An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Yemen

Aden

Yemen-mapAden was formerly a British possession and is now part of war-torn Yemen. Stan Deyo, author of The Vindicator Scrolls[784], in 1989 located Atlantis in Aden. A Dutch amateur Egyptologist, Alexander Muster, also promotes a similar idea through a variety of Internet forums. A former French police chief, Jacques Hébert, has proposed that the Yemeni island of Socotra was part of the Atlantean civilisation.

*A recent Russian website(a) also places Atlantis in the Gulf of Aden opposite the legendary land of Punt in what is now Somalia.*

(a) https://sites.google.com/view/atlantis-aden/main

 

Socotra (L)

Socotra is the name of a small archipelago in the Indian Ocean. It has a population of over 40,000 and is administered by the Republic of Yemen. In ancient times it was known as the Dioscorides or ‘Isle of the Dioscuri’ (Castor and Pollux).

socotra_2-e3ca7Our interest in Socotra stems from the fact that Jacques Hébert, a former French police chief identified the island as the location of Atlantis[373]. He also claims that the strait of Bab el Mandeb situated to the north was the site of the Pillars of Heracles.

On Christmas Eve, 2010 the Yemen news agency reported(a) that a Russian team of archaeologists had discovered an ancient city on Socotra, the main island of the group. Unfortunately, what they found has been dated to around 200 AD and so provides no support for Hébert’s theory.

*[Alain Moreau has written a critical review of Hébert’s theory(b) .

(a) http://www.sabanews.net/en/news231597.htm

(b) http://www.mondenouveau.fr/continents-disparus-fausses-atlantides-partie-1/]*

Hébert, Jacques (L)

Jacques Hébert is the author of Atlantide: La Solution Oubliee[373] concerning Atlantis. As a former Parisian police jhebert, Jacqueschief, he claims to have applied his skills in that field to solving the mystery of Plato’s island. He critically re-examines the original text and offers an interpretation that he believes provides a more rational and harmonious reading of the narrative. His conclusion is that Atlantis lay in the Indian Ocean and that its culture was derived from the Indus valley. He specifically identifies the Yemeni island of Socotra as part of the Atlantean civilisation

Hébert postulates that this empire had at least trade connections in the eastern Mediterranean and quite possibly had a colony in the region that produced the predecessors of the Phoenicians.

Hébert identifies Bab el Mandeb as Plato’s Pillars of Heracles, by assuming that Solon mistook the description of that strait, given to him by the priests of Sais, with the Strait of Gibraltar, which has similar features. The earthquake that destroyed Atlantis is attributed by him to a close encounter with an extraterrestrial body.

A 2004 interview with Hébert can be read online(a).

(a) http://www.vox-populi.net/article.php3?id_article=21 (French)

Deyo, Stan

Stan DeyoStan Deyo is American by birth but moved to Australia in the early 1970’s.  He is the author of The Vindicator Scrolls[784] in which he opted for Aden (Eden), now part of Yemen, as the site of Atlantis(a).*He places the Plain of Atlantis in what is now eastern Saudi Arabia adjacent to a Persian Gulf extending further north(e).

Alexander Muster, an amateur Dutch Egyptologist puts forward(c) a vaguely similar idea. Deyo identifies the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon Mountains as the Pillars of Heracles!

In 2014, Deyo chose Tanzania as the location of the Garden of Eden(h).*This idea has been echoed elsewhere and more recently on a website dealing with the history of Israel(f) and on a Christian website where the Ngorongoro Crater is specified(g).*

Deyo seems to subscribe to his own brand of religious fundamentalism, referring constantly to biblical characters and events. He dates the creation of the world to around 6000 BC and It appears that he believes that India was connected to Africa less than 5,000 years ago!

He also subscribes to the Expanding Earth Hypothesis, with which I am sympathetic. However, when he ventured into the realms of ‘free energy, anti-gravity and extraterrestrial visitors he lost me completely. A lot of research has gone into The Vindicator Scrolls although some readers may find his use of so many mathematical formulae makes much of the content inaccessible.

Some less than complimentary comments regarding Deyo are to be found on the Internet(d).

(a) http://www.standeyo.com/bio.Stan.html

(b) http://www.mythicalireland.com/other/atlantis.php (Link broken Nov. 2017)

(c) http://mainzerbeobachter.wordpress.com/tag/atlantis/

(d) http://www.christianmediaresearch.com/deyo.html

*(e) http://ufosightingshotspot.blogspot.ie/2017/02/the-asteroid-flood-atlantis-and-alien.html

(f) http://www.israel-a-history-of.com/the-biblical-garden-of-eden-in-tanzania-africa.html

(g) http://eliotelwarapologetics.com/2015/07/24/the-biblical-garden-of-eden-found/

(h) https://www.standeyo.com/Podcast/Show_Images/Eden_Images.html*

Ark of the Covenant, The

The Ark of the Covenant is one of the most enduring mysteries that originated in the Old Testament. It was recorded there, in great detail (Exod.25:10-22; 37:1-9),, how the Ark was constructed in order to house the tablets of stone inscribed with the Ten Commandments given to Moses. King Solomon built the First Jerusalem Temple with the primary purpose of ark-of-the-covenantproviding a suitable home for the Ark. Some time before the 6th century BC the Ark disappeared and so for at least two and a half millennia the search for it has been ongoing.

In 1982, Yehuda Getz, the rabbi in charge of Jerusalem’s Wailing Wall claimed to have knowledge of the Ark’s location to within 2 or 3 metres, under the Dome of the Rock and the al-Aqsa Mosque. Political considerations have prevented any excavation at the site(d). The late Ron Wyatt also claimed to have discovered the Ark in 1982, under the old city of Jerusalem(f). A 2017 claim is that the Ark is situated near Jerusalem at Kiryat Ye’arim, where excavations will begin soon(g).

One of the best known books recounting a personal search for the Ark in modern times was by Graham Hancock in the shape of The Sign and the Seal [678],  which ended with a frustrated author outside a church in Axum, Ethiopia. Oddly, Hancock touches on the subject of Atlantis in this book (p.319) where he dismisses the idea of an Atlantic home for Atlantis.

Hancock’s experiences in Ethopia were repeated by Paul Raffaele and recounted in a 2007 article in the Smithsonian magazine(b). However, there is a short report(c) that in 1869, Isaac de Karpet, Armenian Patriarch of the library of the monastery of St. James in Jerusalem, along with his brother Dimoteo Sapritchian, gained access to the church in Axum thanks to the intervention of the Abyssinian crown prince Kasa. They concluded that the ‘Ark’ in the church were wooden tablets (tabots) inscribed with the Ten Commandments dating from the 13th or 14th centuries AD.

*The de Karpet report was recently echoed by an account(m) of the inside of the Aksum church having been seen by one Edward Ullendorff during WW2 and who much later gave an interview to the Los Angeles Times in 1992 in which he revealed that there was only a replica of the ‘Ark’ which are to be found in churches throughout Ethiopia.*

A recent website article(a) offers newly discovered evidence for considering Yemen as the hiding place of the Ark. However, closer to home we have a book[1345] by Graham Phillips suggesting that the Ark had been brought back to England, to Temple Herdewyke, near Stratford-upon-Avon. He partly bases this idea on the work of Jacob Cove-Jones, a British historian(e), who died before he could complete his own quest for the Ark.

Other suggested locations include Mount Pisgah in Jordan(h), East Prussia(i) and the Hill of Tara in Ireland(j).*Expanding the possible locations further west is the suggestion by J. Chamberlain, following the theories of J.P. Noel(l) who proposed in a convoluted tale, that St. Croix in the Caribbean U.S. Virgin Islands as the final resting place of the Ark [1581].

Equally entertaining is the hint from the late Philip Coppens that the Bugarach mountain, near the Rennes-le-Chateau, was also, through rumour, the location of the ‘Ark’. In a colourful article Coppens, links, President Mitterrand, Nazis, Mossad and Steven Spielberg(k).*

A number of other books and TV documentaries charting the search for the Ark continue to be produced. However, there is also another trend becoming more obvious, which is that there is an increasing number of instances, particularly on the Internet, of the Ark being linked to Atlantis. There is, of course, no evidence ever offered to support such speculation. One of the most recent of these is Opening the Ark of the Covenant, co-authored by Frank Joseph, where he traces the Ark back to Atlantis.

There are probably few people that don’t accept that the Ark had been a real artefact, while many doubt the reality of Atlantis. It is possible that by linking the two, authors hope to achieve credibility transference from one to the other!

(a) http://viewzone2.com/protocanaanite22.html

(b) http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/keepers-of-the-lost-ark-179998820/?all

(c) http://ilsettimopapiro.altervista.org/antichi___misteri.htm (offline May 2017: see Archive 2479)

(d) Brisbane Courier Mail, 29th January 1992

(e) http://www.ancient-origins.net/opinion-guest-authors/did-templars-hide-ark-covenant-unraveling-cove-jones-cipher-006980?nopaging=1

(f) http://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends/adventist-adventurer-claimed-have-found-ark-covenant-beneath-crucifixion-site-007412?nopaging=1

(g) http://www.timesofisrael.com/archaeologists-to-break-ground-at-biblical-site-where-ark-of-the-covenant-stood/

(h) http://www.hope-of-israel.org/p16.htm

(i) http://earth-chronicles.com/histori/the-ark-of-the-covenant-hidden-under-the-kaliningrad.html

(j) http://www.irishtimes.com/news/the-ark-at-the-seat-of-kings-1.356282

(k) Atlantis Rising, No. 88, July/August 2011

(l) http://arkofthecovenant-jpnoel.blogspot.com/p/st-croix-ark.html

*(m) https://www.livescience.com/64256-ark-of-the-covenant-location.html*

 

Megalith Builders

The Megalith Builders, who date mainly from the Neolithic Period, are frequently identified with Plato’s Atlanteans. Their remarkable structures were built between the middles of the fifth and second millennia B.C., a period that is compatible with final days of Atlantis according to Plato. Proponents of the idea of a megalithic building Atlantis see the location and extent of the megalithic structures as being in agreement with Plato’s description, particularly his reference to Atlantean influence extending as far as Tyrrhenia and Egypt.

However, there are many features in Plato’s narrative that do not conform to our current knowledge of the megalith builders. There is no evidence that they had writing, irrigation technology or the navigational skills to mount an attack on Egypt/Athens or any other characteristics ascribed to the Atlanteans by him.

On the other hand, if these attributes are just literary flesh applied to a skeleton of historical truth the possibility of a link between the Atlanteans and the megalith builders still remains.

Atlantis enthusiasts are quite happy to associate the megalith builders with Atlantis, as it provides something tangible to enhance the credibility of Plato’s narrative pointing to sites such as Stonehenge or the Maltese Temples. British researcher Robert John Langdon has gone further and proposed that the megalith builders originally came from Africa and settled in Doggerland at the end of the Ice Age, where they established Atlantis[919]. When Doggerland was submerged they migrated to what is now mainland Britain, where they built Stonehenge as a memorial to Atlantis.

Manuel Vega, who places Atlantis in the Atlantic has some novel ideas regarding Stonehenge as well as Ireland’s Newgrange [0868].

Paul Dunbavin in his Atlantis of the West[0099] promotes the idea of a megalithic Atlantis centred off the coast of Wales.

While not a new idea, a megalithic connection with Atlantis has recently been given further attention by the French writer Sylvain Tristan who was inspired by Jean Deruelle and Alan Butler. Alfred deGrazia also joined this club as well as the German author Helmut Tributsch who has added his support to the idea of a megalithic Atlantis, specifically locating its capital on the island of Gavrinis in Brittany. A similar claim has been made by Hank Harrison who also believes that the Morbihan region was an important Atlantean centre if not the location of its capital. Further support for a megalithic Atlantis has been given by Walter Schilling who places Plato’s city in the Bay of Cadiz. Robert Temple has recently offered grudging support for the concept of Atlantean megalith builders.

As far as I am aware classical writers make no obvious reference to the megalith builders, nor has this omission been commented on by modern writers. However, the numerous indirect references to Atlantis by the same ancient writers are deemed inadequate. This seems rather inconsistent to me.

It appears to me that other questions that have not been definitively answered relate to the identity of the megalith builders, why they stopped building and what happened to them. Another thought is that if the megalith builders lived at the same time as the Atlanteans, is it not strange that both disappeared around the same time, or did they?

Parallel with the megaliths of the eastern Atlantic seaboard are the megaliths of North America. Who built them and when? Are they evidence of very early pre-Columbian voyagers from Europe?(b)

An interesting article combining all the strange aspects of megalith building can be read online(c)  which certainly offers food for thought. A paper(d) published in September 2013 gives a good overview of megalithic studies during the past few decades. Walter Haug’s well illustrated website(k) offers a range of previously ignored megalithic sites in Germany.

Much nonsense has been written about the megalith builders, particularly on the Internet, where you find daft ideas such as attributing their construction to aliens(a). The suggestion that extraterrestrials had the technology to travel in space but when they land on earth they have to build observatories with stone is just silly.

A valuable website dealing with the global spread of megalithic monuments, is The Megalithic Portal established by Andy Burnham(g), which has regular updates. Other useful sites are Stone Pages(h) and Megalithic Ireland(i). Another site worth a look is from Sjur C. Papazian(l). There is also a site(j) dealing specifically with the dolments of Corsica and Sardinia.

In the Middle East dolmens stretch in a line from the Caucasus(s)(p) to the Yemen with a concentration in Jordan(m), a fact which prompted a former Dutch ambassador to Jordan, Gajus Scheltema, to write Megalithic Jordan[1206]. Jordan is also home to an ancient mysterious 150 km wall, which was 1-1.5 metres high.(u)

Dolmens are also found in more distant lands such as India(r), Korea(n)(v) and Japan(o). It is difficult to look at the worldwide distribution of dolmens and not consider the possibility of some form of global cultural diffusion! Rarely discussed are the widely dispersed megalithic remains found throughout the Pacific islands(q).

There is a well-illustrated website offering an overview of the megalithic culture of Western Europe and the Mediterranean(t).

In February 2019 the Smithsonian Magazine had a report telling us that Bettina Schulz Paulsson, an archaeologist at the University of Gothenburg, reexamined some 2,410 radiocarbon dating results that have been assigned to Europe’s megaliths and put them through a Bayesian statistical analysis. Based on the picture the data present, Schulz Paulsson believes that the megaliths were first constructed by dwellers of northwest France during the second half of the fifth millennium BC.” (w) Mike Parker Pearson, the leading Stonehenge expert, has endorsed this idea of a French origin for megalith building(x).

*The interesting claims of Schulz Paulsson, who place the origins of megalithic construction to Brittany in the fifth millennium BC, may be challenged by a little-known counterclaim that tombs in the Ox Mountains in the west of Ireland have been dated to the seventh millennium BC(y). However, my personal view is that it would be more likely that the practice of megalith building would have spread from the east rather than from Ireland westward!*

A rational explanation for the construction of cyclopean masonry has been offered by Professor of Architecture Jean-Pierre Protzen and demonstrated on a YouTube clip(f).

(a) http://www.world-mysteries.com/mpl_10ramm.htm

(b) http://planetvermont.com/pvq/v9n2/megaliths.html   (Offline Dec. 2018) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20171105055925/http://planetvermont.com/pvq/v9n2/megaliths.html

(c) http://www.bibleufo.com/ancconstmono.htm (offline June 2017) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20140625091115/http://www.bibleufo.com/ancconstmono.htm*

(d)  http://brian-mountainman.blogspot.ie/2013/09/whats-significance-of-megalithic.html

(e) http://www.paranormalpeopleonline.com/cyclopean-masonry-a-mystery-of-the-ancient-world/

(f) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkze3WUvHz4

(g) http://www.megalithic.co.uk/

(h) http://www.stonepages.com/about_us.html

(i) http://www.megalithicireland.com/   

(j) http://www.museodeidolmen.it/englishdefault.html

(k) http://www.megalith-pyramiden.de/AB-001-Cairn-Forschungsgesellschaft.html

(l) https://aratta.wordpress.com/megalith-culture/

(m) http://www.jordan-solidarity.org/74+special-dolmens.html

(n) http://www.dolmen.or.kr/eng/sub.php?PID=0205 (offline April 2017)  See: http://english.cha.go.kr/cop/bbs/selectBoardArticle.do?ctgryLrcls=CTGRY166&nttId=57997&bbsId=BBSMSTR_1205&mn=EN_03_01

(o) https://heritageofjapan.wordpress.com/yayoi-era-yields-up-rice/lifestyle-and-society-of-the-land-of-wa/days-of-mourning-and-ways-of-burying/visit-a-megalithic-dolmen-site/

(p) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolmens_of_North_Caucasus

(q) http://davidpratt.info/easter1.htm (section 10)

(r) http://www.deccanchronicle.com/lifestyle/pets-and-environment/090916/megalithic-tombs-in-tadvai-forests.html

(s) http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-europe/25000-year-old-buildings-found-russia-006215

(t) https://aratta.wordpress.com/megalith-culture/

(u) http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/mysterious-ancient-wall-extending-over-150km-investigated-jordan-005380?utm_source=sendy&utm_medium=email&utm_content=top5_lastyear&utm_campaign=email_regular

(v) http://www.ancient.eu/article/987/

(w) https://www.smithsonianmag.com/articles/europe-megalithic-monuments-france-sea-routes-mediterranean-180971467/

(x)   https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/02/stonehenge-other-ancient-rock-structures-may-trace-their-origins-monuments

*(y) https://www.newgrange.com/european-megalithic.htm*