11500 years ago…
Time and time again the vessel shattered
against the fury of the “wandering stones”, and
for as many times men stubbornly restarted
weaving the thread of their everlasting wander.
Obscure Penelopes of the knowledge, stimulated
by an unequalled curiosity, they wanted
to tear open the veil that divides the cave from
the light, breaking the archaic code of prohibitions,
whilst placing themselves as the sole
part of becoming.
Not by chance, the great Florentine Poet put
on Odysseus’s lips, the hero per excellence set
against the son of Peleus whose sole feature
was strength, the immortal lines “fatti non
foste a viver come bruti, ma per seguir virtute
On one side strength, on the other the longing
for knowledge. On one side the old world of
Atlantis and of Dorian conquerors, on the
other the innovation introduced by the fullness
and dignity of the symbolic universe of Hellenics.
So there are the Pillars of Hercules… and
there is Odysseus.
There is taboo… and there is the ancient
dream of man.
For us, today, the outermost frontier is represented
by the cosmos… our ancestors found
such frontier on the dark wave next to the farthest
barrier of that which was in those times
their sensible universe: at that time, an inviolate
and inexplicable sea.
For the Greeks the first geographic and cultural
barrier is the Bosphorus. Jason and the
Argonauts succeed in violating this limit.
Then, here is Sicily and the odyssey of the first
lone navigators (2).
It is not by chance that the poet Homer (Od.,
XII, 61) talks about
And these words, this epithet, remind us
promptly of another, more recent expression:
. Same etymon, same meaning .
Finally the outermost part of Mediterranean
Sea, to the west .
At the end of the Wurmian Ice Age the eastern
part of Mediterranean was separated from the
Two huge basins whose level, compared with
today, was much different: approximately
150/200 meters lower.
The emerged lands were actually nearer to
each other, more so than today.
Moreover the eastern basin’s level (presentday
Ionian Sea) was lower than the western
A proof can be found in the bigger depth of
this sea together with the configuration of the
underwater ridge: tides and currents caused the
water to fall from the western basin to the
Such phenomenon in the middle part of Mediterranean
Sea, together with the one which
some people describe as plate sliding, but
which we prefer to ascribe to the gradual expansion
of our planet (4), brought the coasts of
Sicily and Calabria much closer, but also
caused the appearance of a wide platform in
the southern part of Sicily, exactly between it
This phenomenon ended with the melting of
the ice at the end of the Wurmian Age, and it
further redesigned the outline of the mainland.
This did not only happen here, but also in Aegean
Sea (cfr. myth of Deucalion and Pyrrha)
and even in the Black Sea (as proven by the
latest researches carried out).
All that happened approximately 11500 years
The fact that the Mediterranean area was usually
subjected to such phenomena is proved by
the recent discovery of the skeleton of a prehistoric
whale in the area between Egypt and
As stated above, in early times the Pillars of
Hercules were probably to be identified with
the “dark Symplegades”
as Euripides called them at the beginning
of his Medea. Known also as “Cianee Islands”,
they once were at the entrance of
Pontus and it was easy to crash against them.
As you can see, it is a cyclic image of that
widening horizon that from time to time redefines
itself toward larger and larger spaces.
With regard to the Canal of Sicily and the
whole area to the north and to the south of our
biggest Island, we must remember that if
northwards there are underwater volcanoes,
the biggest of which is Marsili, also southwards
there are important hotbeds of the god
Hephaestus: among them, the Island Giulia or
Ferdinandea or Graham that from time to time
makes the Canal boil, still showing a certain
vitality after that fateful 1831, between March
and August, when it almost caused an unprecedented
All that in an area going from the Aegadian
Islands to Mt. Etna, to the Aeolian Islands, to
the underwater Marsili hotbeds all the way to
Mt. Vesuvius and the area of Flegrea. It is not
by chance that here, in the vicinity of Lake
Averno, our ancestors had placed one of the
entrances to Hades.
But even in the ancient times this area was not
free from tremors (5).
In this regard, and in relation to the devastations
of nature in this geographical area, we
must add another element; a reference to lake
Pergusa whose birth, due to a tectonic collapse,
was certainly observed by the native
people of ancient Sicily.
This phenomenon happened in our geological
era, but at such a distant time that no documented
trace remains, only a myth (6).
Over centuries or millennia, the currents in the
Canal of Sicily have accumulated sandbanks
dragged by these very currents and by the
western waters whirlpool caused by the greater
depression of the Ionian basin.
The result was thus a pincers-shaped cost outline
with two almost symmetrical entrances
and a natural port inside , as Plato
says.(7). A big port.
Picture 1; variation of that reported by Vittorio Castellani
I started dealing with this phenomenon, even if
“en passant”, at the time of my university
studies in Messina; 45 years ago. And, in my
graduation thesis, I briefly described the phenomenon
in the Aegean Sea.
I am glad that I found a confirmation to this
hypothesis also in the central part of the Mediterranean
Now I do not pretend to state that Atlantis is
“here” or “there”.
On the contrary I am sure that in the absence
of converging historical – geological – archaeological
data and above all in the absence
of findings, no one can reasonably state to be
able to solve this mystery.
But I am also certain that the information
given by Plato reveals very important details
In this particular case, geological and historical-
linguistic data, as we will see, agree.
Nor can it be a legend, as someone surmises,
considering the testimonies supporting the
data included in the two Platonic Dialogues.
It would seem that Plato drew from reliable
and competent source the news about the
In fact you can read in Diogenes Laertius:
“Some people say, among them also Satirus,
that Plato wrote to Dion in Sicily asking him
to buy for one hundred minas the three Pythagorean
books by Philolaus. They said in
fact that he was well-off because he received
more than eighty talents from Dyonysius”.
Other people say that Plato would have received
these books because he managed to obtain
from the Tyrant of Syracuse the liberation
of one young follower of Philolaus (Lives of
Philosophers, VIII, 85, op.cit.).
There is also the testimony of Aulo Gellio
(Noctes Atticae, III, 17, 1-2) in which one can
“Memoriae mandatum est Platonem philosophum
tenui admodum pecunia familiari fuisse
atque eum tamen tris Philolai Pythagorici libros
decem milibus denarium mercatum. Id ei
pretium donasse quidam scripserunt amicum
eius Dionem Syracosium.”
Well, the poor Plato (10) received the three
sacred books from the just as poor Pythagorean
Filolao (who apparently sold them because
he was in need) thanks to the generosity
of his friend Dion.
And in any case, with these 3 letters the silence
on the Pythagorean school ends (11).
It is from these three books, that did not reach
us, that he probably drew many of the news
In any case, the testimony is trustworthy and
refers us to that elitist and fine culture group
the philosopher of Samos had in Croton.
It concerns the general discourse on the news
regarding the mythical island of Atlantis.
Concerning the placing of the Pillars of Hercules
in the Canal of Sicily we find a comforting
rapid passage in Strabo (Geogr., III). In fact he
“The Gaditans remember that an oracle
prophesised to the Tirii, that they should establish
a colony beyond the Pillars of Hercules”.
If we consider the hypothesis that the legend
was originally born within the Mediterranean,
Phoenician area, we can also suppose that it
alludes to the bigger among Phoenician colonies,
i.e. Carthage, whose foundation, on the
basis of the official chronology, would date to
the eighth century b.C., but that, maybe,
should be backdated (12).
We know very well that the Phoenician penetration
to the West preceded the Greek one, if
we accept what Thucydides says about Greeks
in Sicily (VI, 2, 6); when they appeared, the
Phoenicians would have left most of the island
taking refuge in the north-western part (and
Thucydides alludes to a – be careful – precolonial
In short, the colony of Carthage, near presentday
Tunis, could be “beyond the Pillars of
Hercules” only if we place them there where
we show: i.e. between Sicily and Tunisia.
All the above comments came as an afterthought.
At the beginning of my research my
attention was turned to a careful rereading of
the two Platonic dialogues; the one of Timaeus
and the one of Critias.
I dedicated the little time that various commitments,
from family to politics to literature,
left to me from October 1999 to January 2000,
to the linguistic analysis of the text. However I
am not an archaeologist and my only competence
– if I have any – is the historicallinguistic
The rest followed.
Only at a subsequent moment, in fact, and
with the support of what Plato says, I went
into that above mentioned small geological
and geographical analysis.
The great Greek philosopher (Timaeus 24e-
25abcd, Critias, 108e-109a), first in a quick
and concise way and then in a more detailed
one (in Critias), relates about Atlantis the information
that reached him from tradition and
The story seems vacuous, as the ghost of
something that does not exist anymore, but
only apparently so; taking a closer look, there
are some elements that certainly can help us
say something more and new about this vexata
Our attention, in rereading Plato, focused on
some particular glosses:
Although we did non have at our disposal a
critical edition, the analysis of such terms provided
us with important information.
Over the centuries, annotators assumed that
beyond the Pillars of Hercules actually meant
beyond the Straits of Gibraltar. We, after
having carefully reread Plato, are certain that
things are different; and we are going to explain
the reasons why.
Let’s start from Critias.
Reference is made to an era more than 9000
year before the one of the Author, and he says:
“…island of Atlantis, which, as we said, was
at that time greater in extent than Libya and
Asia, while now, sunk by earthquakes, is an
insurmountable barrier of mud that stands in
the way of those who sail from here to reach
the open sea, therefore the journey does not go
Here is the first linguistic datum on which to
And in Timaeus:
? does not mean “larger”, but
simply “more powerful, more important”. On
the other side you have only to interpret Plato
with Plato; regarding the size of the island, he
tells us that its size is 3000 stadia by 2000 stadia.
And not only this. In Timaeus he states that
“that power (
invaded the whole of
Europe and Asia”. Practically he repeats mirror
like, with another, more circumscribed
term, the same idea: the fact that the island of
Atlantis was more powerful, more equipped,
more important of all the reigns of that time.
The meaning is made clearer by that
) and by that
) refer to
the strength and the valour of Athens.
On the other hand, the Greek word
be reverted to the Sanskrit root MAG/M$G
from which also .-
meaning “to fight”,
derives and this in turn, in an agglutinated
way, must be reverted to
+ # ? which
makes it clear, had it been necessary, that
fighting is a typical and honourable activity of
man. Alexander himself was called “Great”
not for his height, obviously, but for his great
achievements. Therefore the image of an island,
which seemed huge to everybody and
which, thought time, gave birth to the most
fantastic hypothesis, should be scaled down.
Moreover there is a rather interesting datum:
“while now, sunk by earthquakes, is an insurmountable
mud…”. Already in Plato’s time, it
was still possible to notice some traces of what
happened and of what remained of that island.
This is important, and the language of the philosopher
reflects faithfully, reconstruct, testify,
describes with precision if not the exact location,
contained in ancient texts, that we lazy
modern readers refer to, at least its location in
Mediterranean, in that big quagmire where so
many people, just like frogs, look on. And he
then adds: “that stands in the way of those
who sail from here to reach the open sea
)”. It would be better to
with “in each direction”.
Here we must stress that, when talking about
the sea in the mentioned passages, Plato uses
three terms only apparently similar: one, generic,
to show the
open sea; finally
to indicate a bound
sea suitable for coastal navigation. And it is
not by chance that the first, primitive term, is
feminine and indicative of the maternal and
uterine mood; the last one, masculine, corresponding
to the behaviour of Hellene and non-
Hellene sailors, who dared defy the waters and
the uncertainties of new journeys; the second
term is neuter because it is and represents the
sign of the divinity and of the unfathomable
mystery beyond the visible horizon. Now,
when in the passage in question Plato talks
about open sea, it means that he wants to
compare the inland sea, for example the Aegean
or another inland sea, where coastal
navigation made it possible to reach every island
and any nearby land, with another, wider
and open, sea, without immediate and visible
references, which some people today ingenuously
Translating the Platonic text everybody says
“coming forth out of the Atlantic Ocean
)…”. Obviously they are wrong.
Plato never used the term “Ocean”.
It is necessary to state, in order to avoid any
misunderstanding, that the term “ocean” is our
own, and it would be wrong to read the past
according to our present cognitive and symbolic
Let us continue with the analysis of the Platonic
So, coming forth out of the Atlantic “sea” Atlantis
invaded the whole Europe and Asia. In
those days that sea was navigable (an indication
that in Plato’s time – or at the time of the
writer who told the event – it was no more),
and in front of that entrance… Here it is, finally!
Just in front of that entrance (the presumed
Pillars of Hercules) there was the island
of Atlantis. And from it, it was possible
to reach the other islands… and from
the islands to the entire opposite continent
that surrounded that true sea
Here the first distinguishing report. It is an
inland sea, but because of its depth and dangerousness
the philosopher, and the people of
those times, view it as a real sea.
And here was Atlantis. It is the first sufficiently
But does in front of that entrance mean “on
this side” or “on the other side” of such entrance?
The only possibility we have, following the
indication of the philosopher, is that the Pillar
of Hercules were noting more than the narrow
sea passage between the south-eastern cost of
Sicily and the coast of Tunisia. As we anticipated.
Hardly twenty kilometres or so; maybe
Picture 2; variation of that reported by Vittorio Castellani
Spiridon Marinatos liked to believe that Atlantis
was Santorini. But this is not borne by
Plato’s testimony, since he tells us that the
kings of the island “ruled the regions of Libya
that are on this side of the Straits as far as
Egypt, and Europe as far as Tyrrhenia ”. It
means that such Straits should be close to
Libya, in its central part; and after all, it would
have been extremely strange that people living
in an area close to Hellas would fight against
the people of Hellas.
This is the most important passage of the
whole description. But we will come back to
“In fact – it goes on – everything is included
in the limit of the entrance I talked about and
appears like a port characterised by a narrow
entrance”. This detail too is noteworthy: it is
not a simple “passage”, a strait, or, as everybody
would like, the present Strait of Gibraltar,
since in it “appears like a port ()
characterised by a narrow entrance”. Then it
goes on: “the other sea, on the contrary, you
can really call it sea and that land that completely
surrounds it can really and correctly
call it continent.”
Here it starts appearing the real location, if not
of Atlantis, at least of the Strait in question
and of the surrounding lands. The hint is clear:
we refer to the area, shown in maps 1 and 2,
situated between Sicily and Tunisia. We have
a Strait and we have a natural port; so a sea
that, even if inland, is a true sea and a land
completely surrounding it and that can be
called continent. Even better, the Pillars of
Hercules are not the closest point between
Sicily and Tunisia, but a narrow alley that
should have been at the level of the island of
Malta and that encompasses the natural port
mentioned by the philosopher.
But he does not stop here.
“In this Island of Atlantis… royal dynasty
dominating the whole island and many other
islands and parts of the continent: moreover
they ruled the regions of Libya that are on this
side of the Strait as far as Egypt, and Europe
as far as Tyrrhenia…
It ensues that, from the physical point of view
of a Greek living in the heart of Hellas, it
exists a “strait” beyond which lies Atlantis
and that the latter “dominated… the regions of
Libya that are on this side” of said strait. So
ancient Libya, and Northern Africa, extended
both sides of such strait. It is obvious that if
by Pillar of Hercules we mean present-day
Gibraltar, saying “the regions of Libya that are
on this side etc” would be tautological, excessive,
overabundant, unnecessary and superfluous;
because they are really located on this
side of Gibraltar; neither can we affirm that
Plato would allude to that part of present-day
Morocco beyond Gibraltar, since the description
is geographically well limitated: “on this
side of the Strait as far as Egypt.” So it is as if
he would have said: “in the central part as far
as Egypt”. Moreover if Atlantis was as powerful
as the philosopher rightly says and since is
was located beyond the Pillars of Hercules,
why should it have extended its rule only on
this side and not also “on the other side”?
The fact is that he want to point out the quadrants
where such rules extended upon: from
Tunisia to Egypt, and from Phoenician Europe
till Tyrrhenian; that is Atlantis had its own
sphere of influence on the present eastern
Maghre’b (obviously in order to rule the
commercial trade that in that area was very
flourishing) and then on the easternmost part
of Mediterranean Sea, and then till the areas of
Asia Minor that had not yet been colonised by
the Hellenes. They were relegated north of
Crete, in Aegean Sea, and from here till Hellespont.
But let’s come back to Critias.
Here (108e) you read: “… it was 9000 years
ago, when, as it is told, the war started among
the people living beyond the Pillars of Hercules
and those who lived on this side; now we
must describe perfectly this war”
We must stress, here, the passage “those who
lived on this side ()
) )”. Here
the Author want to point out first of all the fact
that there had been an enormous coalition of
all the people living in the eastern Mediterranean
area, above all the Hellenes, to oppose
those, who led by Atlantids, wanted to conquer
even that part of the world that was “visible”
in those times.
As to the “people living beyond the Pillars of
Hercules” it absurd to think, believe, assume
that Plato wanted to hint to other people. To
whom? Maybe to Amerindians? Why does he
not limit himself to saying “the Atlantids”, but
on the contrary he says “all the people etc,
etc.”; should such coalition against the Hellenes,
led by the inhabitants of Atlantis, include
“Americans”, Cubans, the inhabitants of
Who Knows Where, and so on? Certainly no!
This thing seems to be much too obvious to
spend more time on it.
Going further we find the description of the
island (113c fol.). We can read that the central
part of the island of Atlantis, where there was
the town of the greater of the 10 kings, first of
all had a diameter of 5 stadia, that is little less
than 1000 m (since one stadium is about
177,60 m); that around this town there were 5
defensive walls, 3 water and 2 earthwork
walls; that beyond the walls there was a plain
extending for 3000 stadia on the two sides and
200 stadia from the last wall to the sea; that
there was plenty of wildlife, and even the elephant
could be found among the animals. An
important notation, this one regarding the elephant,
since we know well that this animal (a
variant species, “dwarf” elephant) had its habitat
exactly in that latitude: in Sicily.
Then there is another geographical reference:
the most important part faced the (open) sea,
while on the other side it faced the the region
We must go on carefully.
Most people mean, to bolster the hypothesis
Pillar of Hercules = Gibraltar, “near Cadiz”.
The fact is that Plato simply says “the twin
(scil. of Atlas) who born after him, and obtained
as his lot the extremity of the Island towards
the Pillars of Hercules, facing the country
which is now called the region of Gades
) in that
part of the world, he gave the name which in
the Hellenic langauge is Eumelus (“#),
while in the language of the country which is
named after him, Gadeirus.”
In fact he does not say “near” nor “in the vicinity”;
he only says “towards”; it only means
it faced that region, that, for some reason,
must have been well known; but it leaves
aside, obviously, the notion of vicinity.
The Greek name of Gadeirus, “#., is interesting.
It (cfr. -
but in Hom.
“couleur de coing”) (15)
shows us how Hellenes called Atlas’ brother;
moreover if we analyse the etymon of the
name that apparently is not Greek, as Plato
said, that is Gadeirus (!) therefore the
name of the region of Gades, we note that it
reverts to a Greek etymon; in fact we have
(land) and /
(neck, rock, yoke, chain, necklace).
The first term is clearly Doric, and it disclose
the antiquity of the term (somewhere else we
showed as the first Dorian invasion must be
set around the 16th century b.C. (16); the second
recalls the probable configuration of the
area ruled by Gadeirus: “A strip of land” or “a
string of islands”. This might be a valid hypothesis
in order to fix the exact location of
Certainly not of Cadiz.
Then, it could be possible, in the analogy with
the Greek name Eumelus, that Gadeirus would
also mean “with earth-coloured back”. It is not
the first time in fact that the a term has a dual,
ambivalent etymon; that it contains the whole
strange magic of the word.
“A string of islands”? The fact is interesting,
even if it does not offer any another starting
points for a probable surmise. The fact is that
in the central eastern Mediterranean there are
“strings” of Islands galore; from the Dodecanese
to the Aeolians, since they are not
only “a series of Islands”, but also because
they are volcanic and
Finally, everything concurs to point to the
above-mentioned area as the only one possible
in which to identify the location of the ancient
Atlantis. That fact that men’s and writers’
imagination made this land a mysterious place
of spirit and the ultimate haven for dreams,
well, this lies obviously outside of the research
and analysis of the text.
Plato’s words are enough for us. This is not
(1) It is the canto of Dantean Ulysses, Inferno XXVI.
(2) The Greeks call Italy “Esperia” because they closed
there their representation of the world and therefore at
that longitude, more or less, they should have fixed the
extreme limit for their range of action and for their vision
of the world.
(3) In the short passage of sea separating the Island of
Lipari from the Island of Volcano, you might recognise
the two reefs, the two “planktai petrai ”. At this regard
a further specification. The expression does not mean
“wandering stones” (which we also used at the beginning
of this short essay), but simply “stones to crash
against”. Finally, the reefs do not move (in fact they
could not); it is the poetical superimposition of two
meaningful images: the one of the strong motion of the
waves and the one of the vessels crashing against such
(4) cf. S. Warren Carey, La terra in espansione, ed.
Laterza, Bari, 1986. Analysed here from a geological
point of view, we deduced the phenomenon from a particular
physical and astronomic analysis.
(5) Diodoro Siculo in the III book of his Stories (but
Matone before him) tells us about the disappearance of
the lake Tritonis invaded by the sea water of an earthquake
that destroyed the shores.
(6) Memento kept in Kore-Persephone myth, which was
kidnapped by Ades while she was picking up flowers
around Enna and who taken to ktonio reign – deaths’
reign – through a deep and dreadful chasm. This myth,
told on a number of occasions by many Greek and Latin
authors among which Callimacus, Strabo, Ovidius, Diodorus
Siculo, Cicero and above all Claudianus with its
“De Raptu Proserpinae“, in the ancient times made the
richness of the city of Enna, raising it to the standing of
sheer holy city , place of pilgrimages and of flourishing
trades and of travels of illustrious representatives of
These activities, more than being described by various
ancient authors, and above all by Cicero in his Verrine,
are testified by the very interesting remains that in these
last years, starting from post-war period with the first
surface reconnaissance led by the renowned scholar
Luigi Bernabò Brea and by the archeophyle from Enna,
baron Potenza, are coming to light in the pergusina rise
of Cozzo Matrice, from where you enjoy one of the
most beautiful sight of the whole basin and in which
people found out a small natural cavity which was used
by local people as substitute of the Plutonic entrance.
The ancient name, Pergo, calls us back to a Greek-
Anatolian origin of the term. It is testified by Gr.
and in Attic popular
from which, later, German burg / berg. It is interesting
the fact that we find it testified as
the way of the term could be: Crete (not testified yet),
Troy, Greece, and then Sicily.
(7) The Odyssey draft certainly follows closely such
scheme, from time to time adjusting the story to the expansion
of the Greeks towards more and more distant
goals. In fact Odysseus (op.cit., XII) went through, on
advice of Circe, near the eoliane cliffs turns towards
(see 127; cf.
also 429). But is it really Sicily? We have some doubts,
since it would be happened after the passage between
Scilla and Cariddi. If Scilla and Cariddi would really
represent the edge of the Calabrian and Messinisan
coast, Homer would not express himself like that: in this
case Odysseus would have already reached Sicily. On
the other side
could not be there, in the place
which many people identify like the natural port of
Messina (a sickle, from which the ancient name of Zancle).
And then there were not even that big river,
(v.305) that the Poet talks to.
(8) V. Castellani, Quando il mare sommerse l’Europa,
ed. Ananke, Torino, 1999.
(9) My friend Prof. Emilio Spedicato kindly informed
me at this regard.
(10) Here “poor” literally, if we want to believe Isocrates
who says about the intellectuals lived in great
poverty in the democratic Athens that was very lavish
towards athletes. Just like today. Nothing seems to be
changed in the habits of politicians.
(11) Fr. 14 A 17 DK (Giamblico, Vita pitagorica, 199).
See also Diogene Laerzio, VIII, 84-85 (cf. I Presocratici,
Laterza, Bari, 19904, page. 130).
(12) It is maybe a simple surmise, born from the great
love for the Latin poet Virgil, who makes Carthage
build during Enea’s wandering (another aetiographic
myth) after Troy’s fall.
(13) Plato, Timaeus and Critias, edited by Enrico V.
Maltese, Newton C. ed., Roma, 1997.
(14) But there is another linguistic datum that supports
such reading. The term Atlantis comes from Greek, obviously,
and in detail from Ö -
means “to fight, to compete”; therefore the term Atlantis
identifies a nation of warriors and / or of people able to
perform impressive exploits. And, I presume, not only
war, considering the description of the city Atlantis
made by Plato.
(15) P. Chantraine, La formation des noms en grec ancien
(16) R. Vieni, La lingua dei Micenei, Cz, 1990.
Among the ancient sources: Homer, Hesiod, Euripides,
Teopompo, Diodoro Siculo, Plutarch, Strabo, Pliny,
Dionigi from Mitilene, Pomponio Mela, Marcellus,
Arnobius, Macrobius, Elianus, Claudiano.
Arecchi, A. (2001). Atlantis. Un mondo scomparso:
un’ipotesi per ritrovarlo, Ed. Liutprand, Pavia.
Benoit, P. (1919). Atlantis.
Castellani, V. (1999). Quando il mare sommerse
Cook, Melvin (1993). Sulla formazione dell’Oceano
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