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Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Archive 2529

29 Settembre 2004 MISTERO September 29, 2004 MYSTERY

Alberto Arecchi Alberto Arecchi

L´impero di Atlantide: dal Mediterraneo al Nuovo Mondo? Empire of Atlantis: from the Mediterranean to the New World?

Le iscrizioni libiche identificate dai diffusionisti Registrations Libyan identified by diffusionists

Diffusionism holds that man  since ancient times on all continents and that many were, since Antiquity, Mutual Relations between the cultures of the different parts of the globe.
Over the last thirty years diffusionists, led by Professor Barry Fell, have attributed to peoples from the Mediterranean different inscriptions, found in Asia, Oceania and America.  They believe that the ancient Egyptians, Celts, Phoenicians, Iberians, Basques, Libyans, they arrived to the American coast, they had also climbed the rivers (especially the Mississippi and its tributaries) and they retain regular business transactions, documented by cultural influences and stylistic, but also by discoveries of statues and inscriptions, here and there in the American continent.
Among the inscriptions studied by Barry Fell stand those characters ogam (and Celtic language), but also in character and language Libyan-Berber. In this regard, it seems very strange spread over the oceans of one language and of writing, which in their homeland were buried until recently in a mystery almost absolute. Researchers diffusionists justified this anomaly with the attribution of the inscriptions and characters Libyan-Berber sailors of Cyrenaica, serving in the fleets of the Pharaohs of Egypt.

The hypothesis of location of Atlantis, according to studies of Arecchi

As ever – except for some rare cases – are not found in these inscriptions “Egyptian”, identified in America, neither the writing nor the official language of the kingdom?
It would appear – according to the interpretation of Barry Fell – that for these products “export” the Egyptians preferred to use the language and writing of neighboring peoples Libyan-Berber … but the idea seems a bit ‘too “forced”.  Although the Egyptians had resorted to fleets composed of sailors Libyans, it seems logical to think that the language used on the ships of their fleets (if not the only language “cultured” and written by the staff of command) should be the official one, not a “dialect” native, since this language was to be held in Libya at the reign of the Pharaohs. Registrations should instead present with the language and Egyptian characters, or rather with the Greeks, in the cases attributed at the time of the Ptolemaic dynasty (as could be the alleged “trip of Eratosthenes”).

From here on the text is alternately English & Italian

Barry Fell scrive, nel suo libro America BC: Barry Fell writes in his book America BC:
“… Ho scoperto con mia sorpresa che l’ignota lingua libica era di fatto quasi la stessa dell’antico egizio. La principale differenza consisteva nel fatto che i libici usavano un alfabeto derivato da quello dei cartaginesi, mentre gli egizi usavano il sistema molto complicato ed ingombrante dei geroglifici, la maggior parte dei quali acquisisce un valore fonetico fatto di diversi suoni. Un’altra peculiarità era che il libico mostrava un uso molto maggiore di termini derivati dal greco e dalle lingue anatoliche… “… I discovered to my surprise that the unknown language Libyan was in fact almost the same as the ancient Egyptian. The main difference was that the Libyans were using an alphabet derived from that of the Carthaginians, while the Egyptians used the system very complicated and cumbersome hieroglyphics, most of whom acquired a phonetic value made of different sounds. Another peculiarity was that the Libyan showed a much greater use of terms derived from the greek and the Anatolian languages ??…
La lingua libica, come ho mostrato altrove, è fondamentalmente egiziano combinato con radici anatoliche, introdotte dai Popoli del Mare quando invasero la Libia, mentre la forma scritta della lingua somiglia a quella dei fenici, un alfabeto che usa solo consonanti. Libyan language, as I have shown elsewhere, is basically combined with Egyptian roots Anatolian, introduced by the Sea Peoples when they invaded Libya, while the written form of the language resembles that of the Phoenicians, an alphabet that use only consonants. Le registrazioni compiute nel 1891 dal Bureau of Ethnology rivelavano che in quell’anno la dr. The recordings made in 1891 by the Bureau of Ethnology revealed that in that year the dr. Matilda Stevenson aveva assistito a tutte le cerimonie solari del solstizio presso i clan zuni, sia d’inverno, sia d’estate, e che aveva raccolto alcuni oggetti di culto. Matilda Stevenson had attended all the ceremonies solar solstice at Zuni clan, and in winter, in summer, and that he had collected some objects of worship. Il suo rapporto include un certo numero di fotografie e di dipinti, in cui sono visibili, sugli altari, ben noti motivi di culti solari di tipo mediterraneo, benché ella non li identificasse come tali… His report includes a number of photographs and paintings, which are visible, on the altars, well-known reasons of solar cults of the Mediterranean type, although she is not identifying them as such …

Una porta di Tozeur (Tunisia), con simboli di tridenti A door of Tozeur (Tunisia), with symbols of tridents

Queste regole fonetiche sono dello stesso tipo d’una serie che ho dimostrato nel 1973, quando ho collegato la lingua libica a quella della Polinesia. These phonetic rules are the same type of a series that I demonstrated in 1973, when I connected the Libyan language to that of Polynesia. I polinesiani, come gli stessi libici, discendono dai Popoli del Mare anatolici che invasero il Mediterraneo verso il 1400 aC e, dopo avere attaccato l’Egitto e subito una serie di sconfitte, che gli Egizi hanno lasciato registrate, possono essersi insediati in Libia. The Polynesians, like the Libyans themselves, are descended from the Sea Peoples who invaded the Anatolian Mediterranean around 1400 BC and, after sticking Egypt and suffered a series of defeats, that the Egyptians have left recorded, may have settled in Libya. In seguito, i marinai libici furono impiegati dai Faraoni nella flotta egiziana, e più tardi ancora i capi libici presero il controllo dell’Egitto e vi stabilirono dinastie libiche. Later, sailors Libyans were employed by the Pharaohs in the Egyptian fleet, and later still the leaders Libyans took control of Egypt and established the Libyan dynasties. Allora l’influenza libica si diffuse grandemente, specialmente nella regione indo-pacifica, ove gli egizi cavavano l’oro, come a Sumatra. Then the influence Libyan spread greatly, especially in the Indo-Pacific region, where the Egyptians quarried gold, as in Sumatra. Durante il periodo tolemaico (dopo che Alessandro Magno conquistò l’Egitto), i marinai libici al servizio dei Faraoni greci esplorarono ampiamente il Pacifico e taluni di loro s’insediarono in qualche parte di quell’Oceano. During the Ptolemaic period (after Alexander the Great conquered Egypt), the sailors Libyans in the service of the Pharaohs Greeks extensively explored the Pacific and some of them settled in some part of that Ocean.

Il segno della dea Tanith, tra due tridenti, su una stele punica The sign of the goddess Tanith, between two tridents, on a stele Punic

Le deduzioni, basate in gran parte su studi linguistici, ci hanno obbligati ad abbandonare la teoria che supponeva che i polinesiani fossero immigrati di incerte origini, provenienti dall’Asia orientale, visto che le più antiche iscrizioni polinesiane sono essenzialmente scritte in libico, sia per l’alfabeto sia per la lingua. Deductions, largely based on linguistic studies, we were forced to abandon the theory that assumed that the Polynesians were immigrants of uncertain origins, from East Asia, as the oldest inscriptions Polynesian are essentially written in Libya, both for is the alphabet for the language. Linguisti come il professor Linus Brunner in Europa ed il dr. Linguists such as Professor Linus Brunner in Europe and the dr. Reuel Lochore, in Nuova Zelanda, hanno scoperto che questa nuova interpretazione collima con le loro ricerche sulle fonti delle lingue della Malesia e della Polinesia. Reuel Lochore, in New Zealand, they found that this new interpretation coincides with their research on the sources of the languages ??of Malaysia and Polynesia. Ciò spiega anche le parole greche che si ritrovano nelle lingue polinesiane. This also explains the Greek words that are found in the Polynesian languages. Come ha sottolineato il professor Brunner, le colonie greche in Libia usavano un dialetto del greco in cui certe consonanti sostituivano quelle del greco attico, ed è proprio questa forma di greco “libico” che si ritrova in Polinesia. As pointed out by Professor Brunner, the Greek colonies in Libya were using a dialect of greek where certain consonants replaced those of the greek penthouse, and it is this form of greek “Libyan” that is found in Polynesia. Gli elementi anatolici presenti nel polinesiano hanno costituito oggetto dello studio di Lochore, che ritiene siano anch’essi rivelatori dell’origine libica dei polinesiani, perché (così sostiene Fell) sappiamo da antiche iscrizioni egizie che la Libia era stata occupata dai Popoli del Mare anatolici…” The elements present in the Anatolian Polynesian were the subject of the study of Lochore, who believes that they also detectors Libyan origin of the Polynesians, because (so says Fell) we know from ancient Egyptian inscriptions that Libya had been occupied by the Sea Peoples Anatolian … ”
“Se la mia teoria sull’affinità del libico con le lingue polinesiane è valida, come appare sempre più (l’ultimo sostegno è giunto dai linguisti israeliani), penso che l’evidenza equivalente, che ora giunge dai miei studi sulla lingua zuni, acquista spessore quando le analisi vengono esaminate da linguisti (il dizionario etimologico zuni non è ancora stato pubblicato). In questo contesto propongo un nuovo punto di vista sulle origini degli antenati degli shiwi-zuni. Penso che essi siano i discendenti di viaggiatori libici che attraversarono l’Atlantico qualche tempo prima del 500 aC”. “If my theory on the affinity of the Libyan with Polynesian languages ??is valid, as it appears more and more (the last support has come from Israeli linguists), I think the evidence equivalent, which now comes from my studies on language Zuni, thickens when the analyzes are examined by linguists (the etymological dictionary Zuni has not yet been published). In this context, I propose a new perspective on the origins of the ancestors of shiwi-Zuni. I think that they are the descendants of travelers Libyans who crossed the Atlantic sometime before 500 BC “.
(B. FELL, America BC) (B. FELL, America BC)

Dipinto rupestre da Tabarka (Tunisia) Rock painting from Tabarka (Tunisia)

I ritrovamenti Finds
Dove si trovano le iscrizioni in lingua libico-berbera, studiate dai diffusionisti in America? Where are the inscriptions in Libyan-Berber, studied by diffusionists in America?
Una prima iscrizione fu segnalata al prof. A first entry was reported to prof. Fell il 13 novembre 1974 dal geografo George F. Carter Sr., professore alla Texas A&M University. Fell November 13, 1974 by the geographer George F. Carter Sr., a professor at Texas A & M University. Si trattava di un’iscrizione rupestre trascritta da una rivista scientifica in tedesco, pubblicata in Cile, da lui trovata nella sezione “Special Collections” della Biblioteca Milton S. Eisenhower, presso la Johns Hopkins University di Baltimora, negli anni 1950. L’iscrizione era stata trascritta nel 1885 da Karl Stolp, il quale durante una tempesta si era rifugiato in una grotta presso Santiago. It was an inscription rock transcribed by a scientific journal in German, published in Chile, which he found in the section “Special Collections” of the Milton S. Eisenhower Library, at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, in the years 1950. The inscription was transcribed in 1885 by Karl Stolp, who during a storm had taken refuge in a cave near Santiago.

Sul fondo d’un lago essiccato, nel deserto libico: conchiglie ed attrezzi litici degli On the bottom of a dried lake, in the Libyan desert: shells and stone tools of
antichi abitatori ancient inhabitants

Carter pensava che l’iscrizione fosse simile a quelle polinesiane. Carter thought the inscription was similar to the Polynesian. Aveva ragione: quando Fell riuscì a tradurla, nell’iscrizione di Santiago lesse una data: “anno 16 del regno” ed il nome di Maui. He was right: when Fell was able to translate it, the inscription of Santiago read a date: “16 years of the kingdom” and the name of Maui. Altre iscrizioni in lingua e caratteri libici si trovano in Ecuador (a Cuenca), nella California del sud, nel New Mexico (valle del Mimbres, dove si legge il nome di Rata), nell’Oklahoma (valle del fiume Cimarron), nello Iowa (la molto discussa “stele di Davenport”, ritrovata nell’Ottocento), nel New Hampshire, nella Pennsylvania, sino al Quebec. Other inscriptions and characters Libyans are located in Ecuador (Cuenca), in Southern California, New Mexico (Mimbres Valley, where we read the name of Rata), Oklahoma (Cimarron River Valley), Iowa (the much discussed “stele Davenport”, found in the nineteenth century), in New Hampshire, in Pennsylvania, until Quebec. I ritrovamenti sul territorio degli attuali Stati Uniti sono dovuti in gran parte alle ricerche della signora Gloria Farley. The findings on the territory of the current Member States are largely due to the research of Mrs. Gloria Farley.
Nel 1975 la Farley spedì a Fell la foto d’un piccolo cippo di confine trovato a Warner, in Oklahoma. In 1975, Farley sent to Fell the photo of a small boundary stone found in Warner, Oklahoma. La risposta fu piuttosto conturbante: la pietra recherebbe una scritta in caratteri libici numidici, che recita “Questa terra appartiene a Rata”. The answer was rather disturbing: the stone would bring a written in Libyan numidici, which reads “This land belongs to Rata”.
Nel New Mexico, Fell arriva ad ipotizzare che la cultura della popolazione zuni-shiwi abbia mantenuto nei secoli tradizioni e parole dell’antica cultura libica. In New Mexico, Fell comes to speculate that the culture of the population Zuni-shiwi has for centuries maintained the traditions and culture of the ancient words Libyan.

 

Tavoletta ritrovata a Cuenca, Ecuador. Tablet found in Cuenca, Ecuador. Secondo la traduzione di Clyde Keeler la scritta, in lingua libica, dice “L’elefante (aby) che sostiene la Terra sulle acque e genera i terremoti”. According to the translation of the Clyde Keeler written language Libyan, says “The elephant (aby) that supports the Earth on the water and generates earthquakes.” L’iscrizione appare simile a quella del mausoleo di Msssinissa a Thougga, in Tunisia (sec. III aC). The inscription appears similar to that of the mausoleum of Msssinissa to Thougga, Tunisia (sec. III BC). (da SD PEET, The Mound Builders, 1892) (SD PEET, The Mound Builders, 1892)

Leggiamo ancora il testo di Fell: Again we read the text of Fell:
“L’arrivo dei libici è un altro degli episodi più misteriosi della storia americana. Abbiamo trovato sulla costa pochissime iscrizioni che parlino del loro arrivo sul continente, e della località in cui possa essere avvenuto. Solo pochi frammenti scritti, di cui si riferiva da alcune località isolate: uno a nord, dal Quebec, uno dalla California, ed altri dalle pareti rocciose lungo i fiumi Arkansas e Cimarron, nel sud del Midwest; e null’altro. Nulla più, sino al 1879, quando l’US Bureau of Ethnology avviò ricerche nel territorio degli Zuni, nel New Mexico. “The arrival of the Libyans is another one of the darkest episodes in American history. We found very few inscriptions on the coast who speak of their arrival on the continent, and the location where it can be done. Only a few fragments written, of which he was referring to some isolated locations: one in the north, from Quebec, one from California, and others from the cliffs along the rivers Arkansas and Cimarron, in the south of the Midwest, and nothing else. Nothing more, until 1879, when the US Bureau of Ethnology started investigations into the territory of Zuni, New Mexico.
Certe caratteristiche inusuali delle tribù shiwi e hopi erano già state notate dal professor J. Walter Fewkes (un biologo marino, come Fell) e da James Stevenson. Certain unusual features of the Hopi tribe shiwi and had already been noted by Professor J. Walter Fewkes (a marine biologist, as Fell) and James Stevenson. Il continuo lavoro loto e d’altri collaboratori condusse alla pubblicazione d’importanti memorie ed alla preparazione di materiali linguistici e lessicografici sugli zuni. The ongoing work of lotus and other collaborators led to the publication of important memories and the preparation of materials on linguistic and lexicographical Zuni. Benché il vocabolario avesse presto mostrato che la lingua zuni non è imparentata con nessun’altra famiglia di lingue amerindie, non sembra che nessuna ricerca avesse puntato a determinare una sua parentela esterna…” Although the vocabulary he soon showed that the Zuni language is not related to any other family of Amerindian languages, it seems that no research had pointed to determine its relationship outside … ”
“… Potrei azzardare l’ipotesi che essi arrivassero a bordo di navi della marina egiziana, al comando d’un navigatore libico, durante la XXII Dinastia, detta libica, i cui faraoni erano uomini energici, che favorivano l’esplorazione oltremare. Con loro, probabilmente, venne un sacerdote-astronomo egiziano. Fu egli – oi suoi successori – ad incidere la Stele del Calendario di Davenport”. “… I could hazard a guess that they arrived on ships of the Egyptian Navy, under the command of a navigator Libya, during the XXII Dynasty, said the Libyan, whose pharaohs were energetic men, who favored the exploration overseas. With them, probably, was a priest-Egyptian astronomer. It was he – or his successors – to affect the Stele of the Calendar of Davenport. ”
(B. FELL, America BC) (B. FELL, America BC)

Occorre riconoscere che, se i diffusionisti avessero voluto creare un falso “ad hoc”, avrebbero potuto usare una scrittura geroglifica (o meglio greco-alessandrina, con riferimento al periodo dei Tolomei e di Eratostene), senza doversi arrampicare sugli specchi due volte, prima per decifrare un linguaggio come quello libico-berbero (tutto sommato ben poco conosciuto, anche agli studiosi di lingue antiche), e poi per giustificarne l’uso in documenti ufficiali della spedizione. It should be recognized that if they wanted to create a false diffusionists “ad hoc”, they could have used a hieroglyphic writing (or greek-Alexandrian, with reference to the period of the Ptolemies and Eratosthenes), without having to climb on mirrors twice before to decipher language like that Libyan-Berber (after all little known, even to scholars of ancient languages), and then to justify their use in official documents of the expedition. Le medesime considerazioni possono valere per tutte le altre iscrizioni dello stesso tipo che il gruppo dei diffusionisti ritiene di aver ritrovato e tradotto, sia nell’area del Pacifico, sia sul continente americano. The same can apply to all other entries of the same type that the group of diffusionists believes it has found and translated, both in the Pacific, both on the American continent. Anche in altri casi, ad esempio in graffiti rupestri lungo l’arco alpino, è capitato che i ricercatori abbiano fatto ricorso a letture ed interpretazioni che si rifanno all’uso di un alfabeto e di una lingua di matrice libico-berbera. In other cases, for example in rock carvings along the Alps, it happened that researchers have resorted to readings and interpretations that refer to the use of an alphabet and a language of matrix Libyan-Berber.

Teste di terracotta ritrovate in Arkansas, con acconciature e scarificazioni di tipo polinesiano (ma Fell suppone un’origine comune, derivata da usanze nord-africane) Heads of clay found in Arkansas, with hairstyles and scarification of Polynesian type (but Fell supposed common origin, derived from customs North African)

Siamo quindi spinti a ritenere che i ricercatori diffusionisti abbiano veramente trovato documenti per loro inspiegabili, poiché – se si trattasse di falsi o di adattamenti interpretativi – sarebbe stato più semplice e logico “crearli” sulla base delle lingue e delle scritture in uso presso gli egizi, e non di un’altra scrittura e di un’altra lingua che, oltre a presentare altrettante – se non maggiori – difficoltà interpretative, comportasse anche il riferimento ad un popolo misterioso, come gli antichi Libici. We are therefore compelled to believe that researchers have really found diffusionists documents for their inexplicable, because – if it was false or adaptations of interpretation – would have been more simple and logical “to create them” on the basis of languages ??and scripts used by the Egyptians , and not to write another and another language, as well as presenting as many – if not more – difficulties of interpretation, it also constituted a reference to a mysterious people, like the ancient Libyans. I diffusionisti hanno ipotizzato il sistematico ricorso, da parte dei Faraoni, a flotte composte di marinai d’una nazione vicina, che non fu mai, nei secoli d’oro della civiltà egizia, in rapporti pacifici con il popolo delle piramidi. The diffusionists have speculated the systematic recourse by the Pharaohs, a fleet composed of sailors of a neighboring nation, which was never, in the golden age of Egyptian civilization, in peaceful relations with the people of the pyramids. Marinai talmente acculturati da usare la propria lingua, ben diversa dall’egiziano, in tutti i loro appunti, e addirittura in documenti ufficiali, qual è “l’atto di possesso” inciso dal navigatore Maui sulle montagne presso Santiago del Cile. Sailors so acculturated to use their own language, very different from the Egyptian, in all their notes, and even in official documents, what is “the act of possession” engraved by the navigator Maui mountains near Santiago.
Tutto ciò tende a collegarsi alle ipotesi formulate nel 2001 dal sottoscritto, di “riscoperta” dell’antica Atlantide in una collocazione al centro del Mediterraneo, che doveva corrispondere proprio con un antico regno libico-berbero. All this tends to connect to assumptions made in 2001 by the undersigned, the “rediscovery” of ancient Atlantis in a position in the center of the Mediterranean, which was to correspond precisely with an ancient kingdom Libyan-Berber. La scrittura e la lingua usate in tutte quelle iscrizioni corrisponderebbero quindi a quelle dell’antica Atlantide, senza possibilità di dolo da parte di chi le ha interpretate, poiché i ricercatori che lo fecero non erano minimamente al corrente di tale ipotesi e non lavorarono in vista di essa, né per dimostrarla. The writing and the language used in all those inscriptions thus equal to those of ancient Atlantis, without the possibility of fraud on the part of those who have interpreted, since the researchers who did were not in the least aware of this possibility and not worked in sight of it or to prove it. Eppure, le uniche circostanze che possano aver permesso la diffusione “planetaria” di una lingua libico-berbera e del suo sistema di scrittura, attraverso rotte marittime transoceaniche, appaiono legate all’esistenza d’un grande impero marinaro, nel periodo in cui Atlantide era signora dei mari (quindi in anni certamente anteriori al 1200 aC). Yet, the only circumstances that may have allowed the spread “planetary” a Libyan-Berber language and its writing system through sea routes transoceanic, appear linked to the existence of a great seafaring empire, at a time when Atlantis was lady of the seas (then certainly in years prior to 1200 BC). Non è invece credibile che marinai libici, arruolati nella marineria egizia, andassero a scrivere “atti di possesso”, sulle rocce dell’attuale Cile, nella propria lingua, a nome del Faraone d’Egitto. It is not credible that Libyan sailors, enlisted in the Egyptian navy, they were going to write “acts of ownership”, on the rocks of the Chile, in their own language, on behalf of the Pharaoh of Egypt.
Un tale sviluppo condurrebbe ovviamente a riconsiderare globalmente anche la ricostruzione del presunto viaggio di Rata e di Maui, che dovrebbe essersi svolto non nel sec. Such a development would lead naturally to reconsider globally the reconstruction of the alleged trip Rata and Maui, which should have no place in the sec. III aC, ma almeno un migliaio d’anni prima, quando Atlantide esisteva ancora e deteneva la supremazia delle rotte oceaniche. III BC, but at least a thousand years before, when Atlantis existed and still held the supremacy of the ocean routes. Ricordiamo infatti che il citato studio, da me sviluppato su Atlantide, del 2001, ipotizza la collocazione storica della tragica fine d’Atlantide verso il 1200 aC Gli elementi utilizzati da Fell, per datare le iscrizioni di Sosorra e del Cile, sono l’osservazione di un’eclissi e la numerazione degli anni di regno (presunti come quelli di Tolomeo III, ma non identificati esplicitamente come suoi). Recall that the cited study, I developed on Atlantis, 2001, assumed the historical background of the tragic end of Atlantis around 1200 BC The elements used by Fell, for dating inscriptions Sosorra and Chile are the observation eclipse and numbering the years of reign (alleged as those of Ptolemy III, but not explicitly identified as his). Occorrerebbe potersi riferire ad un’altra eclissi (e non ne mancano, nella storia della Terra) e agli anni di regno d’un altro re (ma non sappiamo quale). Should be able to refer to another eclipse (and do not miss, in the history of the Earth) and the years of the reign of another king (but do not know which one). Inoltre, dato che non siamo in possesso di elementi concreti che colleghino strettamente l’una all’altra iscrizione (se non l’uso dei medesimi caratteri e – probabilmente – d’una lingua medesima o similare), nulla impedisce che le due iscrizioni, e le altre ritrovate, possano essere memorie di viaggi diversi, con datazioni riferite al regno non d’uno, ma di diversi re. Also, since we are not in possession of evidence linking closely to one another registration (if not the use of the same characters and – probably – a language of the same or similar), nothing prevents the two inscriptions, and other found, they can be memories of different trips, with datings refer to the realm of not one, but several kings. Oppure possono forse bastare i nomi propri Rata e Maui, ripetuti a migliaia di chilometri di distanza, a “firmare” i due documenti? You may perhaps be enough proper names Rata and Maui, repeated thousands of miles away, to “sign” the two documents? Potremmo forse supporre di sì… ma i nomi Rata e Maui o Mawi a quale cultura possono appartenere? We may perhaps suppose so … but the names Rata and Maui or Mawi to which culture can belong?

Pettorali (il primo polinesiano ed il secondo ritrovato in America). Pectoral (the first Polynesian and the second found in America). Fell osserva che la testa di Râ, effigiata alle due estremità del primo, è di derivazione libica Fell observes that the head of Ra, portrayed at the two ends of the first, is derived from Libyan

Le ricerche archeologiche nel Sahara libico Archaeological research in the Libyan Sahara
La regione oggi conosciuta come Sahara (“il nulla, il vuoto”) non è sempre stata un deserto. The region now known as Sahara (“nothingness, emptiness”) was not always a desert. Vi si sono alternati periodi umidi ed altri secchi. We took turns wet periods and other buckets. Un tempo era un grande mare… all’epoca dei dinosauri. It was once a great sea … at the time of the dinosaurs. Poi il cuore dell’Africa si seccò e l’antico mare si sollevò in un grande altipiano. Then the heart of Africa dried up and the ancient sea rose up in a large plateau. Dodicimila anni fa, al termine dell’ultima grande glaciazione, i monsoni dell’Atlantico portarono piogge sull’antico deserto, che nel millennio successivo riprese a fiorire e si popolò d’animali e di cacciatori. Twelve thousand years ago, at the end of the last great ice age, the Atlantic monsoon rains brought the ancient desert, that in the next millennium flourished again and was populated of animals and hunters. Quei cacciatori hanno lasciato le proprie tracce sulle rocce dei grandi massicci montuosi, che si ergono in zone centrali del Sahara (Adrar tra Mali ed Algeria, Ahaggar e Tassili in Algeria, Air e Ténéré nel Niger, Acacus in Libia, Tibesti ed Ennedi nel Ciad). Those hunters have left their mark on the rocks of the great mountain ranges, which rise in the central areas of the Sahara (Adrar between Mali and Algeria, Ahaggar and Tassili in Algeria, Air and Ténéré in Niger, Acacus in Libya, Tibesti and Ennedi in Chad ).
La zona era ricca di laghi e in particolare, verso il golfo della Sirte, esisteva un grande bacino d’acqua dolce. The area was rich in lakes and in particular, towards the Gulf of Sirte, there was a large freshwater basin. Il “secondo mare” sahariano occupava la regione degli Chott tunisini ed il sud di Costantina e il pelo delle sue acque si elevava sino ad oltre 300 m dal livello degli oceani. The “second sea” occupied the Saharan region of Chott Tunisian and the south of Constantine and the hair of its water is elevated to over 300 m from the level of the oceans. Il fondo di quel bacino, livello attuale di questi “paesi bassi del Nord Africa”, è inferiore al livello del mare. The bottom of the basin, the current level of these “low countries of North Africa”, is below sea level. Il fondo dello Chott Melrhir, che misura 3700 km2, si trova a -31 m, quello dello Chott El Djerid, la cui superficie è di oltre 13.000 km2, a -40 m. The bottom of the Chott Melrhir, which measures 3700 km2, is located at -31 m, that of the Chott El Djerid, whose area is over 13,000 km2, to -40 m. Questi fondi sono ricoperti da una crosta di sale con la composizione dei sali marini, che sul fondo dello Chott el Djerid raggiunge il metro di spessore. These funds are covered with a crust of salt with the composition of sea salts, that the bottom of the Chott el Djerid reaches meter thick. Al di sotto rimangono notevoli sacche di umidità, e poi lo strato impermeabile di un antico fondo argilloso. Below are significant pockets of moisture, and then the waterproof layer of an ancient clay bottom.

Una nuova fase di clima arido investì anche il Medio Oriente, ottomila anni fa (verso il 6000 aC). A new phase of arid climate also affected the Middle East eight thousand years ago (around 6000 BC). Gruppi di nuove popolazioni, provenienti da oriente, si stabilirono nel Sahara e probabilmente introdussero modi di vivere più sedentari. Groups of new populations, coming from the east, settled in the Sahara and probably introduced more sedentary lifestyles. La migrazione durò secoli. The migration lasted centuries. Circa 7300 anni fa il mondo sahariano era completamente trasformato e dalla caccia si stava passando ad un’economia basata sulla pastorizia. About 7300 years ago the Saharan world was completely transformed from hunting and was moving to an economy based on sheep farming. Il clima era migliorato, ma 6400-6300 anni fa subentrò una nuova fase arida. The climate had improved, but 6400-6300 years ago took over a new phase arid. Le popolazioni del Sahara si spostavano, si rimescolavano, si scambiavano conoscenze, usi e costumi. The populations of the Sahara moved, you rimescolavano, exchanged knowledge and customs. Uomini di pelle chiara vivevano a fianco d’altri di pelle scura. Skinned men lived alongside of other dark-skinned. Poco prima del 4000 aC, la situazione sociale e produttiva era abbastanza stabile. Shortly before 4000 BC, the social situation and the production was quite stable. I pastori si erano adattati al nuovo ambiente e la gran civiltà multietnica del Sahara occupava una vasta area, compresa tra gli attuali stati di Niger, Ciad, Libia, Algeria. The shepherds had adapted to the new environment and the great civilizations multiethnic Sahara occupied a large area, between the current states of Niger, Chad, Libya, Algeria. Verso il 3000 aC iniziò una nuova fase arida. Around 3000 BC began a new phase arid. Gli ippopotami ed altra fauna palustre cominciarono a scomparire (come si vede dai dipinti rupestri ritrovati). Hippos and other wildlife marsh began to disappear (as seen by the cave paintings found). I pastori di bovini (gli antenati degli attuali fulani) emigrarono verso il Sud. Quelli che rimasero intensificarono l’allevamento di specie ovine, più piccole e resistenti, in pascoli meno fertili. The shepherds of cattle (the ancestors of today Fulani) emigrated to the South. Those who remained intensified breeding ovine, smaller and stronger, in less fertile pastures. Fu il periodo in cui i capi venivano sepolti sotto grandi tumuli di pietre. It was the period in which the chiefs were buried under large mounds of stones. Ciò indica il nascere d’una precisa organizzazione gerarchica nella società sahariana. This indicates the emergence of a clear hierarchical organization in society Saharan Africa. Un gruppo di popoli (quelli che i greci chiamarono Atlantòi) scese sino all’ampia pianura costiera del Mediterraneo. A group of people (those that the Greeks called Atlantòi) got up the wide coastal plain of the Mediterranean. Qui nacque una federazione di tribù, organizzata in regni, dedita all’agricoltura ed all’estrazione dei metalli. Here was born a federation of tribes, organized in kingdoms, dedicated to agriculture and the extraction of metals.

Pipe ritrovate nei tumuli intorno a Davenport (da SD PEET, The Mound Builders, 1892). Pipe found in mounds around Davenport (SD PEET, The Mound Builders, 1892). In quella in alto, si riconosce un elefante In the top one, you recognize an elephant

Più ad est, nella vallata del Nilo, era il momento della nascita della prima dinastia dei faraoni: un altro gruppo di popoli aveva adottato l’agricoltura e poneva le basi d’una cultura che sarebbe durata, tra varie vicissitudini, sino a confluire nel crogiolo della civiltà occidentale. Further east, in the valley of the Nile, was the time of the birth of the first dynasty of pharaohs: another group of peoples had adopted agriculture and laid the foundations of a culture that would last, between various vicissitudes, until you come in crucible of western civilization.

La datazione della fine d’Atlantide The dating of the end of Atlantis
Platone riferisce nei propri Dialoghi di avere desunto la narrazione relativa ad Atlantide dalle memorie del viaggio compiuto da Solone in Egitto. Plato refers in his Dialogues have inferred the narrative related to Atlantis from the memories of the journey made by Solon in Egypt. Si pensa che tale viaggio si sia svolto verso il 570 aC Una delle discriminanti di base, quando si prenda in considerazione il racconto platonico, è quella dell’epoca in cui collocare lo splendore di Atlantide e la sua fine. It is thought that this tour took place about 570 BC One of discriminating base, when you consider the story Plato, is that the time in which to place the splendor of Atlantis and its end. Platone parla rispettivamente di 9000 e di 8000 anni “prima del viaggio di Solone”. Plato speaks respectively of 9000 and 8000 years “before the trip to Solon.”
Non occorre però dimenticare neppure che Platone riferisce della testimonianza d’una serie di conflitti tra il popolo di Atlantide ed i predecessori degli Ateniesi, alleati con gli antenati della popolazione di Sais. There is no need, however, to forget that even Plato relates the testimony of a series of conflicts between the people of Atlantis and the predecessors of the Athenians, allies with the ancestors of the people of Sais.
Per quanto l’ipotesi sia affascinante, sconfina certamente nel campo di un’alta improbabilità assumere “ad occhi chiusi” la data di 8000-9000 anni prima, poiché noi stessi, oggi, non siamo capaci di risalire a fatti di una tale antichità relativa alla nostra epoca. As the hypothesis is fascinating, certainly in the field of high encroaches improbability take “eyes closed” the date of 8000-9000 years before, as ourselves, today, we are not able to go to events of such antiquity relative to our era. Dovremmo invece presumere che un unico documento, conservato in una lingua ancora leggibile per i sacerdoti del tempio di Sais, fosse stato tramandato da tale antichità sino alla metà del primo millennio aC? Instead, we should assume that a single document, stored in a language still readable for the priests of the temple of Sais, had been handed down from antiquity until the middle of the first millennium BC?

Siamo costretti a prendere in considerazione anche il fatto che una memoria di fatti “mediterranei”, situati nelle regioni circostanti alla Grecia, non può essere collegata ad “antenati degli Ateniesi” se non in un’epoca posteriore alla metà del secondo millennio aC, quando giunsero nella regione le grandi migrazioni doriche. We are forced to take into consideration the fact that a statement of facts “Mediterranean”, are located in the surrounding regions of Greece, can not be connected to “ancestors of the Athenians” if not in an era back to the middle of the second millennium BC, when arrived in the region of the great migrations Doric.
Eudosso di Cnido disse che nel racconto platonico la misura del tempo doveva essere considerata come misurata in mesi e non in anni; Eudoxus of Cnidus said that in the story Platonic time measurement should be considered as measured in months and not in years; Proclo, nel suo commento, aggiunge: “Se fosse vero quanto Eudosso afferma, la somma di tutti quegli anni non darebbe poi un totale straordinario”. Proclus, in his commentary, adds: “If it were true what Eudoxus states, the sum of all those years would not give then a total extraordinary.” Manetone, la più alta autorità riconosciuta sulla storia egiziana, sacerdote del tempio d’Eliopoli nel sec. Manetho, the highest recognized authority on Egyptian history, priest of the temple of Heliopolis in sec. III aC, aggiunge: III BC, adds:

Copia di un’iscrizione bilingue egiziano-libica, trovata nel 1888 presso Eagle Neck (Long Island). Copying bilingual inscription Egyptian-Libyan, found in 1888 at Eagle Neck (Long Island). Quando, nel 1973, Fell decifrò la lingua libica, si accorse che – sia pur distorta dalla trascrizione compiuta da indigeni, l’iscrizione egiziana diceva: “L’equipaggio d’una nave dell’Alto Egitto fece questa stele per ricordare la propria spedizione”, mentre quella in libico poteva essere tradotta: “Questa nave è un’imbarcazione dei domini egiziani” (disegno di DA YOUNG, Heye Foundation, New York) When, in 1973, Fell deciphered the language Libyan, he noticed that – albeit distorted by transcription performed by indigenous, enrollment Egyptian said: “The crew of a ship of Upper Egypt made ??this stele to commemorate the expedition “, while the one in Libya could be translated:” This ship is a vessel of the domains Egyptians “(design FROM YOUNG, Heye Foundation, New York)

“Credo che l’anno lunare abbia sempre contato trenta giorni, e ciò che oggi chiamiamo ‘mese’ era detto un tempo ‘anno’ presso gli Egizi”. “I believe that the lunar year has always counted thirty days, and what we now call ‘month’ was once called ‘year’ at the Egyptians.”

Anche Diodoro Siculo rende avvisato il lettore che la misura del tempo può essere in mesi anzi che in anni: Even Diodorus makes warned the reader that the measurement of time can be in months rather than years:

“… poiché quel gran numero d’anni appariva incredibile, alcuni sostengono che in passato… esistesse l’abitudine di comprendere in un anno ogni singola rivoluzione lunare. Di conseguenza… l’anno misurava trenta giorni… Una spiegazione simile è offerta anche a proposito di coloro che si dice regnassero trecento anni. Quello che in quei tempi si chiamava anno era diviso in quattro parti (le fasi lunari), allo stesso modo in cui l’anno si divide in quattro stagioni…” “… Because the large number of years seemed incredible, some argue that in the past … there used to understand in a year each lunar revolution. As a result … the year measured thirty days … A similar explanation is offered also about those who say reigned three hundred years. What in those days was called the year was divided into four parts (moon phases), in the same way in which the year is divided into four seasons. .. ”

Le obiezioni rivolte a tale interpretazione riguardano soprattutto il fatto che le attuali conoscenze del calendario egizio rivelino in generale un calendario solare. The objections made to this interpretation are mainly in the fact that the current knowledge of the Egyptian calendar reveal in general a solar calendar. Il calendario basato sui cicli lunari non era però ignoto a nessuno dei popoli dell’area mediterraneo e medio orientale. The calendar based on lunar cycles, however, was not unknown to any of the peoples of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Mi sembrano molto superiori i salti logici connessi con l’intepretazione “8-9000 anni” di quelli presenti nella lettura “8-9000 mesi” (lettura offerta non solo da Diodoro Siculo, ma usata anche spesso per interpretare le “disumane” età dei Patriarchi biblici). They seem much higher than the leaps in logic associated with the interpretation “8-9000 years” of those in reading “8-9000 months” (reading offered not only by Diodorus of Sicily, but also often used to interpret the “inhuman” age of Biblical patriarchs).
Qualora si accetti che la misura del tempo riferita nel racconto platonico su Atlantide (ossia 9000 anni trascorsi dall’apogeo del mitico regno e 8000 dalla sua distruzione) non sia in anni solari ma in mesi (lunari), dobbiamo valutare il fatto che un anno solare comprende 12 mesi lunari e 11/12 giorni (cfr. l’attuale calendario musulmano). If one accepts that the measure of the time reported in the story of Plato’s Atlantis (ie 9000 years after the mythical kingdom dall’apogeo and 8000 from its destruction) is not in calendar years but in months (lunar), we must appreciate the fact that a year Solar includes 12 lunar months and 11/12 days (cfr. the current Muslim calendar). In tal caso, 9000 mesi lunari equivalgono a poco più di 725 anni solari. In this case, 9000 lunar months amount to little over 725 solar years. Il racconto di Platone collocherebbe dunque la grande espansione di conquista di Atlantide, e la sua guerra contro gli antenati degli Ateniesi, verso il 1295-96 aC, mentre la terribile catastrofe che pose fine a quel regno sarebbe avvenuta mille mesi (circa 80 anni) dopo, ossia intorno al 1215 aC The story of Plato therefore would place the great expansion of the conquest of Atlantis, and his war against the ancestors of the Athenians, towards the 1295-96 BC, while the terrible catastrophe that ended in that kingdom would occur one thousand months (80 years) later, ie around 1215 BC
Se invece ci basassimo sull’anno egizio, che secondo Erodoto comprendeva 360 giorni e 12 mesi di 30 giorni ciascuno, 9000 mesi corrisponderebbero a 750 anni e condurrebbero al 1320 aC, e 1000 mesi dopo corrisponderebbero all’anno 1237 aC Il periodo della catastrofica fine di Atlantide sarebbe così, ragionevolmente, da collocarsi nel periodo 1240-1210 aC If there basassimo Egyptian on year, which according to Herodotus encompassed 360 days and 12 months of 30 days each, 9000 months would correspond to 750 years, and would lead to 1320 BC, and 1000 correspond months after the year 1237 BC The period of the catastrophic end Atlantis would be so, reasonably, to be placed in the period 1240-1210 BC
Un autore che si firma con lo pseudonimo “Michele di Grecia” pone in relazione tutta la vicenda con una serie di conflitti che – secondo la mitologia greca delle origini – ebbero luogo tra gli antichi Ateniesi ed i Cretesi. An author who signed with the pseudonym “Michael of Greece” puts in relation the whole affair with a series of conflicts that – according to Greek mythology of the origins – took place between the ancient Athenians and the Cretans. Gli eroi di quella guerra, secondo il racconto fatto a Solone dal sacerdote di Sais, sarebbero stati Cecrope, Erecteo, Erictonio, Erisictone, tutti anteriori a Teseo. The heroes of that war, according to the account made to Solon by the priest of Sais, would Cecrops, Erecteo, Erictonio, Erisictone, all prior to Theseus. Michele di Grecia ricostruisce il mito di quei re primigeni. Michael of Greece reconstructs the myth of those kings primitive.
Cecrope (p. 140) fu il primo a nominare Zeus quale dio supremo e ad abolire i sacrifici di sangue, sia umani, sia di animali. Cecrops (p. 140) was the first to appoint supreme god Zeus who and abolish the blood sacrifices, both human, both of animals. Si iniziò a bruciare sugli altari i pelanos, tipici pasticci confezionati dai Greci. It started to burn on the altar the pelanos, typical pies packaged by the Greeks. Egli proveniva dalla città egiziana di Sais. He came from the Egyptian city of Sais. Sotto il suo regno ebbe luogo la disputa tra Atena e Poseidone per il controllo sulla città di Atene, disputa che può coprire proprio una contesa relativa al predominio sulla città dei Cretesi (Atlanti), devoti al culto eponimo di Poseidone. Under his reign took place the dispute between Athena and Poseidon for control of the city of Athens, dispute that can cover just a dispute related to the predominance of the city of Cretans (Atlases), devoted to the cult of Poseidon eponym. “Poseidone fu il primo a venire in Attica… e dopo di lui arrivò Atena” e in una tribù della regione del lago Tritonide si raccontava che Atena, figlia di Poseidone, litigò col padre e si fece adottare da Zeus. “Poseidon was the first to come to Attica … and after him came Athena” and a tribe in the region of Lake Tritonis it was said that Athena, daughter of Poseidon, he quarreled with his father and had himself taken by Zeus. Apollodoro e Diodoro Siculo concordano sull’attribuire tali avvenimenti al periodo in cui regnò Cecrope . Apollodorus and Diodorus agree on giving these events to the time when Cecrops reigned. Sant’Agostino ricorda anche che il ruolo delle donne nella società diminuì d’importanza: “Esse non furono più ammesse al suffragio ei neonati non ricevettero più il nome dalla madre”. St. Augustine also recalls that the role of women in society diminished in importance: “They were no longer allowed to suffrage and infants did not receive more than the name of the mother.” Usanze matriarcali, che si ritrovano – ad esempio – sia nelle società berbere, sia nell’antica Creta e nell’isola di Malta, col culto della Grande Madre. Matriarchal customs, who find themselves – for example – both in society Berber, both in ancient Crete and the island of Malta, with the cult of the Great Mother. Ad esempio, Diodoro Siculo riferisce che i Cretesi avevano elevato in Sicilia un tempio alle loro madri, “portandosele da Creta, ove si onorano le Dee”. For example, Diodorus reports that the Cretans had elevated in Sicily a temple to their mothers, “portandosele from Crete, where they honor the Goddesses”. Cecrope dovette subire una terribile invasione. Cecrops had to endure a terrible invasion. “Secondo Filocoro, quando questo Paese fu devastato dai Carii provenienti dal mare e dai Beoti che venivano da terra… Cecrope installò la sua gente in dodici città…” Ora, sappiamo che Caria e Beozia erano due “province” cretesi. “According Philochorus, when this country was devastated by the Carians from the sea and the Boeotians who came to earth … Cecrope installed his people in twelve cities …” Now, we know that Caria and Boeotia were two “provinces” Cretans.

La Pietra di confine di Warner, con la scritta “Questa terra appartiene a Rata (da G. FARLEY, In Plain Sight, Chelsea, Michigan, 1994) The Stone Border Warner, with the inscription “This land belongs to Rata (by G. FARLEY, In Plain Sight, Chelsea, Michigan, 1994)

Erictonio istituì le feste panatenee, in onore di Atena, ma il suo successore figlio, Pandione, era probabilmente un cretese. Erictonio instituted Panathenaic festivals, in honor of Athena, but his successor son, Pandion, was probably a Cretan. Il figlio di Pandione, Lico, è tramandato come il fondatore del regno di Licia. The son of Pandion, Lico, is passed as the founder of the kingdom of Lycia. Nota: ritroviamo i Lici tra i Popoli del Mare che tentarono d’invadere l’Egitto poco prima del 1200 aC Apollodoro ricorda che sotto il regno di Pandione “Demetra e Dioniso vennero in Attica”. Note: we find the Lycians among the Sea Peoples who tried to invade Egypt shortly before 1200 BC Apollodorus remembers that during the reign of Pandion “Demeter and Dionysus came to Attica.” La prima era certamente una divinità originaria di Creta. The first was certainly a deity originally from Crete. è vero che alcuni autori pongono tale adozione di nuovi dei sotto il regno di Erecteo. it is true that some authors pose the adoption of new of the reign of Erecteo. Anche sotto il regno di Pandione, troviamo menzione di guerre: Even under the reign of Pandion, we find mention of wars:

“La guerra t’impediva di compiere i tuoi doveri. Battaglioni di barbari avevano attraversato il mare e gettato il terrore tra le tue mura”. “The war t’impediva to perform your duties. Battalions of barbarians had crossed the sea, and cast terror among your walls.”

Uno dei successori, Erecteo, dovette subire l’attacco di un “devoto di Poseidone”: Eumolto, re di Eleusi. One of the successors, Erecteo, had to endure the attack of a “devotee of Poseidon”: Eumolto king of Eleusis. Gli Ateniesi, per difendersi, dovettero ricorrere all’aiuto di truppe mercenarie. The Athenians, to defend themselves, they had to enlist the help of mercenary troops. Secondo Apollodoro, la fortuna aiutò gli Ateniesi, ma Poseidone, adirato, distrusse la casa di Erecteo, che si trovava sull’Acropoli, e l’uccise con tutta la sua famiglia. According to Apollodorus, luck helped the Athenians, but Poseidon, angry, destroyed the house Erecteo, which stood on the Acropolis, and killed him with his whole family.
Manetone, nella sua nomenclatura dei re d’Egitto, afferma che il primo dei “re pastori”, per lui un fenicio, Manetho, in its nomenclature of the kings of Egypt, said that the first of the “shepherd kings”, for him a Phoenician,

“era Saites, che regnò per diciannove anni e diede il proprio nome alla provincia di Sais”. “Was Saites, who reigned for nineteen years and gave his name to the province of Sais.”

“Il primo dei conquistatori avrebbe dunque ribattezzato col proprio nome una città, di fondazione più antica. Essa sarebbe stata ‘fondata’ una seconda volta. L’ipotesi potrebbe spiegare perché il sacerdote di Neith sostenga che Sais è più recente d’Atene. Sais sarebbe stata la capitale d’un principato d’occupazione del Delta… Sais città degli Hyksos… dei Cretesi…”. “The first of the conquerors would therefore renamed with their name a city, foundation oldest. It was ‘founded’ a second time. The hypothesis could explain why the priest of Neith claims that Sais is newer Athens. Sais would be the capital of a principality of occupation of the Delta … Sais city of the Hyksos … Cretans … “.

Secondo l’ipotesi cui erano giunti ricercatori francesi e tedeschi nel corso degli anni 1920-1940, e da me riprese e sviluppate, il popolo d’Atlantide si era installato nella cerniera fra tre mari: il “secondo mare” sahariano, con acque dolci, il Mediterraneo occidentale, collegato agli oceani, e quello orientale, che in quell’epoca era un mare chiuso, con un livello nettamente inferiore agli altri. According to the hypothesis which had reached French and German researchers over the years 1920-1940, and taken up and developed by me, the people of Atlantis had been installed in the hinge between three seas: the “second sea” Sahara, with freshwater , the western Mediterranean, connected to the oceans, and the Eastern, which at that time was a closed sea, with a level significantly lower than the other. Atlantide viveva d’agricoltura e di navigazione; Atlantis was living farming and navigation; costruì un grande impero marittimo, del quale l’antica Creta e tante altre comunità del Mediterraneo non erano che “colonie”. built a great maritime empire, of which the ancient Crete and many other communities in the Mediterranean were not that “colonies”. In America, oggi, si scoprono altre colonie, che usavano la stessa antica lingua libica delle iscrizioni che si trovano nel Nord Africa. In America today, we discover other colonies, who used the same ancient language Libyan inscriptions found in North Africa.

La stele di Davenport The stele of Davenport

La stele di Davenport The stele of Davenport
Nel 1874 il reverendo M. Gass, con due studenti, trovò all’interno d’un piccolo tumulo sepolcrale, presso Davenport, Iowa, due scheletri d’adulti ed un terzo d’un bambino. In 1874 the Rev. M. Gass, with two students, he found inside of a small burial mound, at Davenport, Iowa, two skeletons of adults and a third of a child. Nei pressi c’era una tavoletta incisa, con segni strani ed allora incomprensibili. Near there was a tablet engraved with strange marks and then incomprehensible. La pietra è oggi conosciuta come la Stele del Calendario di Davenport. The stone is now known as the Stele of the Calendar of Davenport. A quel tempo, suscitò grande interesse. At that time, aroused great interest. Più tardi fu dimenticata, perché studiosi di Harvard e della Smithsonian Institution avevano dichiarato che si trattava d’un falso. Later it was forgotten, because scholars from Harvard and the Smithsonian Institution had declared that it was of a fake.
Secondo l’interpretazione di Barry Fell, intorno alla scena incisa al centro della stele vi sono iscrizioni in tre lingue, egiziano, iberico punico e libico, ciascuna nel proprio alfabeto o carattere geroglifico. According to the interpretation of Barry Fell, around the scene engraved in the center of the stele there are inscriptions in three languages, Egyptian, Iberian Punic and Libyan, each in its own alphabet or font hieroglyph. In realtà non si capirebbe il motivo della triplice scrittura, se si supponesse valida l’ipotesi – fatta dall’autore e dai suoi colleghi – che il libico fosse usato in sostituzione della lingua ufficiale egiziana. Actually you do not understand the reason for the triple writing, if we suppose the hypothesis valid – made by the author and his colleagues – that the Libyan was used instead of the official language of Egypt. I testi iberico e libico, scritti su fasce incise che circondano la figura, sono come delle didascalie, e riferiscono entrambi che la pietra offre il segreto per regolare il calendario. The texts Iberian and Libyan writings engraved on bands that surround the figure, are like captions, and both refer to the stone provides the secret to adjust the calendar. Il resto è scritto in geroglifici ieratici egiziani, il suo contenuto è riportato letteralmente nelle figure e può essere così reso in lingua corrente: The rest is written in hieratic Egyptian hieroglyphics, its content is shown literally in the figures and can be so made in current language:

“Si attacchi uno specchio ad un pilastro, in modo che quando il sole sorge nel giorno di capodanno esso rifletta la luce sulla pietra detta ‘l’osservatorio’. Il capodanno cade quando il sole è in congiunzione con la costellazione zodiacale dell’Ariete. Nella Casa dell’Ariete il rapporto tra la notte ed il giorno si rovescia. In quel tempo (equinozio di primavera) cade la festa del nuovo anno, con il suo rito religioso”. “It attacks a mirror to a pillar, so that when the sun rises in the New Year’s Day it reflects the light on the stone called ‘observatory’. The new year falls when the sun is in conjunction with the zodiacal constellation Aries. In the House of Aries the relationship between night and day is reversed. At that time (spring equinox) falls the feast of the new year, with its religious rite. ”

La tavoletta rappresenta la celebrazione egiziana dell’anno nuovo, la mattina dell’equinozio di marzo. The tablet represents the Egyptian celebration of the new year, on the morning of March equinox. La festa consiste nell’erezione cerimoniale tramite funi, tirate da fedeli, d’una particolare Colonna dell’Anno Nuovo, chiamata Djed, fatta di steli di canne e sormontata da quattro o cinque anelli. The festival consists ceremonial erection via ropes, pulled by the faithful of a particular column of the New Year, called Djed, made of stems of reeds and topped by four or five rings. Essa rappresenta la spina dorsale d’Osiride. It is the backbone of Osiris.

Il retro della stele di Davenport, con scene di caccia The back of the stele of Davenport, with hunting scenes

A sinistra si vede uno specchio; To the left is a mirror; dietro si legge in geroglifici: “specchio degli egizi” e sullo specchio, sempre in geroglifici, è scritto “metallo riflettente”. behind reads hieroglyphics: “mirror of the Egyptians” and on the mirror, always in hieroglyphics, is written “reflective metal.”To the right is the rising sun, with the inscription Ra (sun god). In the morning sky, at the top, you can see the stars. As seen in the caption of the illustration, the stele of Iowa confirms what we already know from a tomb at Thebes, on the ceremony of the Djed pillar in the day of the new year. The text of the Egyptian stele Davenport goes on to say that it is the work of Wnty (observer of stars), a priest of Osiris regions of Libya.
The stele is of local manufacture, American, and Fell supposedly had been made ??perhaps by Libyan an astronomer or Iberian, who copied a model oldest from Egypt or rather from Libya, led so far probably by a Libyan ship. The priest of Osiris may have produced the stele, originally, as a way to adjust the calendar in far away lands. The date can not be earlier than 800 BC (“because we do not know or inscriptions Iberian Libyan prior to that date,” notes Fell). The Egyptian text, as mentioned above, can be a simple copy of some American original. The original could also date back to 1400 BC, judging by the style of writing.

The caricature of a “builder of mounds” of Iowa, bas-relief on limestone (from McKusick, 1991)

Fell dare the hypothesis that the settlers arrived on ships of the Egyptian Navy, under the command of a navigator Libya, during the XXII Dynasty, called “Libyan”, whose pharaohs were energetic men, who favored the exploration overseas. With them, probably, was a priest-Egyptian astronomer. Would he – or any of his successors – to affect the Stele of the Calendar of Davenport.
Probably around that time came other Egyptian astronomer-priests, who accompanied other expeditions, like the one in Long Island, New York, and travelers Libyans reached Quebec, where they left the inscription that was found in the 70’s by Professor Thomas Lee of Laval University.

The caves of Anubis
We have already said that Gloria Farley, today ottantasettenne, was for many years the main correspondent Barry Fell, and provided him with ample material discoveries made ??in the areas of New Mexico, Oklahoma and the other Member States power.
In 1968, an Oklahoma newspaper published a story about a mysterious cave covered with signs and figures. Ten years later, in a day of June 1978, the research group of Farley, led by a local farmer, went to see a petroglyph of a buffalo with the ribs out, you thought raffigurasse an animal during a famine. They did not know yet that it was of a distinctive character of Celtic art. In that area, they found five caves, the Farley numbers from south to north. The first cave that was discovered that indicated with the number two. Three walls of this cave were literally covered with inscriptions and petroglyphs. The most significant figure was an image canine with pointed ears and bushy tail, wearing a crown and carries on his back like a whip with a long handle, similar to the ancient Egyptian royal scourge.
The crown is composed of two long signs curved, as brackets, to the sides of the ears, almost joined at the top. The pastoral hamate and the scourge appear usually crossed on the chest of the Pharaoh and the god Osiris, as symbols of authority.
In addition, the Farley signaled the presence in the cave is character ogam, both written Numidian, a combination that was found in two other sites in that area with characteristics related to the presence of the Egyptians.
On the wall, in the upper left, there was an anthropomorphic figure with a corona radiata, standing over a cube, of course, a Sun God. To the left was a window round, carved in stone, perhaps a natural opening reshaped. It gave access to the cave number three, along with a small hole on top of it.
In the cave number three group recopied inscription ogam long a bit ‘more than a meter, engraved very clearly on the back wall. That inscription turned the key of interpretation for the entire site. Registration would become known as “the enrollment of six months.” Fell ruled that the six signs vertical above the line of the entry representing the number 6. He could well bring the registration to the Gaelic language. Agree with colleagues, published a translation that was: “The sun is for six months in the north, for another six to the south, for a period of the same number of months.” This was therefore called “the enrollment of six months,” because it says that the sun is for six months in the north and south for six months.

The design of the large wall with the design of Anubis and the representations solar, discovered in Oklahoma from the group of Gloria Farley. On the bottom right, you can also see the elephant and the hippopotamus (from G. FARLEY, In Plain Sight, 1994)

The Farley identified the figure of a jackal with scourge on your back with Anubis, greek word that indicates the Egyptian god Anpu, identified with Hermes, the one who accompanies the souls. Anubis opened to the dead in the streets of the other world. He is usually depicted as a jackal black bushy-tailed, or a black-skinned man with the head of a jackal. The jackal is usually lying down, squatting with his head raised.

Photos and design of the figure of the jackal Anubis, homonymous cave (from G. FARLEY, In Plain Sight, 1994)

The Anubis Oklahoma is very similar to an image painted on a papyrus of the New Kingdom, dating to the period 1580-1090 BC, and now preserved at the National Library in Paris. It appears in a painting that depicts the course of the sun and walk below the cubic throne of Ra-Harakte. This form of God solar depicts a man with a hawk’s head, topped by the solar disk and dall’ureo, the sacred serpent. Anubis appears very thin, with ears pricked and a scourge on his back. The connection between Anubis and the Sun God had to be very important to discover the true destination of the caves of Anubis.
Moreover, in the same wall appeared the figure of a sun god, crowned, leaning on a kind of cube. In addition to the rays of the corona of the Sun God, there were two other solar symbols. To the left of the Sun God (for the viewer) appeared a radiant arc, which was later named “rising sun” or “first sun”. The radiant image, around the head of the Sun God, was called “second sun”. Between Sun God Anubis and there was a wide semicircle with many rays, later called “sun” or “third sun.”
In the first visit, the group had seen two deep holes, like eyes, in the lower part of the wall . Later it was realized that they were the eyes of a figure of an elephant, engraved in lines read under other signs vertical overlapping, as if they were behind the bars, with big ears, a trumpet pendant, thin legs, the swollen belly, and short tail. The size of the ears indicated that it was of an African elephant. The image was phallic, like the figure of Anubis. A hippopotamus, standing behind the elephant, was not immediately recognized.
In 1982, Bill McGlone, secretary of the western section of the Company Epigraphic., he joined the group of Farley to examine the caves at the time of the equinox. At the time of the sunset, the autumnal equinox, they discovered a number of shadow effects that occurred only at that particular time, twice a year.
“While the shadow of a” pointer “of rock moved, certain parts of the wall were alternately illuminated or returned in the shadows. The first symbol to be illuminated was that of the Rising Sun, to the left of the Sun God. Then he was enlightened the same Sun God, then his body, from the feet to the neck, fell in the shadows as the sun went down in true western sky. When the last image of the sun touched: the distant mesa west, the head of the Sun God was light. At the same time it was great Sun lit at sunset. L ‘shadow of the indicator had meanwhile become blunt and rounded and moved up toward the right, toward the small Sun Vertical Ray.

Gloria Farley, the researcher who discovered ottantasettenne many graffiti and inscriptions in the heart of America

The instant sunset came time cul-dominant and occurred simultaneously three things. The shadow of the pommel pointer touched exactly the curve of the Sun Vertical; the head of the Sun God, the corona radiata, entered in the shadows; and the whole figure of Anubis, tail included, was illuminated. A second later, when the sun had dropped below the horizon of the mesa, the entire wall was in shadow. The show was over, for another six months. is necessary to emphasize that the alignments described above occur only at sunset closest to the actual time of the equinox. The day before or the day after, the indicator does not move exactly one vertex to another cube, the symbols do not fall in solar light or in shadow significantly, and the pointer does not indicate exactly the lines of the Sun Vertical ” .
equinox something happens, not only in the second but in the third cave, where other games of light and shadow happen simultaneously.
The following are the translations offered by Barry Fell to the project group of the caves of Anubis in 1983, before the visit to the spring equinox.
According Fell, in the first cave appear the following inscriptions in ogam:
“First line GSCT and another line RT, preceded a line more complex B-UI-IA IA-L-H NB -UI-DL, in ancient Gaelic “Gesachgt, a magical spell, a rat, for good luck”, “Buail Inpu h-uideal, which reads: Anubis can challenge the scourge.”
If correct, this would be evidence that figure is just dog Anubis, whose ancient name was Inpu or Anpu. Fell explained that the author of the entry of Oklahoma had to have contact with people who spoke the Egyptian, because the name is transcribed into characters ogam to reproduce very closely pronunciations Egyptian.
Another inscription ogam in the first cave , which is not a group of crosses superimposed but that does not seem to be part of the registration, according Fell, reads “TLM BG UI-G” or “Ata in lam uilg bag”, which would mean “his arm and can be obstacle to evil. ” This appears to be another reference to the use of the whip as a scourge of authority.
Fell then returned to the wall of Anubis the second cave, to translate two inscriptions: one in ogam and the other in writing numidica, used by the ancient Libyans. Ogam the letters “FS”, which express the word “Fios”, are superimposed on the Rising Sun on the far left wall. The next word ogam, “CRNC”, is formed by the fingers and the corona of the Sun God and reads “Carnaich”. The next words ogam are under the Sun at sunset and in the form of the Sun Vertical. They are “BGL UI-R-IA DG GD”: “Baaghal uiru daigea gead” Everything, read together, it means: “Instructions for the Druid. Over time, clear the shadow of the rock peak eclipses the flame at sunset. L ‘shadow will come close to the mouth of the figure of the god jackal “. This is just what happens on the wall of Anubis at each equinox!
The writing numidica, read from right to left, starting with the legs of the Sun God and continue left. One part is inside the cube. A second line is located to the right of the cube. The letters “T LL DYN BL YFTN” and form the words “Ata Laila dayan Bel, yafida nantans”, which translate: “Celebrate the sunset rites of Bel, gathered in worship at that time.”
This identifies the Sun God as the Celtic Bel and not with the Egyptian Ra. However, their identities were closely linked in the ancient Near East. For Gloria Farley and his group, it is clear that the caves were a place of sacred rites and worship for the ancient that they recorded in writing and figures.
The theme of the adoration of Bel is further developed in the fourth cave. Four lines, among many inscriptions ogam of this cave, were transcribed from Fell as “BL GRNG MNC M EA-D UI-ML-OR-AND-B BL”: “Grian aig Bel Mionach umih ele Lio-Meadh eabh aig Bel “, which means” The sun belongs to Bel. This cave in the days of equinox serves to sing the prayers of Bel. ”
A member of the group of Farley found a chair in natural stone, or throne, in a corner of this cave : a great place for the priest of Bel to sit with an eye toward the west and sing the prayers in Bel, as the sun sets, the day of the equinox.

A debate alive
for thirty years now America raises questions about their origins. Fewer and fewer people who believe – to use the words of Barry Fell – that “one day, between the blaring of trumpets and the waving of flags … Christopher Columbus landed and began the history of the New World … For Americans, the story begins with the crash of cymbals, the appearance of great men and famous, both known and documented, that someone might think to find in Washington, the National Archives, their birth certificates or their social security cards. ”
The But the debate is very heated and accusing many of the fake “documents” that others strive to bring as evidence of a distant past of the continent. Sure, there have been false. Equally certainly, many elements of the thesis diffusionistiche feeds serious doubts on the “separate development” of the American continent, which is still supported in the cases officially accredited.

The two alphabets Libyan-Berber: Numidian and tifinagh (the Tuareg) (B. FELL, Alphabetic Libyan Mason’s Marks on Mochica Adobe Bricks, in Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers, vol. 20, 1991, p. 226)

Among these intriguing elements, we felt it was worth it to put a special emphasis on those traces of Libyan-Berber culture that played a very important part in the life of Fell (first to decipher the ancient language Libyan welcomed as a victor to ‘ University of Tripoli). Professor Fell, however, never came to connect these elements in the culture that we identify with the name of Atlantis. In this direction are today our studies, looking for tracks that we should go back to the years between 3000 and 1200 BC, left by an independent maritime empire that saw the ancestors of the peoples of the Libyan-Berber (the Numidians, the Tuareg, of indigenous peoples dell’Ifriqiah Maghreb) set out to conquer the oceans. We begin to realize an Atlantis “on the contrary”, which may have touched many seas of the world, but from a fire spread at the center of the Mediterranean, at the time of the great megalithic civilization.
The sudden end of the fire spreading, the tragic death of the heart of that reality (federation of peoples, maritime empire) that Plato has handed down by the name of Atlantis, it seems once again the focal point to reconnect the threads of history disappeared … but not in the direction – that many times was proposed – a spread of culture across the Atlantic from west to east. Glimpsed the possibility that the “people of the Bronze Age” is to launch for the Oceans from the heart of the Mediterranean …
In this direction, we hope to soon find new elements, new tracks suitable to reconstruct a mosaic made ??confused by the elapsed time and the great catastrophe which caused the end of the empire of Atlantis.

 

 

of Alberto Arecchi
liutprand@iol.it
www.liutprand.it