicity I use the term ‘India’ as employed before independence so as to include Pakistan, in order to accommodate the Indus Valley culture, which straddled both those modern states. Awareness of the region was boosted by the investigations of Graham Hancock and recorded in his book Underworld, which prompted a flurry of speculation(a)(c). More recently a wall was discovered just 3 metres below the surface of the sea off the coast of Konkan on the west coast of India. The structure stretches over many kilometres (possibly as much as 25 km) and has been dated to 8000 BC(j).

Further interest was generated by suggestions that the Indus Valley civilisation could also have an Atlantis connection.

In Search of the Cradle of Civilization: New Light on Ancient India[0817] is a ground-breaking book wherein its three authors, Feuerstein, Kak & Frawley, argue that there was no “Aryan invasion” and that India, not Sumer, was the cradle of civilized humanity.

P.N.Oak (1917-2007) the Indian history-revisionist has gone as far as to claim that the British Isles had once been ruled by India(l).

An Indian researcher, P. Karthigayan, had prepared a paper for the 2005 Atlantis Conference on Melos entitled ‘The Origin of the Atlantis Civilisation through Tamil literary evidences’, however circumstances prevented his attendance. Another Indian, anthropologist, Amlan Roychowdhury, an anthropologist, also proposes(b) that the Vedic culture of India is a remnant of Atlantean civilisation. March 17th 2013 saw an article(i) published in the Sunday Observer of Sri Lanka by Neil Kiriella, in which  he proposed that Plato’s Atlantis story was a reworking of the destruction of Lankapura as recorded in the Ramayana.

In an October 2015 article by blogger Abo Rashad, he outlined in some detail similarities between Vedic civilisation and that of ancient Egypt. He concluded with the following comment, There are evidences galore that Vedic civilization was the precursor of all major civilization in the world. Similarities between the Egyptian civilization and the Vedic civilization and the evidence of the later being the progenitor of the earlier is but one example. There are plenty of similarities between Vedic and Celtic civilization, between Vedic and Anatolian civilization, between Vedic and Mayan civilization etc. The question is the similarities between one and many.”

Sergey Teleguin is a Russian professor of Philology and a leading advocate of the idea that the city of Tripura (Triple City) in Vedic tradition was the original inspiration behind Plato’s city of Atlantis. In support of his contention he has outlined a number of parallels between Plato’s account and the sacred texts of India, the Puranas and Mahabharata in an extensive English excerpt(n) from his 2005 Russian book, Anatomy of a Myth[1122].

The Malagabay website published a lengthy article(l) in July 2016, offering evidence along with some conjecture, supporting the radical idea that the Sea Peoples had originated in India and having migrated westward, some of them reached the Aegean and became known as Dorians! The author of the article appears to have followed the ideas of Edward Pococke published in his India in Greece[1231].

Martin Freksa has a totally different view of where India fits into the Atlantis saga by maintaining that Atlantis, while pursuing world domination, was destroyed by atomic weapons aboard missiles launched by India around 3000 BC.

David Hatcher Childress has written Vimana Aircraft of Ancient India and Atlantis[1252] in which he discusses the vimanas, the ancient Indian flying machines and for good measure includes the vailxi aircraft of the Atlanteans, the latter being first mentioned in 1894 by the author of A Dweller on Two Planets[1014].

James Hartman, quoting from the Agastya Samhita offers(m) intriguing evidence that the ancient Indians had the ability to make batteries, the design of which is rather reminiscent of the Baghdad Battery!

Cedric R. Leonard in an article on pre-Platonic references to Atlantis(e) identifies what he believes are relevant in the ancient writings of India.

Ashok Malhotra has proposed that the ancient submerged Indian city of Dwarka provided the inspiration for Plato’s Atlantis story(d).

Qusai Ayman Naser writing in 2013 from Syria also suggested India as holding the location of Atlantis, specifically in the Bay of Bengal(h).

The French historian Philippe Potel-Belner also identifies Bab-el-Mandeb as the Pillars of Heracles(g) beyond which lay Atlantis on a long plain on the west coast of India(f).*He has recently drawn attention to the Farasan Islands, near Bab-el-Mandeb, where a Latin inscription could be interpreted as supporting the locality as the site of the ‘Pillars’ (n).*

Also See: Yashwant Koak, Gene Matlock.

(a) http://lofi.forum.physorg.com/Atlantis-was-situated-in-the-Indian-Ocean_10213.html  (offline Sept.2016 see: Archive 2051)

(b) https://vedicvidyalay.org/content/vedic-civilization-remnants-legendary-atlantis (26 pages)

(c) http://www.thetruthseeker.co.uk/?p=389

(d) http://ezinearticles.com/?In-Search-of-Atlantis—-Getting-CloserHYPERLINK 

(e) http://www.atlantisquest.com/Writings.html (offline March 2018) See Archive 2055

(f) http://www.academia.edu/3480936/Atlantis_myth_legend_History  (Offline Aug.2016) see Archive 2056

(g) http://www.academia.edu/3339364/PLATO_revisited_what_he_precisely_said_about_Atlantis (Offline Aug.2016) see Archive 2057

(h) www.facebook.com\gtcubicus  (offline August 2016) See: Archive 5135

(i) http://www.sundayobserver.lk/2013/03/17/mon06.asp (offline Nov 2016) see Archive 2058

(j) http://s8int.com/WordPress/2011/06/09/undewater-cities-and-monuments-submerged-8000-year-old-civilization-on-konkan-coast-india/ (offline Dec.2015) see Archive 2059

*(k) http://egy-king.blogspot.ie/2015/10/egypt-and-vedic-civilzation.html (link broken Dec. 2018) See Archive 2723.*

(l) https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/07/07/catastrophic-english-india-in-greece/

(m) http://www.sacred-texts.com/ufo/ourpast.htm

*(n) https://www.langue-et-histoire.com/actualites/*