The Nephilim in the Old Testament were the offspring of the “sons of God” and the “daughters of men” before the Deluge, according to Genesis 6:1-4. Many early translations of the OT, as well as the King James version, preferred to translate the original Hebrew word as ‘giants’.
The World Heritage Encyclopedia offers a range of theories regarding the etymology of the word(a). Wikipedia has further background information on the subject(c).
In more recent times it was the work of the late Zechariah Sitchin that revived interest in the Nephilim, the Anunnaki and the existence of extraterrestrial visitors in ancient times. Unlike the more than dubious claims of Erich von Däniken, Sitchin’s ideas appeared to have a more reliable scientific foundation. However, this foundation was based Sitchin’s own interpretation of Sumerian texts, which has been heavily criticised(b).
In 2019, Ryan Pitterson, tried to revive the idea of a connection between Atlantis and the biblical Nephilim, but failed miserably. He is the author of Judgement of the Nephilim , which he claims to be “the first comprehensive biblical study of the nephilim.” Promotional interviews for the book gave him his fifteen minutes of fame, which is more than this book deserves.
Marduk & Tiamat were two of the leading gods of the Babylonian pantheon (a). The controversial writer Zecharia Sitchin, in The Twelfth Planet , identifies Marduk and Tiamat as planetary bodies that were involved in a re-ordering of the solar system through catastrophic collisions some millions of years ago (b). However, his proposed Sumerian cosmology includes another planet in our solar system, ‘Nibiru’ with an orbital period of 3,600 years, whose inhabitants visited Earth during their previous close encounters and genetically manipulated the development of humans!
Now, Stuart L. Harris has published a paper(c) naming a body, Marduk/Nibiru, that had a number of close encounters with Earth causing global catastrophes, which included the destruction of Atlantis in 9577 BC, which he believes had been situated in the North Atlantic near Rockall. He proposes that this event generated a tsunami 1,500 metres high that swept across Europe. Harris also credits Marduk with the destruction of the planet Tiamat, which led to the creation of the asteroid belt.
The Babylonian Marduk is frequently associated with the Greek Phaëton.
Bruce Jeffries-Fox is an American musician, who recently completed a musical based on the content of Sumerian cunieform tablets. influenced by the writings of Zechariah Sitchin!
His Enduring Mysteries website contains a number of interesting essays on ancient history subjects, which includes two(a)(b) devoted to the possibility of Atlantis in France, based on the ideas of Marcel Mestdagh and Philip Coppens’ book, The Lost Civilization Enigma .
Christos A. Djonis is a Greek Cypriot now living in the United States. His first book Cyprus-The Island of Aphrodite, is a travel guide to that island. He has now ventured into much deeper waters with his latest book Uchronia-Atlantis Revealed. The central core of his theory is that Atlantis lay in the Aegean Sea, to the north of Thera, which itself contained the capital city of the Atlantean confederation. He gives no credit to Paulino Zamarro who proposed a similar location fifteen years ago.
Djonis accepts 9600 BC as the time of its existence as the lower sea level then would have created a single landmass with a large central plain. Among his other claims is the idea that during the Bronze Age the Minoans “were not only heavily mining copper from the area around Lake Superior, but they were regularly carrying tobacco and other spices from the Americas back to Santorini.”(d)
He supports this link with North America with the geographical spread of the human mitochondrial DNA designated Haplogroup X. In his own words(e),
“While most geneticists today maintain that haplogroup X walked to America via the Bering Strait, genetic maps show that the furthest region east of the Mediterranean with small traces of haplogroup X, is the Altai Republic in Southern Russia. No traces of haplogroup X exist between Altai Republic and the greater region of the Great Lakes. If haplogroup X infiltrated North America via the Bering Strait, why then does the greatest concentration of haplogroup X (away from the Mediterranean) exist around the Great Lakes and not in Alaska or alongside the west coast? Most importantly, how do we otherwise explain that heavy traces of haplogroup X incidentally also exist in Scotland, Orkney Islands, Faroe islands and Iceland, essentially all the island stops to North America from Europe.”
Not unexpectedly, Jason Colavito, who denies the existence of Atlantis, wrote a highly critical review of Djonis’ claims and had further exchanges with Djonis in the comments section of his blog(i).
Djonis does not explain why Plato unambiguously stated that the Atlanteans came from the west (Tim.25b & Crit.114c) and yet Djonis’ Atlantis is situated to the southeast of Athens and north of Egypt?*In fact, what Plato said was that the invasion came from the Atlantic Sea (pelagos). Although there is some disagreement about the location of this Atlantic Sea, all candidates proposed so far are far west of both Athens and Egypt.*
Instead, he prefers to parrot the discredited ancient astronaut theories of Zechariah Sitchin, based on his flawed interpretation of Sumerian texts. These include claims that humans were ‘created’ by these extraterrestrial visitors. In fact, he wastes over half his book discussing UFOs and ETs.
*In April 2016 Djonis had an article published on the Ancient Origins website(j), in which he discussed Sitchin’s theory of Planet X without arriving at any conclusions. Why?*
I did not find Djonis convincing regarding either the Annunaki or Atlantis.
January 2016 had Djonis plunge into the muddy waters relating to the early discovery of America with a three-part article on the Ancient Origins website(f). Not unexpectedly, Jason Colavito had few caustic comments to offer on this latest offering from Djonis(g).
Recently, Djonis and I exchanged emails in which I offered some of my reasons for rejecting his ideas. Clearly unhappy with my comments, he has now used Ancient Origins to rehash(h) his flawed ideas. Included in his offering is a sarcastic reference to me as an ‘expert’, a title I have never used or claimed. Apart from his support for the idea of ancient astronauts, which he carefully avoided in this recent article, my main gripe is that Djonis’ is content to discard elements in Plato’s account without any justifiable reason. Djonis presumptuously wrote of me that there is “no doubt in his mind that Atlantis was a myth.” On the contrary, I believe that it is highly probable that Atlantis existed, but, it is also quite clear that Plato’s narrative contains mythical elements that may have impeded researchers seeking to identify the historical Atlantis. I am currently working on finishing my own Atlantis book, which I hope will withstand critical analysis, unlike Djonis’ offering.
A YouTube clip(b) and PowerPoint presentation(c) are also available.
Nibiru was a Sumerian astronomical term used to describe a planetary body that periodically approached Earth. This account was hijacked by the late Zechariah Sitchin to construct his Planet X theory in which he claimed that this planet had an orbit which took it to the outer limits of the solar system returning every 3600 years to the vicinity of Earth. Sitchin claimed that during one of these visits some of its inhabitants came to earth and become the ‘gods’ of the Sumerians. However, Sitchin failed to explain how the inhabitants of this Planet X survived the lack of heat and light that it would have had to endure as it moved away from the proximity of the Sun. For us inhabitants of Earth a drop of just a few degrees is fatal.
However, Emilio Spedicato has a radically different and certainly more rational view of this Sumerian planet. He ascribes a much shorter orbital period of 20 years to Nibiru and claims that close encounters with this planet (and its satellites) had a dramatic physical effect on the prehistory of our planet including the capturing of our Moon, the destruction of Atlantis and later the biblical Exodus! His scenario has elements that can be traced to Velikovsky, Ackerman and Hörbiger.
Professor Spedicato’s November 2012 paper, From Nibiru to Tiamat, an Astronomic Scenario for Earliest Sumerian Cosmology, can be read or downloaded from the excellent Diffusion and Migration website(1). A number of his other papers can be found on the same website and are certainly worth studying.
In sharp contrast to the serious work of Spedicato, for the past couple of years we have been subjected to a barrage of silly articles(b) linking Nibiru with the promised 2012 global catastrophes ‘predicted’ by the Mayan calendar.
A debunking of both Sitchin’s scholarship and the existence of Nibiru has been offered by a number of sites(c).
However, some people, such as David Meade (a pen-name) who describes himself as a ‘Christian numerologist’ predicted that Nibiru would collide with Earth on September 23, 2017! When this did not happen he moved the event to October, but again nothing happened. But he persisted and subsequently moved our demise to March 2018, then April, with a final suggestion for the year of between May and December(d).
Adam’s Calendar, also called the Blaauboschkraal stone ruins, is claimed to be the oldest known arrangement of standing stones in the world. It was discovered by Johan Heine, a pilot and firefighter. While the amazing discoveries at Gobekli Tepe have received widespread publicity, Adam’s Calendar is virtually unknown.
Heine together with astronomer Bill Hollenbach have identified a number of astronomical alignments at the site and have controversially dated the monument to between 75,000 and 250,000 years ago(a). Adam’s Calendar is one of many thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands, of man-made stone features across southern Africa. A blog on Dale Drinnon’s website elaborates with images on these enigmatic structures(d).
One of their interesting claims is that the alignments with the cardinal points were all out by 3°17’43’’ suggesting a crustal displacement.
To my eye Adam’s Calendar is very similar to the megalithic astronomical circle at Nabta Playa in the northern Sahara.
Johan Heine teamed up with writer Michael Tellinger to produce two books, Adam’s Calendar (2008)and Temples of the African Gods (2010). These books are heavily illustrated but light on text. However, in my view, what really detracts from them is the pathetic attempt to link Adam’s Calendar with the ancient astronaut theories of the late Zechariah Sitchin and his Sumerian Annunaki gods. For good measure in a lengthy paper on Graham Hancock’s website(e). Tellinger has thrown in the claim that the circular stone ruins are “energy generating devices“! I suspect that all this nonsense was introduced as padding by Tellinger(c) who had written previously about extraterrestrial interference with mankind in his Slave Species of God .
*For good measure Tellinger, when referring to Sitchin’s Annunaki, also claims “that Great Zimbabwe was Enki’s ‘Headquarters’, simultaneously dating it to c. 260,000 years old.”(h)*
A highly critical commentary of Heine’s claims should be read for balance(g).
In 2011 Andrew Collins visited the site(b) and was impressed by what he saw. However, he was, as I am, quite sceptical about the dating of the monument in the absence of stronger evidence. He was dubious about the 3°17’43’’ misalignment due to the ‘jumbled’ positioning of some of the stones on the southern side. He concludes with a call for further investigation and research.
A related two hour YouTube documentary is available(f).
(d) See: Archive 3590
Michael Tsarion (1968- ) is an Irish fantasy writer, badly disguised as a serious researcher. He pontificates on a range of subjects such as genetic manipulation by extraterrestrial ‘fallen angels’ in Atlantis(a), Illuminati, 2012 and somehow or other managed to avoid linking the tooth-fairy with crop circles. Another charlatan, Madame Blavatsky, appears to have had some influence on Tsarion’s bizarre ideas. He has nothing to offer serious Atlantis research. He has critics(b) as well as devout followers but then to paraphrase a better known source “the gullible you shall always have with you.”
Some chapters of his Atlantis, Alien Visitation and Genetic Manipulation can now be read online(c), where he tries to assume the mantle of the late Zechariah Sitchin. The title tells you all you need to know.
Sumeria was unknown until the middle of the 19th century. With the discovery and the decipherment of the Sumerian cuneiform tablets the sophistication of their culture prompted the idea that Sumer had been ‘the cradle of civilisation.’ Subsequent discoveries, such as the those in the Indus Valley and more recently Göbekli Tepe have now somewhat diluted that idea.
*The origin of the Sumerians is still something of a mystery as is their language which seems to be an ‘isolate’, unrelated to any known language group. Ronnie Gallagher has suggested that migrants from the Caucasus had provided the impetus that led to the development of the Sumerian civilisation. Gallagher’s theory is supported by Jerald Jack Starr on his Sumerian Shakespeare website, who emphatically attributes a Caucasian origin to the Sumerians(l).*
Sumeria has now been proposed as a possible source of the Atlantis story. Dr. Ashok Malhotra, a professor of Engineering, has suggested(a) that that ‘the likelihood of the Atlantis stories being of Sumerian origin is strengthened by the fact that the submergence of ancient cities was a strong part of the Sumerian mythology. It dominates their historical tradition. The destruction of the ancient city as a result of sin was also part of their beliefs.’ Malhotra then proposes that these Sumerian stories reflected actual flooding events in the Indus Valley region that were brought first to Sumeria and then were later transferred to Egypt and from thence via Solon to Plato to us.
George Michanowsky went much further and claimed that the Sumerians had known Atlantis under the name of NI-DUK-KI, known today as Dilmun[282.66]. The renowned Henry Rawlinson interpreted this name to mean ‘blessed hill’ or ‘blessed isle’. While Michanowsky’s suggestion is highly speculative, if correct, it would be the earliest known reference to Atlantis.
The Sumerian king list(e) from Larsa records eight kings (some versions note ten) before the Deluge, which may have been reflected, in a distorted fashion, in the ten patriarchs of Genesis and/or the ten kings of Atlantis! Another suggested link is with the eight generations between Adam and Noah recorded in Genesis chapter 5.
John Sassoon would seem to support Malhotra’s thesis in his book, which proposes a Sumerian origin for the Jews with possible earlier links with the Indus valley. He is not concerned with Atlantis, just the ancestry of the Jewish people of whom Abraham was born in Sumeria around 2000-1800 BC. Sassoon’s views offer a possible transmission route for Eastern traditions and myths to have reached Egypt and subsequently through Solon to Athens.
In 2001 a book by Radek Brychta was published in the Czech Republic in which he also advocates a Sumerian connection. He identifies Atlantis with the legendary Dilmun of Sumerian legend and locates it on the Indus civilisation island of Dholavira. Excerpts from this fascinating book are available on the Internet and worth a read.
However, the most extreme claims came from Zechariah Sitchin who proposed that the Sumerians had been ‘influenced’ by ancient astronauts from the planet Nibiru, which information is to be found in their cuneiform tablets if Sitchin’s translation is to be believed. Similar daft ideas(g) have been put forward by Hermann Burgard but so far have only been foisted on a German-reading public.
As if that was not bad enough, we now (Oct 2016) have the Iraqi Transport Minister claiming, among other matters, that the Sumerians launched spaceships 8,000 years ago(h)!
Jim Allen, the leading advocate of ‘Atlantis in the Andes’ has also claimed(b) a Sumerian connection with South America citing Ruth & Alpheus Hyatt Verrill, who include in their book[838.293] three pages of Sumerian words compared with the language of ancient Peru as well as other cultural aspects there. They also believed that Sargon (2369-2314 BC) was known in Peru as the deity Viracocha! Their fanciful idea stems from an account of Sargon sailing to the west and spending three years there! Zhirov supported this claim[458.23] describing it as ”a seemingly semi-fantastic theory”. My reason for considering this claim to be nonsensical, is simply that Sargon was continually engaged in expanding his empire and constantly dealing with rebellions in the various city states that he ruled over. The idea that he took three years out to visit America, 14,000 km away, is in no way credible.
Nevertheless, the idea of Sargon in South America persists with James Bailey repeating it in Sailing to Paradise[0150.66] and more recently by the Afrocentrist, Clyde Winters in an article on the Ancient Origins website(f) in which he quotes Bailey and the Verrills as supporting Lake Titicaca as the Lake Manu of Sumerian tradition. A further article(j) on the same website begins with the forceful claim that “it is becoming increasingly clear that the Sumerians had established a colony in South America called Kuga-Ki.” The paper is based on a series of questionable artifacts, the Fuente Magna Bowl, the Crespi Collection and the Pokoyia monument!
The Fuente Magna Bowl is frequently offered as evidence of a pre-Columbian link with the Sumerians(c), although its provenance is unclear and there are suggestions of a hoax. A sceptical view of the ‘Bowl’ by Carl Feagans(k) is available.
The very existence of Sumerians has recently been attacked in an appendix to The Three Ages of Atlantis by Marin, Minella & Schievenin. They maintain that the Sumerian ‘language’ “could be an artificial construct created by Akkadian priests” to be used for liturgical purposes. These ideas were first expressed at the end of the 19th century by the respected Orientalist, Joseph Halévy. Andi Zeneli has expressed comparable ideas(d) regarding the Sumerian language.
Hubert Zeitlmair is a retired German real-estate investor, who became fascinated by the ancient history of Malta since he first visited there in 1993. He has been personally responsible for the discovery of an underwater ‘temple’, in less than 50 feet of water, one and a half miles off the east coast of Malta. Zeitlmair’s interpretation of his find is disputed by some Maltese archaeologists.
His ideas are a strange mixture, as he believes that the temple was submerged at the end of the of the last Ice Age by Noah’s Flood, but attributes its construction to alien visitors from Planet X – Nibiru a la Zechariah Sitchin. He has published, in German, his ideas in a recent book and also has a website(a) where he organises tours.
Some of his most recent pronouncements can only be described as New Age drivel. In order to justify this overgenerous comment, I quote just one selection from his website(b).
“The 11th 3 mount pattern in the middle is the representation in miniature of the whole Mediterranean, with Gozo as the dominating extinct volcano, and its two sediment mounts MALTA, and COMMINO. It was once called at.la.ams which means:
»The Pillar Towering Towards Heaven«;
This is the name of Malta when spoken from right to left.
Malta, The Place Of The Vortex pillar!!
This place Malta was doubtless the matrix of the Atlantean magnetic power system. It brought together the other sub-energy points around the world, which all converged here. Besides the fact that the these stone circle temples erected along the Coastline of today as well as those on the seabed, were meant to serve as a vast stone astronomical calculator , they also form altogether, an incredibly powerful ring of energy. They are responsible for this now invisible vortex of energy generated by a vast electromagnetic field system and here is the biggest sphere of activity in Europe.
The thirty-six Stone Circles temples are a prehistoric power plant; an installation to generate …Non-Lethal High Frequency Active Auroral Energy; Incredibly this prehistoric power plant is a High Power Microwave System.”
What a load of tosh!
Zeitlmair recently (Oct.’14) appeared on the US TV show In Search of Aliens, where he again demonstrated his penchant for the use of verbal bovine manure.
Jason Colavito who regularly reviews the show applied his forensic skills to the episode that included the Zeitlmair segment(c), which included his ideas on Planet X, extraterrestrials and genetic manipulation by space aliens.
(a) http://www.maltadiscovery.org/ (offline June 2016)
(b) http://maltadiscovery.org/en/index.html#guided_journeys,03_Journeys/01.htm (offline June 2016)
Andrew Tomas, (1906-2001), was born in St. Petersburg in Russia, but after stopovers in Finland, Manchuria, China and the USA he later became an Australian citizen. He has written a number of books on the theme of ancient technology and wisdom[349-51].
His book on Atlantis is fairly pedestrian fare that purports to link Plato’s city with an age of long lost high technology. Rob Solàrion, a fan of Sitchin’s Planet X theory, has written a commentary(a) on Tomas’ entire book.
In November 2015, Jason Colavito wrote a brief biography of Tomas’ globe-trotting life(b) and his early interest in UFO’s(c).