Atlantis in the Black Sea
We are presenting the theory that Atlantis was a late stone age (Neolithic or Chalcolithic) settlement in today’s northwest of the Black Sea. It was drowned 5510 BC when the ocean flooded the freshwater lake that existed before the Black Sea.
We published this theory in our book that was issued June 2004. This excerpt is meant to give an overview; however, it cannot cover all parts in detail.
In 1997 American Marine-Geologists Walter Pitman and William Ryan published the scientific evidence, that today’s Black Sea used to be a freshwater-lake. Its shoreline then was approximately 350 feet below today’s level of the global ocean. By dating fresh- and saltwater shells with the C14 method they discovered that the salinity of the lake changed rapidly from fresh to salty around 5500 BC. They call this “Noah’s Flood” and we are convinced that this interpretation is true.
The reason for this change is the increase of the level of the global ocean since the end of the last ice age, which peaked 20.000 BC. At that time the level was 350 feet lower than today. Even 5500 BC when the flood happened, the level was still 45 feet lower. Due to the steady increase at some point in time the former land connection between Europe and Asia at today’s Bosporus (at the city of Istanbul) had to break and release the salt water of the Mediterranen/Marmara Sea into the Black Sea basin with its lower shoreline.
In 2001 American explorer Robert Ballard searched the former shoreline off the coast of Turkey and indeed found evidence of human settlements.
From 1999 to 2003 the theory presented by Pitman/Ryan was challenged severely by a group of international scientists. However, in 2004 Bulgarian Marine-Geologists Petko Dimitrov and Dimitar Dimitrov published the result of their studies under the Black Sea Research Program “Noah”: They are convinced that the flood, a “geocatastrophic event” actually happened and that the dates collected by Pitman/Ryan are correctly dated. This conclusion is based on the examination of sediments rather than mollusks.
In addition, on an earlier expedition with a submarine at the former shoreline they found what will probably be recorded in human history as “Noah’s plate”: An object made from sandstone with early letters on it. Currently, scientists are very reluctant to accept this finding. Nevertheless, leading scientists have dated the plate as being Neolithic and also reviewed the signs that seem to be in line with Old European Writing starting around 5500 BC on the Balkan Peninsula.
… before the Flood
The official opinion is that first settlers (7000 BC) sailed from Turkey through the Aegean Sea to Greece (Sesklo Culture; 6400 BC) and moved from there to Thracia (Karanovo Culture; today Turkey/Bulgaria), to the middle Danube region (Starcevo-Koeroes-Cris Culture 6200 BC, over the Balkan Mountains) and to the Dnjepr region (also 6200 BC, over the South and North Carpathian Mountains).
Spread of Agriculture from Anatolia to Europe – conservative Model
Obviously, this official doctrine has to be reviewed under the new evidence. Even for the late Bronze Age Greece it was an adventure to cross the Aegean Sea. Settlements obviously used to spread out alongside waters but not over mountains. Under the new evidence the settlers moved primarily to the north along the coast of the freshwater lake (today’s Black Sea): In the great basin in the northwest they found favorable climatic condition, loess soils and lots of rivers. Here is the center of early Neolithic cultures, others call it “Civilization X”, we call it Atlantis.
The Neolithic development in Europe started from here around 6500 BC and moved up the rivers of Danube and Dnepr. This culture was drowned with Noah’s Flood 5500 BC and we are convinced that this culture also created the Atlantis saga.
… after the Flood
After such a geocatstrophic event – what would have to be expected? A waive of migration in all directions!
In Europe, the Neolithic Culture dwelled on the Balkans for almost 1000 years. The year 5500 BC is the year of the Neolithic Diaspora in Europe: Linear Band Ceramics, a culture known through certain ornaments on their ceramics, spread through Europe within centuries, reaching Switzerland no later than 5300 BC and covering the area from the Paris Basin to the Ural Mountains before 5000 BC. In today’s Serbia and Romania, the Vinca-Culture establishes 5500 BC. This culture is even more developed and already had a complex system of writing.
Neolithic Diaspora or a Wave of Refugees (3) 5500 BC?
For Egypt, the first Neolithic settlements start at 5500 BC, according to newest evidence. However, here we are confronted with a problem: From 5500 BC to 3000 BC the level of the World Ocean rises another 45 feet. Early cities in the Delta of the river Nile have to be expected well below the surface and well within ground waters. This is the reason why the Egyptian Culture seems to rise from virtually out of nothing around 3500-3000 BC: Only the traces at the very rim, in the desert and in oases, have been found. The cities are buried under today’s Delta. We are convinced that American Geologist Robert Schoch is absolutely right to date the Sphinx no later than 5000 BC.
Mesopotamia: The fist settlements here have been proven to start at 5000 BC. This gap of 500 years can very well be explained. First of all, the story of the Tower of Babel gives us a hint: Before settling in Mesopotamia, refugees built a city in Eastern Anatolia; Mesopotamia was not really a good place to live: Natural resources are scarce and artificial irrigation has to be developed in order to be able to cope with unsteady waters. On the other hand: The Gulf of Persia used to be a real paradise at that time – before it was drowned by the water of the Indian Sea through the Strait of Hormuz and buried by the sediments of the rivers Euphrat and Tigris…
Overall, it is well known that the Indo-European Language was first developed in the region of the Black Sea. Scientists are fighting whether in the North, the South or the West – and they are not sure when exactly this language spread over the whole area from Western Europe to India. We are convinced that this language was spread over a wide region with the Great Flood that destroyed Atlantis, the prosperous Neolithic Center in today’s Black Sea. Indeed, review of genetic code confirms that the centre of a big waive of migrations is located around (exactly: in!) the Black Sea.
Indoeuropean Language (red)
THE TREASURE OF VARNA
The by far largest and oldest gold treasure has been found in a cemetery in Varna (Bulgaria) at the Black Sea coast. This gold has been buried in several graves in the 5th Millennia BC. However, so far no one knows how old this gold was when it was buried. For the larger part it is not even known where the metal comes from.
At the time of the funerals the horse was partly domesticated. The horse was a very prestigious animal then. Nevertheless, none of the objects found shows a horse, although animals are common under these findings. Even more, one of the burials contained a horse-relief in the form of a stone scepter. Consequently, it can not be argued that the horse did not play a role in this culture at that time.
We suppose that this gold has been brought by the refugees of Atlantis to this area. The idea of how to produce these artifacts was lost over time. This is the reason why the source of the metal is partly unknown, why the horse is missing and why it was not possible to find the production sites.
Gold Treasure of Varna (5th Millennia BC)
This section could very well be put together with the spread of language and the findings in the genetic code, since its spread basically follows the same rules and logic. However, the obvious evidence in this area is widely ignored, while much attention and acceptance is given to speech and genetics. In principal, the spread of writing is indispensably linked directly to speech and genetics.
When the first letters were found in the Balkan region, scientists assumed they were originally brought over by colonists from Babylon. There was compelling evidence that the writing systems were similar: As a matter of fact, many of the letters seemed to be identical.
Later it was found that the Old European Writing had to be dated no later than 5500 BC, which made it 2000 years older than the first signs in Mesopotamia. Since then, archaeology chose to completely ignore this fact, which radically contradicted the well settled doctrine. Especially thanks to American scientist Marija Gimbutas and German scientist Harald Haarmann, the existence of such an early writing system in Europe is known and widely accepted.
Old European Writing (Vinca Script) starting 5500 BC
For three reasons early writing in Europe is important:
First of all, it helps to answer the question “When did Atlantis exist?” We are convinced that the destruction of Atlantis happened before 3000 BC: The Egyptians had a writing and a comprehensive dating system since around that date. Had Atlantis submerged after that date, the Egyptian Priest would have been able to say exactly when and exactly where. But Sonchis clearly sets the event long before the first dynasty of pharaohs. On the other hand, such a story with all its details cannot be transported over time without a writing system. Atlantis existed before 3000 BC; it had to exist not much earlier than the earliest writing system on the other hand. Consequently, we receive a time frame for the existence of Atlantis: 6000-3000 BC.
Secondly, the following question can be answered: “How could the saga of Atlantis be transported so far over time?” The answer is: The first refugees to Egypt already had a writing system. As a matter of fact, the Egyptian Priest was citing a primary source. This is why the saga is – as we will provide later in our catalogue – correct in so many details. Just recently German Archaeologist Guenther Dreyer re-dated the first Egyptian writing: He found that already 3400 BC a complete set of phonetic writing existed, making Egyptian Writing older than the Writing of Sumer. This had to be expected and we expect a further shift of this timeline. Unfortunately, the oldest and most abundant findings are covered by water and sediments in the Delta of the Nile.
Finally, early writing helps to answer the question “Where did Atlantis exist?” It is explicitly stated that Atlantis used to have a writing system. This also has to be expected from the level of development, especially of trade, as it has been described. Now, when the first known writing can be found at the middle Danube region, it is to assume that it was brought by refugees from Atlantis, the Neolithic center in the Black Sea, upwards on their way through Europe.
Overall, archaeologists are mistaken when they assume trade and exchange between cultures based on similar signs and writings. As a matter of fact, there is a common source in the same way as in speech or genetics.
In general, people tend to put together a list of criteria, check whether they are fulfilled and come to the conclusion that Atlantis is where they assumed it to be. On the other hand, a catalogue is a good mean to give a brief overview. Here is our interpretation in short:
Dark blue: world ocean, early freshwater lake
Light blue: area flooded 5510 BC
Red dotted line: area controlled by Atlantis
“Schlangeninsel” red dot: possible location of island/capital Atlantis
The Atlantic Sea means the Black Sea: This Sea used to be in-navigable due to methane and hydrosulfide gas resulting from the biological death of the sea as a consequence of inflowing saltwater into the freshwater lake. Rising gas bubbles lead a ship to immediately sink because the relative density of water with bubbles rapidly deteriorates. The methane gas is stored within the sediments at the bottom of the sea. The early Greece still called the sea “inhospitable sea”.
The Atlantic Ocean itself received its name from a misled location of Atlantis; consequently, this name does not give a clue to the location. The Greek word for sea, pontos, alone means the Black Sea. In the same way the Indo-European word for sea, mare (Latin), morje (Russian), meer (German), meru (Indian) originally means the Black Sea. Finally, if one takes a look at the global map of any culture in this region, Indian, Egypt, even antique Greece, the Black Sea is always in the middle (example1 example2 example3)!
World of Herodot 450 BC
The area is the basin in the northwest of the Black Sea. The area from Danube River to Don River and from Dneporopetrowsk to the former shoreline coincides with the size mentioned in the saga. As described, the area is slightly sloped towards the Black Sea rim.
The mountains in the north with their rich settlements mean the Carpathian Mountains with the archaeologically proven settlements of Starcevo-Koeroes-Cris. Wood, salt, gold, silver, probably copper and certainly obsidian (see below) were transported towards Atlantis via the Alt and Danube rivers. The location in the northwest coincides with the steady wind out of northwest.
It is supposed that Atlantis was an island. This is partly correct, partly not: The absolute center actually was an island with channels/rivers on all sides. The whole area was not an island. From the context it is clear that the word island is used in two different meanings: To describe the island in the middle of the capital and the country Atlantis itself. Swiss archaeologist Eberhard Zangger found out, that the Egypt Hieroglyph means both: Island and foreign country on distant coast.
The saga states that the “island” Atlantis was surrounded by land. Solon and Plato definitely had no idea that today’s Atlantic Ocean is (partly!) surrounded by land. As a matter of fact, the belief in Egypt and Greece at that time was that the Black Sea represents the middle of the world and that today’s Atlantic Ocean was part of the ocean surrounding the land.
Further, the kingdom of Eumelos/Gadeiros still existed at Solon’s time. Gadeiros was part of the island of Atlantis. Simple logic commands that if Gadeiros was part of an island and this island was drowned completely Gadeiros could not exist any more. Therefore we prefer the interpretation “foreign county on distant coast” over “island”.
Pillars of Hercules
The Pillars of Hercules are identical with the Strait of Bosporus. As a matter of fact, the primary source did not say anything about the Strait of Gibraltar. First of all, the Pillars of Hercules are probably misinterpreted by the Egyptian Priest. We suppose that the primary source tells something about a strait in the west.
Further, the Strait of Gibraltar received the name later through re-interpretation. In the beginning, the Strait of Bosporus was identified with this name. Later, around 2000 BC the antique Greece culture moved towards its today location from their area north of the Black Sea. Whereas the original Pillars of Hercules used to be in the west (from the earlier location), they were now lying in the east (from today’s location). Consequently, the name was given to the new strait in the west, Gibraltar. In the same way the name Hesperia (West) moved from the Carpatian Mountains (Atlantis-time) over Italy to Spain with the expansion of Greece’s horizon.
Hero Hercules/Herakles is believed to dig the channel before putting up the pillars. This interpretation is not very fitting for the big strait at Gibraltar but for the 20 miles long and 1 mile wide channel from the Mediterrainan Sea/Marmara Sea to the Black Sea.
The mis-interpretation is also due to the fact that Herakles visited Iberia. Later, when the saga was interpreted by the Greece and Romans, Iberia meant Spain. Earlier, Iberia was a country at the eastern coast of the Black Sea!
By the way, as discussed above, at that time no one would have been allowed to believe that there could be a landmass surrounding the Atlantic Ocean, even in the 15th Century this was still not known.
Picture with courtesy of www.atlantis-motherland.com. We share the idea of Atlantis in the Black Sea and partly came to the same conclusions. Best wishes to Flying Eagle & Whispering Wind in Hawaii J Nice graphics!
The Bosporus – Pillars of Hercules and the Channel made by Hercules
War on Greece and Egypt
The Atlantis saga very clearly and explicitly refers to Egyptian and Greece ancestors in Anatolia. There is strong evidence that both, Greece and Egyptians partly migrated from there to today’s location. This makes the war on Greece and Egypt a war of Europe against Asia or North-Black Sea against South-Black Sea. It appears to be logic, that the war was about substantial Obsidian (Oreichalcos, see below) mining facilities on Milos (Tyrhenia) and Anatolia.
Noah’s Flood as described by Pitman/Ryan lets Atlantis disappear in the Black Sea. Today it is not possible to determine, whether an earthquake caused the land barrier to break. Nevertheless, the Marmara region is known for its frequent and heavy earthquakes.
Economy and Trade
As we found out, Oreichalcos means the obsidian stone. This stone was used intensively until 5500 as trading good/early money from Mesopotamia and Palestine over Greece, Italy as far as central Europe. In Europe its money function was replaced by the spondylus shell beginning 5500 BC. This is the reason why the priest Sonchis only knew the name Oreichalcos without a hint or an idea of its real meaning; he had no idea that such a stone used to be cash. The purpose on the other hand determined its value to be second after gold: It reflected the amount of trade and the economic power. The flood virtually led to the first hyperinflation of mankind and the previous role of this precious stone was forgotten. Obsidian was found in the Carpathian Mountains (Atlants-Gadeiros), on Milos (Tyrrhenia, occupied later) and a very big source in central Anatolia (Asia). We assume that this was the driving factor behind the war against Europe (Tyrrhenia) and Asia (Anatolia).
Obsidian Stone – Stone Age Money
Rivers/Channels/Irrigation/Two crops: This is self-explainig in view of the rivers flowing through this area/basin. Irrigation (first use proven for Jericho, 7000 BC) allowed a second crop.
The population must have been relatively large (for Stone Age settlements). Steady growth through (i) good situation with respect to nutrition and (ii) steady inflow from migrations. The spread/Diaspora after the flood shows that many people must have lived here. Overcrowding was compensated by migrations upwards the main European rivers, establishing five new “river-kingdoms”.
Trade: Atlantis was lying at the estuary of the big European rivers. Obviously there also was a loose connection to India/China because the route was not yet dried out. The use of pigs and lake dwellings was imported from there.
Circular Structure: The circular structure inspired the refugees; the first known circular structures in Europe date back as far as 5000 BC. Further, these were used as sun observatories; it was Atlas, the first King of Atlantis, who first discovered the secret of the sphere. Also, the idea of the labyrinth can be traced back to Atlantis.
Reconstruction of Goseck (5000 BC), one of 200 circular structures in Europe,
Reconstruction of Atlantis, the Greek Enemy Atlantis as the Minotaur?
Elephants existed in the plain/basin of Atlantis. Due to the fact that the route from India to Europe was not yet arid, Indian Elephants lived in this area. The last elephants in the region were eliminated not earlier 800 BC. Pharao Thutmosis III as a hunter killed 120 elephants there in 1200 BC.
Iapetos: According to Plato, Poseidon is the father of Atlas. We believe that the conservative view is valid, where the titan Iapetos is the father of Atlas. This change/break has been introduced by Plato intentionally: Iapetos was the grandfather of both, Deukalion and Pyrrha, who survived “Noah’s Flood” in Greek Mythology. As a matter of fact, the Greek Mythology has been brought to Greece 2000 BC by migrants from the area north of the Black Sea. Consequently, the Greek culture as we know it with God Zeus is identical with the descendants of Atlantis. With Iapetos, Plato would have highlighted a basic problem of Greek culture, never ending war between the Greece clans.
Further, the four sons of Iapetos are identical with three other kings of Atlantis, and together they build the core of this culture:
- Atlas = Atlas (punished to carry the sphere)
- Prometheus = Ampheres (chained to the Caucasus)
- Epimetheus = Euaimon (married Pandora)
- Menoitios = Mneseus (thrown into Tartaros)
With the drowning center of Atlantis these kings (Titans) were punished by the new God Zeus, the first of the now rising Olympic generation Gods. The remaining provinces separated themselves from the old center, the rotten kingdom that was punished by the gods.
Further, the King Eumelos/Gadeiros is identical with Greece’s Hesperos.
Iapetos is believed to be identical with the Jafetits of the Bible. They are represented by the third son of Noah, Jafet.
As far as the sequence of mentioning of the kings is concerned, please note, that the sequence follows a certain logic: Atlas (1) in the center, Eumelos/Gadeiros (2) as a very strong region (partly autonomous?) in the outer west, three kings (3-5) around the center (Capital) and five kings (6-10) each representing one of the five main rivers in the area. As far as the last kings are concerned: 6. = outer west 7. outer east 8-10. from west to east
Atlas lived in the Capital, maybe on Snake Island off the coast of Romania, more probably in the early mega-delta of Dnepr, Bug and Djestr.
- Eumelos, Gadeiros: According to the Atlantis saga this region still existed at the time where Solon laid down the saga the first time. We are convinced that this means the people of Getae, who lived in the region of today’s Romania/Bulgaria.
- Ampheres, Euaimon, Mneseus: Obviously, no direct reference can be made, since these regions around the center island were drowned.
- Autochthon refers to the Danube River. The translation means native inhabitants.
- Elasippos means horse of war; refers to their first domestication: Don River
- Mestor = Dnestr River (similarity in sound)
- Azaes = Bug River, Azaes means “the small one”
- Diaprepes = Dnepr River (similarity in sound)
Later Additions/Placement in Time
The following items cannot be found in our Atlantis as we understand it. Since they all refer to the military and belief order which was explained by Plato very elaborate, we assume that these items were invented by Plato. Plato was forced to modernize Atlantis to show it as a state-of-the-art enemy.
- Triere (ship with three decks, not yet invented)
- Horse (according to archaeology not yet domesticated)
- Chariot (not yet known, however status symbol in Greece)
- Dolphins (Black Sea was a freshwater-lake)
- Iron (Iron time begins around 800 BC)
Many people think that these facts imply that Atlantis has to be placed in the Bronze Age around 1200 BC. First of all, even this proves to be incorrect, since the ships described as well as iron refer to the Iron Time starting around 800 BC, in any event not earlier than 1000 BC.
Egypt had a very elaborate system of time calculation based on the Pharao’s years in power that is still known today going back as far as 3000 BC. When the priest locates Atlantis at 8000 years before X, this cannot be taken literally. It has to be interpreted as “long before the beginning of our time calculation”.
Further, the saga explicitly refers to antecedents of the peoples of Athens and Sais in Asia Minor!
Atlantis is supposed to have conquered Tyrrhenia. Thyrrhenia describes a location and a time frame: In the first place, this name describes today’s location of Greece. Secondly, it says: “At the time before 1950 BC”. Before the Greek culture was installed in Greece as we know it today, there was a native population that was called “Tyrrhenians” be the following peoples from the north.
As a matter of fact, Egypt has never been conquered between 3000 BC and Plato’s time. On the contrary: Ramses III was able to defeat the Pirates from the Sea without the help of Greece, while Greece itself got under their control for 50 years. The priest would never have conceded to Solon that Greece saved the dynastic Egypt.
Finally, the saga very exactly describes an ecological an climate shift that resulted from agriculture, the domestication of animals, cooking and metal-mining. These techniques destroyed woods and led to erosion of the land. The comparison taken requires a very old snapshot of the surrounding, because the changes certainly could not be realized in one lifetime (then around 30 years on average).
This leads us to the conclusion that the saga plays long before 3000 BC. The Bronze and Iron Age aspects have been added later.
Hamburg/Frankfurt, August 12, 2004
(Last update February 12, 2005)
March 12, 2005: Moving in on Atlantis