The origin of the Atlantis civilization through Tamil literary evidences
P.Karthigayan, M.A. (Tamil),
Alagappa University, Karaikudi,S.India.
Introduction: Discovering the origin of a civilization that was devastated and buried deeply by numerous deluges, is quite difficult since the depth prevents their identification and excavation. Under such circumstances, reliance on literary evidence comes to our rescue.
Epistemology: Intelligent human race existed several million years ago. They spread their wisdom to their fellow men. Their decedents discovered controlling nature and utilized power of air, gas, magnetism, etc., to enable mode of travel across earth, oceans and sky. They discovered that humans die leaving their body while the world renovates its body after natural calamities like great floods, earthquakes, etc. Their cultural literature were stored in an iron chest, preserved under deep water reservoir, so that the water bed will reduce the impact of great floods and save the literature for future generation that spread across the deformed lands of the tilted globe on all directions. Their logical penetration towards knowledge, could pave way towards stable science, which is not possible otherwise through the mundane approach. It is believed that, even the glorified races like the Greeks and Egyptians possessed lesser knowledge than this race. Their great scientific secrets were inscribed upon palm leaves and made indestructible by transforming them into stone, preserved in stony caves and thus immortalized their wisdom (This idea is supported by Chinese mythology also). Their knowledge is still evidenced on the structure of temples, scientific beliefs, nature-dependent health care traditions, and mythological faith on immortality, found in India.
Conclusion: Analyzing the above literary evidences resemble similar to that of Atlantis civilization. Since, all these literary evidences are available in Tamil, the language perfected by the immortals in ancient times, it is strongly believed that the land of the Tamils, in and around India, could be the remains of the origin of the ancient glorious Atlantis.
Discovering the origin of a civilization that was devastated and buried deeply by numerous deluges, is quite difficult since the depth prevents their identification and excavation. Especially, in the case of Atlantis, very little description is available for research. But, considering the fact that the concept got its inception through Solon the noble poet whose social attitude expressed in Greek legends attests his righteousness, which in deed encourages believing the hypothesis. Added to this, the hypothesis was discussed by scholars like Critias, etc., in the presence of world famous scholar, Socrates, and further analyzed by Plato the learned disciple of Socrates adds weightage to its credibility. In the light of the above facts, it is attempted to solve the enigma of Atlantis from an Indian’s angle, using the myths, beliefs and textual references from Tamil, an ancient language of India.
- AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
The following are the aims and objectives:
2.1 Where could the Atlantis Civilization have had its origin?
2.2 When could the Atlantis Civilization have got its inception?
2.3 Who would have been, the role model of Atlantis land reforms.
The main materials that are used in this research are:
3.1 Platos incomplete discussion that took place before Socretis, initiated by Creto (English)
3.2 Historical findings of Indian and international researchers about ancient India.
3.3 Related notes of geologists, naturalists, etc.
3.4 Facts attested in foreign travelers notes about India.
3.5 Descriptions mentioned in poetic notes of Tamil scholars of ancient Tamil Academies (Sangams), etc.
3.6 Information contained in the books of Tamil immortals, parallel to the gods of Atlantis.
Since the dialogues of Timeaus and Critias, hold the only known original references to the island of Atlantis, the hints found therein are considered for this research. Since the research findings on ancient Tamil civilization seemed to have similar details the same are used in comparative sense.
4.1 The fictitious names used in Atlantis hypothesis:
Critias begins his narration with a warning to his discussion group that they must not be surprised when they hear Hellenic names given to foreigners and explains the system of naming conventions used in their discussion. Critias’ caution to his audience throws some light on the hypothesis with regard to origin of Atlantis as follows:
- The names used in the Atlantis description are in Hellenic because they were translated from Egyptian language by Solon to make it comprehensible to the audience of his prospective poetry, which was not written as planned.
- The names recorded by Egyptians are in fact translated ones from yet another language.
So, the Hellenic names should not be considered to arrive at a conclusion regarding the geographic location of Atlantis, as strictly around Greece or Egypt.
Hence, it could be any part of the earth that had descriptions similar to that of Atlantis can be considered as suited to the discussion.
4.2 The social background of Poseidon’s period:
Poseidon had discovered an island, married a woman and then slowly developed that island into a glorious civilization through his children. At the time of the above cultural evolution of Atlantis, there were other societies headed by equals or seniors to Poseidon, which were also developing.
Probably, this must have been the early stage of several societies developing upon earth. If this is the fact, then Poseidon and other immortals would have sprung from a common origin which could be the cradle of human race on earth. Following is the statement about the cradle of civilizations by an eminent historian.
“Of the five now existing continents, ” writes Ernst Haeckel, in his great work “The History of Creation,” (Vol. II., pp. 325-6.) “neither Australia, nor America, nor Europe can have been this primaeval home (of man), or the so-called ‘Paradise,’ the ‘cradle of the human race.’ Most circumstances indicate Southern Asia as the locality in question. Besides Southern Asia, the only other of the now existing continents which might be viewed in this light is Africa. But there are a number of circumstances (especially chronological facts) which suggest that the primeval home of man was a continent now sunk below the surface of the Indian Ocean’ (W.Scott-Elliot, Lost Lemuria).
Hence, the continent now sunk below the surface of the Indian Ocean could be the origin of Atlantis.
4.3 The geographic details ofthe submerged Atlantis:
Critias explains how heavy deluges leave continuous small islands resembling the bony structure of a perished land in the following lines:
`Many great deluges have taken place during the nine thousand years’. `The consequence is, that in comparison of what then was, there are remaining only the bones of the wasted body, as they may be called, as in the case of small islands, all the richer and softer parts of the soil having fallen away, and the mere skeleton of the land being left’.
The following is the opinion of geologists about the sunken Indian subcontinent: `With regard to the geographical evidence, a glance at the map will show that from the neighbourhood of the West Coast of India to that of the Seychelles, Madagascar, and the Mauritius, extends a line of coral atolls and banks, including Adas bank, the Laccadives, Maldives, the Chagos group and the Saya de Mulha, all indicating the existence of a submerged mountain range or ranges. The Seychelles, too, are mentioned by Mr. Darwin as rising from an extensive and tolerably level bank having a depth of between 30 and 40 fathoms; so that, although now partly encircled by fringing reefs, they may be regarded as a virtual extension of the same submerged axis. Further west the Cosmoledo and Comoro Islands consist of atolls and islands surrounded by barrier reefs; and these bring us pretty close to the present shores of Africa and Madagascar. It seems at least probable that in this chain of atolls, banks, and barrier reefs we have indicated the position of an ancient mountain chain, which possibly formed the back-bone of a tract of later Paleozoic Mesozoic, and early Tertiary land, being related to it much as the Alpine and Himalayan system is to the Europaeo-Asiatic continent, and the Rocky Mountains and Andes to the two Americas’ (W.Scott-Elliot, Lost Lemuria).
Hence, the chains of islands, etc., could be the mountains surrounding the submerged Atlantis.
4.4 The status of mankind before the inception of Atlantis:
Critias refers to Poseidon as god and explains that he lived with Cleito daughter of one of the earth born primeval men of that country.
- So, there were human beings at the time of Poseidon’s arrival to the island of Atlantis and that they lived in a small society.
- It is earlier noted that there were similar societies around this island.
- Also, societies were in their early developmental states.
- Poseidon had not created mankind on earth.These facts could only be possible around an area where human species would have originated. Since, no species would, in its very early stage of origin, migrate to distant places and develop itself.Probably, Poseidon came from a culturally elevated society, and his advanced ideas gained the devotion of those primeval men on that island as a god, and Critias refers to Cleito as mortal’s daughter. So, origin of mankind would have taken place somewhere around that island. The following conclusions of researchers would help identify the island of Atlantis.
- Hence, Atlantis should be around Lemuria the sunken land.
- Thomas Huxley, an associate of Darwin’s who investigated the origin of man assumed that Homo sapiens, that is, man regarded as an organic species, arose on the now sunken continent of’ Lemuria (Alexander Kondratov, The riddles of Three Oceans).
4.5 The status of Poseidon when he arrived to the prospective island of Atlantis:
Critias says that Poseidon `himself being a god’, `begat children by a mortal woman (Cleito)’.
- So all mortals are humans and those who are immortal are gods.
Had Critias stated the above fact as `himself being a god married a woman’ Poseidon’s status would be vague but with the above clear statement the state of god is defined by immortality.
Elsewhere, Critias explains that children of Poseidon have built temples for them beside a grand temple for a superior god who stood upon a chariot with six winged horses controlled by a charioteer.
- So the god upon that chariot was the superior God and Poseidon was lesser or equal to that god because from him had originated the race of Atlantis.It is worth considering the statement of a immortal (god according to Atlantians) may be a contemporary to Poseidon, about how gods were created by the great God, in the following verse:By God’s grace some become Angels,By god’s grace sins will not accrue, and,(Thirumoolar Thirumandhiram-3000:1649)The above defining verse was written in Tamil, which itself was the language of Dravidians the primeval people of Lemuria.Hence, Poseidon could have attained immortality using Tamil methods.
- Thus, God’s grace can create heavenly abode!
- By God’s grace some become equal to God,
4.6 The kind of rule prevailed before the inception of Atlantis:
Critias also recalls his earlier remark about some other gods by saying `the allotments of the gods, that they distributed the whole earth into portions differing in extent, and made for themselves temples and instituted sacrifices’.
- He implies a kind of priestly rule before the inception of Atlantis. The gods in fact ruled their followers through Temples and accepted the sacrifices offered by them.
On the ancient Tamil land, each god or immortal had his own territory defined by dwelling therein with his disciples and supporters, usually on land situated upon mountains. For, in those days the earth was filled with numerous mountains chained and scattered into different ranges across the continental plates of the earth. But these lands were very rich in greeneries and forests of woods that they can fulfill the bare needs of humans who dwell therein. This must be the allotment of gods explained by Critias. Agathiyar, an immortal in ancient Tamil land, enumerates thirty-eight such mountains in his book Agathiyar-12000 (5:330-335).
Agathiyar, after enumerating the above mountainous lands, stresses that `these are all the lands of great immortals as far as I knew’. According to the imagination of the immortals of each land, different cultures rose on different areas. Some raised spiritual academia, while some others great kingdoms, countries, etc. For instance Ayodhinadu and Ravananaargir represent the two opponent countries in the Epic Ramayana, said to have existed during Dwapara yugam.
These gods or immortals or siddhas as known in Tamil, could be considered as the first set of thinkers who spent their time for pondering upon the nature and causes of self, nature, cosmos, and beyond. They rose from ordinary men and upon realizing their unique predisposition lead isolated life on different places, especially on hilly places inaccessible by animals and protected against natural calamities.
The amazing point in the nature of Siddhas was their faith in nature and its contribution to mankind.
- They considered human body is a parallel to cosmos and following the ways of cosmos can perfect human body.
- They discovered that the earth is female and the sky (cosmos excluding earth) is male and extended their thought that earth alone can produce living beings. But, Egyptians and others believe that the sky is female and the earth is male. But this is not correct since no planet other than earth is reported to have life on them.
- They have witnessed deluge several times, lost their precious books (Agathiar-12000:1:271) as such preserved their cultural books under a water reservoir, it is said in iron chests, covered with a special spell bound wooden plank, bound the same with iron chains. (Agathiar-12000:4:24-28)
- As an extension of their theory they discovered that human lifespan could be extended to any desirable extent by following the secret science that nature employs to create life on earth. They made an icon to represent this finding (the Lingam) and made people to worship it. They made their sciences according to nature and its five factors earth, water, fire, air and sky. They preached that everything is ruled by these factors and adhering to them strictly will result in stable science.
- They considered that a continuous motion is taking place between cosmos and earth and understanding the same could produce better societies. Siddhas like Bogar have fabricated many devices steam ship, steam engine, space ship run using magnetism, etc. All his scientific thoughts are explained in technical Tamil in his book Bogar-7000.
- They inscribed their great scientific secrets on palm leaves, named it as The Legacy of Eighteen Siddhas, spelled it to turn into a stone and immortalized the same for future generation who have a fate to get it (Gorakkar, Namanasa Thiravukol-100:11-14). In Chinese mythology there is a belief that `in a stone house on the mountain Po-sung were concealed certain ancient works which could teach the art of ascending to Heaven’ through preparation of elixir (Nemisharan Mital, World famous mythologies, pp.21).
- They believed that, life was for gaining wisdom and for that reason, body’s mortality should be ruled out by adhering to alchemy, the secret doctrines of cosmic science.Each immortal had his own territory defined by way of his dwelling therein with his disciples, supporters, etc.Hence, the island chosen by Poseidon could have situated within the kingdom of Tamil immortals.4.7 The powers and limitations of Gods during Atlantian age: It is said that Poseidon, `himself as be was a god, found no difficulty in making arrangements’; this includes how Poseidon developed Atlantis by `breaking the ground’, `making alternate zones of sea and land’, `bringing two streams of water under the earth’, etc. But, there is no mention that Poseidon created additional land to develop his island, which god, the creator could do as per the belief of all religions.Finally, during the earthquakes and floods there was no attempt from Poseidon to save Atlantis and thereby conquering the natural calamities.
- So it is clear that the gods in Atlantean age could not:
- There is an expression `so that no man could get to the island’ made after Poseidon united with Leucippe and protected the island with two lands and three waters. Which means that Poseidon thought to prevent men only. It is implied that gods can enter but for some reason they will not.
- Create a land of their own
- Access to remote islands by some means
- Could not fight against nature and save their race.The gods, immortals or siddhas of ancient Tamil land also had these three limitations.They traveled to all landed space upon early formation of continental plates on earth and spread their race by living with women of those planes. This is confirmed by the words of an immortal as follows:`In order to raise a long lived human race, we (the immortals) had coition with young women!’ (Gorakkar Chandraregai-200:21)If we wish to know why they did so and what was lacking in humans of their time, the Siddhas themselves have answered as follows:`Because the men were not clever and lacked wisdom, we could not get wise disciples (to spread wisdom)!’ (Bogar Jenanasagram-557:68).Similar to Poseidon Bogar, and immortal settled at china continually for a long time, taught them arts and science (4:121) at one stage, had sexual relations with Chinese women and gave birth to eighteen sons (Bogar, Bogar-7000:2:654). He presented diamonds by breaking a big diamond rock from the South Podhigai mountain range and gained their love (Agathiyar, Agathiyar 12000:2:532). Thus almost all immortals had coition with many women and gave birth to numerous children (Gorakkar Mutharam-91:86-89).
- They had miraculous beads made of coagulated mercury and treated with qualities of many natural products in an ingenious manner, by secret techniques which could temporarily change the nature of their fleshy body to that of birds, aquatic creatures, etc. and traveled to places. They had 12 different beads for 12 kinds of supernatural activities.
- They emphasized that every individual as well as society should qualify to live on this earth, by leading a virtuous generous life like nature does. They respected the God the ultimate creator, who is one and only, and never interfered in his verdict as to whether a society should survive or perish.Hence, Poseidon may be an immortal of ancient Tamil land.4.8 The times of Atlantis: At the very inception of Atlantis, Poseidon found a land and modified it into his residence. He gave birth to 5 pairs of male children. This can be considered as the first generation of Poseidon.After explaining the first generation as above, Critias makes three more statements, viz., “`the eldest son handing it on to his eldest for many generations,’ `the plain .. was fashioned .. by the labours of many generations of kings through long ages’ and, `all these (kings) and their descendants for many generations were the inhabitants and rulers of divers islands in the open sea.’” These three statements imply that there was a longer gap of time that elapsed during the time referred by these statements.But, Critias mentions only 9000 years as the full span of Atlantis civilization, adds that `many great deluges had taken place during the nine thousand years’.So, there was an unknown span of period in between the inception of Atlantis and the golden times it made amidst other islands and lands.Hence, the inception of Atlantis could have been happened around gods’ time during Dwapara yugam (according to Tamilians) when Agathiyar explained the existence of different mountainous societies then prevailed; and the fall of the civilization would have happened during the First Tamil Sangam (academia) period, i.e., before 9600 B.C. (A.Chidambaranaar, Tamil Sangangalin Varalaru) approximately.4.9 The Atlantis architectureDuring the development of Atlantis, different stages of architecture undertaken by Posiedon and, his sons and their successors. These will be enumerated below one by one:4.9.1 Pre-Atlantis architecture (inception): Stage-1: This is the stage of inception of Atlantis after Poseidon’s settlement. Poseidon took extreme care to protect Cleito, is explained by forming `two of land and three of water, which he turned as with a lathe’ in order to prevent men from getting to the island at the center, he never expected ships or voyages.Stage-2: This is the stage of development of Atlantis. During this stage Poseidon partitioned the circular lands around his island into nine pieces and inclusive of the middle hilly space, he had 10 lands to confer to his 10 successors.The following information about South Madurai with its amazing architectural beauty is presented below for comparison. The management of base land in a circular style is unusual and only a few countries of ancient Tamil land had this style, of which South Madurai is said to be the first one. Mayan, the divine architect of prehistoric India, had written on this style as evidenced in sculpture and architecture manuscripts (confirmed by Dr.Ganapathi Stapathy, Retired Principal of Sculpture College, Mamalapuram).South Madurai (around 30,000 B.C.) was situated amidst water. Because of this it was call as Aalavai. Considering its divinity it was also known as Thiru Aalavai (Divine country amidst water). The divinity of this country is something similar to Atlantis. The king, First Nilantharu Thiruvir Pandian otherwise known as Nediyon, restructured his country by cutting the chain of Meru mountain range that containing 49 peaks. In ancient days a Tamil proverb was in use as an advise to kings. It says `The king who fails to dig channels and distribute water to his country is not at all a king’. So in ancient days all kings used to make channels of water in and around their countries. But, the Nediyon’s country is different. It was a mountainous country full of hard black rocks. But, he had divine powers to dug from Meru mountain range and created a separate country and named it as South Madurai considering the fact that it was situated on the southern side of the then existing seven other countries, called as a group as seven Madurai countries. The Nediyon made South Madurai as his capital and ruled the vast Tamil country (that submerged later under the Indian ocean) containing countries like Oli Nadu (land of luster), Peruvala Nadu (Land of abundance), Kumari Nadu (Land enriched by river Kumari), The Land of Pandias and several other countries around. South Madurai was constructed in a circular fashion like a full-bloomed lotus. The kings palace was situated like pollens in the center of the lotus, the passage towards place were arranged like space in between petals, the citizens of the country moved all around like the honey flowing on all sides from lotus in full bloom on fertile ponds, and thus the whole South Madurai looked like a living lotus amidst channels of water routed from Bakruli, the blessing of Meru.A broad channels of water that was deep enough to touch the earth beyond the rocks surrounded South Madurai. This channel was connected to Vaigai River on the North of the country. The overflowing Vaigai filled fresh water into the channel that was circuiting around South Madurai. The space outside the water channel had dense growth of thorny trees forming an outer forest (Milai) for protecting the country from unauthorized enemies’ entry. The inner circle of the land was in deed a circular thoroughfare to enter into the country. This thoroughfare was surrounded on both sides with very tall stonewalls with ample breadth to accommodate soulders to guard the country. These walls were called inner protection walls (Aran). There were several kinds of weapons that could attack the enemies from a distance in those days, and all kinds of such weapons were kept upon those walls ready to protect the country at any time. The Outer wall had two gates on the east and west. One had to access to these gates by walking upon bridges laid upon the water channel that protected the Country. The Inner wall had four gates on north, south, east and west, so that people could enter into any quarter of the countries interior places. The gateway doors were opened and closed using mechanical devises operated from within. Yavana (Greek) soldiers guarded on both sides of those gateways.
- There was no bridge to connect South Madurai from Vaigai but there were artistic boats with faces like elephant, lion, horse, etc.
- The outer most protective forests had saints and seer who opted for isolated life.
- The inner wall covered circular layers of land, further segmented into a petal like fashion, accommodating various buildings. The exterior circular petals like layer of land had four broad passages leading to the Palace at the center. The innermost circular petal like layer of land had eight broad passages leading to Palace at the Center.
- In between the protective walls was situated the external residency. This place mostly occupied by people who reared cattle and bullocks for agricultural work. They were usually very brave and never feared death. Their hereditary bullfight games were much spoken of in Sangam literature.
- Merchants who gained world fame by their fair trade populated landed buildings in the inner petal like land space.
- The jewelers sold world famous diamonds, eye-catching emeralds, lustrous rubies, biggest pearls, best quality coral, golden ornaments with delicate workmanship, varieties of silverware, and so on.
- The grocery merchants sold their nutritious pulses and grains in vast quantities.
- The weavers sold their exceptional textiles, like the Indian linen used on Egyptian kings and their mummies too.
- Numerous items of interest were sold in those streets. Each street dealt with same kind of material. So, practically these streets were called by the name of the merchandise sold in it.
- The buildings in the petal like land had individual sewerage channels which filled their waste into common cesspits in that streets, the outlets of these cesspits connected to bigger ones in the next external street, thus the last biggest cesspit discharged water with great force into the external water channel that leads to sea. The sewerage outlets were properly covered.
- There were temples for the protection god and others too. (Venkatasamy, Mayilai Seeni, Sangakala Varalatru Aivugal, pp 184-196).4.9.2 Pre-Atlantis arctecture (inception): This includes the town and shipping port arrangements architectured by the Atlantians. In ancient days, the Tamil land had great shipping ports like Poompuhar, Musiri, etc., with towns side by side, with day time and night time markets, dealing with all kinds of objects needed for comfortable life in those days. These informations are found in abundant in Tamil Sangam literature.4.9.3 Atlantis temple architectureCritias explains how Poseidon’s children build the temple of their great god using precious and rare metals like gold, silver and Orichalcum.During the days of immortals, in the submerged nation of the Tamils, metals were got on the surface it is said. Even gold dust used to flow with rivers after a rain on the moutain Meru and that is why the golden dust was known as gold sand (aema manal) and Meru’s rain. Meru had a separate mountain known as Manimalai (gems’ mountain) that produced gems, which are more precious than the purest gold. The deep ocean around that old land produced superior pearlsThe great temple of the Tamil immortals was build with precious gems and metals as follows:`On the southern side of Meru, about 800 yosani distance (about 11500 km), there was a temple with 1000 pillars, surrounded by streams and ponds containing white lotus. There was a temple of grandeur built of strong rocks while the pillars were covered with precious stones emitting different light. The entire temple was arranged as several stages like a staircase. Each stage had pillars on it corners and sides. Thus the entire structure had 1000 pillars. The 1st stage was arranged like a dais upon which there was a Siva lingam, the sacred idol of creation. The second stage had pillars covered with precious glittering diamonds. The third stage had pillars covered with precious pearls, the fourth stage had pillars covered with precious emerald stones. The fifth stage had pillars covered with precious ruby stones. The sixth stage had pillars covered with precious red corals. The other stages had pillars covered with gold sheets. Each step seated a number of immortals comfortably. There was a big water tank nearby, with a spacious hall were sheltered and there upon the divine dais, Jodhi maharishi used to meditate standing upside down’ (Agathiar-12000:2:876-878).Critias describes the god in the glorious temple built by Atlantis kings as `the god himself standing in a chariot–the charioteer of six winged horses’ and adds `around him there were a hundred Nereids riding on dolphins’.The Sun god of Mohenjo Daro civilization, (an extension of Tamil civilization on the Indian Ocean), said to have six heads and six rays flashing from above them, as evidenced in a talisman collected from the excavated spot (Kandia,N.C., Varalatruk Kalathuku Murpatta Tamizar, pp.46). Hence the myth behind the God statue of Atlantis could be that: `The Sun protects Atlantis with his six rays with the help of sea god by maintaining affinity with sea god’s daughters’. According to the Greek mythology the sea god has only fifty daughters, but the temple at Atlantis shows them as hundred which is strange. To express this strangeness Critias adds his comment `for such was thought to be the number of them in that day’. May be that, Atlantis was situated in between two seas (possibly the Arabian sea and the Indian sea) which encouraged the extension of the myth fifty, to hundred.Sun was worshipped in early Tamil land in human form as Siva; everything connected with Sun are attributed to adorn him. Bull is considered to be his riding animal. Similarly Moon is considered as the spouse of Siva; everything connected with moon is attributed to Sakthi. Lion is considered to be her riding animal. The same god forms were worshipped in Syria, Rome, Asia Minor, Babylonia, etc., as their father god and mother god respectively.The Egyptian priest explains how the goddess created first civilization receiving the seed from the Earth and Hephaestus (god of fire), found a part of earth with congenial season for producing mankind, is purely an alchemical version about the creation of life on earth. Here, the goddess is water, Hephaestus is fire and the earth is the body of divine union. It is apparent from explanation of this as a myth that the Egyptians as well as Hellenes were not aware of this fact. Their ancestor the Atlantians also does not seemed to know this fact that is why they had temples for the Sun god, Poseidon and Cleito. But they acquired this knowledge from somewhere, probably from the origin of their civilization, the sunken Tamil land below India, where an idol of Lingam representing the act is worshipped.While the mortals worshipped Sun and Moon as father and mother gods, the immortals worshipped them in a different form, which explained their creative role in the form Lingam, an esoteric conception cosmos creative activity.Hence the religious faiths of people of Atlantis are similar to that of the submerged civilization of the ancient Tamil.4.11 Natural wealth of Atlantis4.11.1 Fertility of Atlantis:Critias explains elaborately about the natural wealth of Atlantis comparable with the ancient Tamil land. The following is the description of fertility of lands in the sunken land of the Tamils. The constant alchemy that the earth played to produced these metals and minerals has left the residue containing both mineral and metal qualities and produced endless deposits of manure that enriched the scenario with greeneries of all kinds. The plant species were suspected to grow at a giant size that one researcher recalls the grammar that categorizes tall trees, like coconut tree, etc., as grass. Not only grass, the humans were also grown in astonishing heights. But, this human growth was direction specific it seems. The ancient submerged mountain Meru was the center of Tamil culture. On its four sides, the humans have grown unusually tall that their heights were measured using an ancient measure Panai (palm tree). Their heights were about 6ft on the southern side, 12 feet on the western side, 18 feet on the eastern side and 24 feet on the Northern side. Even now certain countries have dug out skeletons of tall human beings, which is called as giant skeletons (China on the north). Excepting those on the south who ate all kind of vegetable sources and others and drank different kinds of waters (this gave them blackish colour and reduced life span to 120 years); while others ate fruits and drank water stagnated around those fruit trees (this water is called udhagam, a natural decoction of beneficial aspects of those trees, which enriched their complexion and life span upto thousands of years according to their quality). These facts were recorded by immortals of ancient Tamil land (like Chaittaimuni, Bogar, Agathiyar, Pulippani, etc.)4.11.2 The metals of Atlantis:Atlantis naturally had an abundant source of metals especially gold and the rare metal like Orichalcum.The ancient land of the Tamils also had great mines of gold and red-gold. They used gold chiefly for making ornaments, metal currency and idols of god. The golden coins prized to Tamil poets by Pandia king Nediyon was appreciated in a comparative sense with a river Bakruli that was submerged in the above continent (Sangam literature, Purananuru-9).It is also said that around Atlantis there were rivers that showed up golden dust like sand. This golden dust was available around Meru, the ancient Mountain range that extended below India; that is why, gold dust has a synonym `The rain of Meru’ (Chattaimuni Nikandu-1200:139).Oricalcum: According to Critias, Oricalcum was lavishly used in Atlantis. Orichalcum is a legendary metal mentioned in several ancient writings, which literally means “gold copper” (Wikipedia, online encyclopedia)Natural Orichalcum appears in places where the True Elements are brought together, such as near volcanoes; and where this a large quantity of Elemental Earth, Living Crystal, and/or a manaline/power site. It is interesting to note that the natural sources where some quantity of Orichalcum extracted (especially during the year of comet) includes places in Australia, western and southern Africa, South America, Antarctica region, etc. Also, it is a known fact that presently Africa and Australia have numerous gold mines even today. The ancient land on the Indian Ocean was believed to comprise these two nations. For instance, Navalam islands otherwise referred to as Sambu islands, comprising of a cluster of seven islands which produced four kinds of gold Sadharupam, Sambunadham, Kilisirai and Aadagam of the four the Kilisirai resembled the parrots yelowish green colour while Aadagam was in reddish yellow spreading luster around (Abidhana Sindhamani). The word Sem Pon (Red gold) is very often used in Tamil literature. According to Agathiyar-12000, during Dwaparayugam king Rama’s metal currency was made of redgold.In another reference red-gold was used for making idols of Lingam, Sakthi and Ganesan (Konganar, Nadu Kandam-1000:956)Hence, the metal Aadagam that was abundant at Navalam (Sambu) Islands must be the Orichalcum that was used by Atlantians.Artificial Orichalcum There seems to be artificial methods for producing red gold. Chattaimuni one of the senior immortals who lived around Kredha yugam explained this alchemical work, where mercury, zinc, gold, thalagam, sudham the poison added together, with twice the quantity of an unknown mineral Thirugunasal will after laboratory processing will produce a substance which if added one part in 1000 part of gold produce 18 touch pure red gold (Chattaimuni, Vaadhakaviyam-1000:968).Hence, based on the availability of rare metal oricalcum, the land of the ancient Tamils could be the origin of Atlantis.4.12 The geographic details of Atlantis:Critias explains a great war that happened between the Atlantis and others kingdoms. The explanation would to some extent help fixing the geographic details of Atlantis.Before explaining the great war of Atlantis, Critias invokes Mnemosyne (goddess of memory) and says `for all the important part of what I have to tell is dependent on her favor’. Probably, he is recalling his memory with an awfulness; because, it is difficult to describe this part of past history of a geographically changed landscape. Let us continue with this assumption. 4.12.1 Critias then says ` this sea which is within the Straits of Heracles is only a harbor, having a narrow entrance, but that other is a real sea, the surrounding land may be most truly called a continent. Observe the usage of words `this sea’ and `that other is a real sea’. He is referring to two different places and not just the two sides of one place. Thus, by the word `this’ he refers to the Meditarian sea within the Straits of Heracles, the close end of which forms a harbor. By the words `that other’ he refers to the Arabian sea and Indian Ocean. Within this place the wonderful empire he explains exists according to him.While referring to straits of Heracles he says `narrow entrance’ and while referring to the sea leasing to Atlantis he says `a real sea’, which means he is referring to the endless breadth that a sea should possess.
- 4.10 Atlantian religion
Hence, Atlantis could have been situated in the Indian sea much below the Arabian Sea on the eastern side of Africa.
4.12.2 Critias says, `the island of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful empire, which had rule over the whole island and several others, as well as other parts of the continent’. He adds on saying `they subjected the parts of Libya within the Columns of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of Europe as far as Tyrrhenia’.
Here he refers to a big island surrounded by smaller ones, ruling parts of continents on both of its west and east, and also controlling the two more lands on its northwest side. The following part of past history is quite comparable except the additions of lands in Africa, which will be explained later.
The Nediyon (30,000 B.C.) made South Madurai as his capital and ruled the vast Tamil country (that was submerged later under Indian ocean) containing countries like Oli Nadu (land of luster), Peruvala Nadu (Land of abundance), Kumari Nadu (Land enriched by river Kumari), The Land of Pandias and several other countries around. Of these countries the Oli Nadu was situated near Antarctica was lighted by Aurora Borialis, thus it had not the sun rays but its light through clouds hence called Oli nadu.
A group of this Oli nadu army crossed across the present Indian land and conquered upto Kayilai one of the 13 peaks of Himalayas. The Mohenjo Daro, Harappa civilization raised during this time only Chidambaranaar, A, Tamil Sangangalin Varalaru, pp.13).
4.12.3 Also Critias explains that ` the whole of the land which was within the straits’. It is presumable that he recollects the geographic map and considers the western border or India and the eastern border of Africa as logical extension of the straight of Hiracles.
4.12.4 Further Critias adds that `your country shone forth, in the excellence of her virtue and strength, among all mankind; for she was the first in courage and military skill, and was the leader of the Hellenes’.
Here he appreciates the successive Tamil Academia that was organized by Nediyon, the king of the Tamil country and other scholars while recollecting their victories around their land. With virtue and strength, he confirms that Tamil country of Nediyon was the leader of the whole big group of countries.
4.12.5 Critias further adorns Atlantis as `when the rest fell off from her, being compelled to stand alone, after having undergone the very extremity of danger, she defeated and triumphed over the invaders, and preserved from slavery those who were not yet subjected, and freely liberated all the others who dwelt within the limits of Heracles’.
During 16,500 B.C. the Pandias’ rule became weak and then Peruvalanadu was captured by three Nirudhar (Negroid) kings of Africa, referred to as The Muppuraadhis (the three side enemies). They ruled the Tamil land for 500 years. All Tamil Kings went to the immortal god of their race Parameswaran (the immortal god) and besought him to release them from the rule of Muppuradhi. Parameswaran sent his army headed by Agathiyar then he himself, riding upon a chariot, lead a bigger army conquered Tripuradhis at a place Thiruvadhigai and then burnt the countries of those those three African kings, Tripuradhis and started to rule his country assuming mountain range Mayendram as his capital (Chidambaranar, A., Tamil Sangangalin Varalaru, pp.13-15).
4.12.6 Finally, Critias explains how the how deluge happened and how it drowned the brave men of Atlantis.
It appears that, here Critias explains how the great civilization of the Tamils had its end due to unforeseen deluge. It is said that the great country of South Madurai faced with four deluges out of which, it managed to withstand the first three. The fourth was very fatal and has turned the ancient glory into an age of myth (A12:5:800). When South Madurai was affected the surrounding countries were submerged one by one, but for the old South Ilangai, ruled by king Ravanan spoken of in the epic Ramayanam. The South Ilangai was situated upon a great mountain surrounded by an artificial water circuit known as Ezkadal had submerged four times and the fourth time, it was fully submerged (Agathiar-12000:1:888) and probably the whole land on the Indian ocean also submerged. The South Ilangai in its submerged state was said to have seen underwater by Bogar using a diving suit made of iron sheet with tube like arrangement for breathing the atmospheric air (Bogar-7000:3:402).
Hence, Critias’ accounts of bravery and deluge quite comparable to the history of the Tamil, it is certain that Atlantis was a part of the submerged ancient land of the Tamils.
In the light of the above epistemology the following information are arrived at:
5.1 Probable location of the Atlantis civilization the sunken island on the Indian ocean known as Kumari, Navalam and Lemuria.
5.2 Probable time of the Atlantis civilization: Its origin would have taken place several thousands of years before, when countries and lands were newly setup, and rare metals were abundant, say around Thredhayugam. But, the drown of Atlantis would have happened after 16,500 when the Tamil land was submerged.
5.3 Probable civilization that could have seeded the Atlantis ideology: Would certainly be the Tamils who lived in the submerged island, Lemuria on the Indian Ocean.
Analyzing the above literary evidences, corroborate that the submerged land of the Tamils, around India, could the origin of the ancient glorious Atlantis.
Agathiyar, (reprint) (1996) Agathiyar 12000 (a) Perunool Kaviyam, Thamarai Noolagam, Chennai-26,India. (First printed from palm-leaves 1895).
Bogar (reprint) (1993) Bogar Jenanasagram-557, Thamarai Noolagam, Chennai-26, India. (First printed 1892).
Bogar (reprint) (1999) Bogar Nikandu-1200, Thamarai Noolagam, Chennai-26, India. (First printed, 1869)
Bogar, (reprint) (1960) Bogar 7000 (a) Bogamunivar Saththa Kaandam-7000 , Chennai, Parthasarathi Naidu Sons (First printed, 1888).
Chattaimuni (reprint) (1992) Chattaimuni Nikandu-1200, Chennai, Thamarai Noolagam. (First printed, 1873).
Chattaimuni (reprint) (1998) Chattaimuni Vadhakaviyam-1000, Chennai, Thamarai Noolagam (First printed, 1897).
Chidambaranaar, A, (reprint, 2004) Tamil Sangangalin Varalaru, Chennai, Amiztham Padhippagam.
Gorakkar, Gorakkar’s 7 books (Chandraregai-200, Mutharam-91, Namanasa Thiravukol-100, etc.) (1975), A.M.Dhandayuthapani Thirukkoyil Publication, Chennai-29.
Kandia,N.C., (reprint) (2002) Varalatruk Kalathuku Murpatta Tamizar, Chenni, Amizthan Padhippagam.
Kondratov, Alexander, (19??) The riddles of Three Oceans, Moscow, Progress Publishers. (internet text of section-2 alone used)
Madhivanan, R., (2001) Kadal Konda Thennadu, Chennai, Sekar Padhipagam.
Nemisharan Mital, World famous mythologies (2003), Delhi, Pustak Mahal.
Sangam literature, a set of books, published by several publishers.
Scott-Elliot,W., (19??) Lost Lemuria, ( internet version of www.sacret-text.com used).
Southworth, John Van Duyn, (1), (1954), The story of the world, New York, Pocket Books, Inc., pp xiv-xviii.
Thirumoolar, Thirumandiram-3000 (reprint 1983), Chennai, Pazaniappa Bros.
Venkatasamy, Mayilai Seeni (2001) Sangakala Varalatru Aivugal, Chennai, M.Vetriarasi.
Venkatasamy, Mayilai Seeni,Ravanan aanda Ilangai edhu?, Senthamiz Selvi, Silambu 22 (requited).