An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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May 14, 2011

The Original Name of Atlantis (Ispalis and Tartessos). Linguistic Reconstruction

Georgeos Díaz-Montexano – AtlantisRising.com, 2004

(The table corresponds to the original version published in English by the author)



AtlantisRising.com researcher Jonas Bergman defends the old “Atlantis in Morocco” theory. His main arguments include geographic comparisons and names. Jonas Bergman hypothesizes that the Semitic word (in this case Hebrew) Salah or Shelah, is the same word that Solon translated Atlas and Atlantis into Greek. According to Bergman, these words mean “to bear, to lift up, to weigh, to balance.” Bergman attempts by this to relate the ancient Phoenician city of Sala to the city of Atlantis itself. However, as we will see after the four meanings that Bergman exposes, only the last two are correct. And these do not appear among the meanings of the Greek word Atlas. What do the dictionaries say about it? Let’s see the proofs: Shelah (Sheh’-lakh) = “sprout”. Proper Name Male. An son of Arphaxad and father of Eber. (The KJV Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon) While Shalah = “happy”, “prosper”, “safety”; “decline”; “away”; “amiss”. Other related words are Shalat, “dominion”, “power”, “rule”, “ruleth”, and Shelet, “shields”. In Hebrew Shalat: a primitive root; to dominate, ie govern; by implication, to permit: – (to bear, have) rule, have dominion, give (have) power. These definitions do not fit with that of a word that would serve the same way to “suffer,” “to bear,” and “to suffer punishment,” as to “bear a burden or weight,” as the Greek word Atlas was. Shalat cannot be translated by the Greek Atlas by no means,and even less exist in the Semitic languages ??other words truly equivalent to the Greek Atlas. The Greek Atlas could be a translation of the Semitic Sbl (S’b’l) that is used with these same meanings. In the Hebrew and Greek dictionary, Shlet (shel-ate ‘) is said to be an Aramaic voice that corresponds to’ shalat ‘: – have the mastery, have power, bear rule, be (make) ruler. That is, nothing to do with the translation of the Greek word Atlas. As can be seen, the researcher Jonas Bergman is not going to achieve anything serious or important, regarding Atlantis in Morocco, using the hypothesis of the word Salah or Shelah as the supposed original name of Atlantis.In the Hebrew and Greek dictionary, Shlet (shel-ate ‘) is said to be an Aramaic voice that corresponds to’ shalat ‘: – have the mastery, have power, bear rule, be (make) ruler. That is, nothing to do with the translation of the Greek word Atlas. As can be seen, the researcher Jonas Bergman is not going to achieve anything serious or important, regarding Atlantis in Morocco, using the hypothesis of the word Salah or Shelah as the supposed original name of Atlantis.In the Hebrew and Greek dictionary, Shlet (shel-ate ‘) is said to be an Aramaic voice that corresponds to’ shalat ‘: – have the mastery, have power, bear rule, be (make) ruler. That is, nothing to do with the translation of the Greek word Atlas. As can be seen, the researcher Jonas Bergman is not going to achieve anything serious or important, regarding Atlantis in Morocco, using the hypothesis of the word Salah or Shelah as the supposed original name of Atlantis.using the hypothesis of the word Salah or Shelah as the supposed original name of Atlantis.using the hypothesis of the word Salah or Shelah as the supposed original name of Atlantis.

On the other hand, it should not be forgotten that Sala’s name is registered as a Roman or Latin name, not as a Phoenician. In Latin, Sala would be simply “the Salada (city)” or “the Salada sea”; from Latin Sal, “salt”, “the salt water”, “brine”, “sea”. From this same root we have in the southwest of Iberia, between Andalusia and Portugal, the ancient city of Salacia, whose symbols were precisely the god Poseidon and attributes of this deity. The city of Sala, in Morocco, would then be the “Salt City”. On the western coasts of Morocco everything is filled with salt. Any inhabitant of the place can testify to how salt is everywhere. Anyway,as there is no Greek or Roman quotation that affirms that Sala’s name was Phoenician or indigenous, since we can only accept as more serious and rigorous the hypothesis that Sala is the name that the Romans gave to that city. Its original name at the arrival of the first Romans would be another that has not survived the passage of Roman colonization and time. On the other hand, in no Libyan-Berber dialect does Sala mean anything similar to the meanings of the Greek word Atlas. If Jonas Berman knows of a convincing example, then he should not delay in showing that example in order to enlighten all readers and scholars.Its original name at the arrival of the first Romans would be another that has not survived the passage of Roman colonization and time. On the other hand, in no Libyan-Berber dialect does Sala mean anything similar to the meanings of the Greek word Atlas. If Jonas Berman knows of a convincing example, then he should not delay in showing that example in order to enlighten all readers and scholars.Its original name at the arrival of the first Romans would be another that has not survived the passage of Roman colonization and time. On the other hand, in no Libyan-Berber dialect does Sala mean anything similar to the meanings of the Greek word Atlas. If Jonas Berman knows of a convincing example, then he should not delay in showing that example in order to enlighten all readers and scholars.

I can’t understand from which dictionary Jonas Bergman got that Salah and Shelah mean “to bear, to lift up.” Actually SL ‘(pronounced saw-law’ http://club.telepolis.com/gadeiros/sonidos/saw- law_jonas.mp3 ) means “comparable” and comes from a primitive root: “to suspend in a balance”, ie “weigh”: – “compare”. S’l’h (Salah) is also “down”, “foot “,” valued “. A primitive root; to hang up, ie weigh, or (figuratively) contemn: – tread down (under foot), value. S’l’h (Selah): from ‘Salah’; suspension ( of music), ie pause: – Selah. Sl ‘(Sela’, pronounced seh’-lah http://club.telepolis.com/gadeiros/sonidos/sehlah.mp3) “hold”, “rock”, “stones”: from an unused root meaning to be lofty; a craggy rock, literally or figuratively (a fortress): – (ragged) rock, stone (-ny), strong hold.

These definitions -both of “Shelah” and of “Salah” -, analyzed from the Aramaic and Hebrew Semitic languages, do not fit with that of a word that would serve the same way to “suffer”, “endure” and “undergo” punishment, which to “bear a load or weight”, like the Greek word Atlas. Shelah ni Salah can be translated by the Greek name Atlas in any way. The Greek name Atlas could only have been translated from an Egyptian word that would have translated into a word like the Semitic S’b’l, whose root Sbl,it was used with the same shared meanings as the Greek word Atlas.

As anyone can see for himself, the researcher Jonas Bergman is not going to achieve anything serious or important – regarding Atlantis – going to the erroneous hypothesis of Salah or Shela of Morocco as the name from which the name of Atlantis would supposedly originate. Jonas Bergman should go looking for another story to tell, because this tale of Shela / Salah = Atlantis, it is already over. I say this with all due respect and with a healthy tone of humor. Now it is his turn to another word, to another more objective and real hypothesis: S’b’l (S’baelya) = S’bilia; Latin Sebilla = Seville. The most important city in the Southwest of Spain, and that the ancient sources of Spanish and Arab historians said that it was the oldest city in Iberia, the first city founded.

Seville is on the Guadalquivir river, and in ancient times the boats came to the city itself, due to the wide and navigable channel of the Baetis river. It is very possible that when the primitive city of Sebilya was submerged, that is, the sacred acropolis that Solon translates as Atlantis, which was only about 9 kilometers from the coast (of those times), the survivors moved their capital to a point further from the coast, but just as far as ships could go to continue their expeditions and maritime trade. The heart of the Tartessian kingdom is located today, precisely, near Seville. The most famous Tartessian treasure was discovered in “el Carambolo”, Seville. The Romans themselves called Seville “Italica” and “Roma” in their oldest coins,thus being the only city in the entire Roman Empire that they called with those names. Why would the Romans give the names of their country “Italica” and “Rome”, to a city in Iberia? The answer could only be because the Romans knew from the Ibero-Tartessian indigenous people that this city was – as medieval historians still claimed – the oldest and most important city in all of western Europe, the capital of Iberia or Hispania. The Arabs still called Italica with a way that recalled its original name, “Ysbiliya” (pronounced “Isbililla”:to a city in Iberia? The answer could only be because the Romans knew from the Ibero-Tartessian indigenous people that this city was – as medieval historians still claimed – the oldest and most important city in all of western Europe, the capital of Iberia or Hispania. The Arabs still called Italica with a way that recalled its original name, “Ysbiliya” (pronounced “Isbililla”:to a city in Iberia? The answer could only be because the Romans knew from the Ibero-Tartessian indigenous people that this city was – as medieval historians still claimed – the oldest and most important city in all of western Europe, the capital of Iberia or Hispania. The Arabs still called Italica with a way that recalled its original name, “Ysbiliya” (pronounced “Isbililla”: http://club.telepolis.com/gadeiros/sonidos/ysbiliya.mp3), since the Phoenician or Semitic form would be “Y-Sbail-ya”, “the Island of S’bal or S’pal”, that is, “the island of the one who Supports, Supports or Endures (a weight)”. According to Spanish historians and philologists of this Arabic form, “Ysbiliya”, derived the current name of Seville. While the Romans also called “Italica” with the name of “Hispal” or “Ispal” (according to the sources); undoubtedly a variant of the same original name from which the Arabic derived, “Ysbilya” or “Isbiliya”. The Arabs transmitted a form closer to the original Phoenician or Ibero-Tartessian, because the Arabs speak a Semitic language, a relative of the ancient Phoenician, so it was easier for the Hispanic settlers to understand the original name of “Y-S ‘bil-ya “(Is’bililla);while the Romans spoke an Indo-European language, Latin, whose phonetic structure is completely different from the Semitic languages. For that reason the Romans transcribed “Ispali-s”, instead of “Isbali-ya” or “Ispali-ya”, in the same way that the Arabs wrote “Ysban” and “ebhrikiya”, where the Romans wrote “Hispan” / “Ispan” and Aphrica (Africa).

My theory is that the original name of Atlantis could be * Y-Sbail-ya from the Semitic root sbl (s’bael / s’bail) from which the forms “AaSB’eL”, “SaB, eL”, “are derived. SB’eL “,” SB, aL “, and” SeB, iLaT “. All of them with the meanings of “suffer”, “to bear”, “to support”, “to endure”, “hold”; exactly the same meanings of the Greek word Atlas and its derivative Atlantis. It is curious, but in Spain there is still the Semitic surname Bi-Sbal, which in Semitic would be “son of Sbal”, or “son of what,” to Bear “,” to Hold “or” to Suffer “. in the Aramaic language. [[“Aramaic is the ancient language of the Semitic family group, which includes the Assyrians, Babylonians, Chaldeans,Arameans, Hebrews, and Arabs. In fact, a large part of the Hebrew and Arabic languages ??is borrowed from Aramaic, including the Alphabet. “See http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/aramaic_language.html ]] Therefore, to reconstruct ancient words of possible Phoenician origin it is highly recommended to be guided by the Aramaic lexicon, not just the Hebrew.

Let’s look at the meanings of the stem SBL in Semitic languages; especially in Aramaic and Hebrew:

Sbl: “to suffer”, “to support”, “to carry”, “porter”. (Syr. Christian, Palestinian and Aramaic dialects )
Sbl: “to carry”, “endure”. (Christian, Palestinian and Aramaic
dialects ) S’b’l: a primitive root; to carry (literally or figuratively), or (reflexively) be burdensome; specifically, to be gravid: – bear, be a burden, carry, strong to labor. (Hebrew)
Sb’l: from (S’b’l); a load (literally or figuratively):- burden, charge. (Hebrew)
Sb’l (Aramaic word): corresponding to S’b’l; to erect: – strongly laid. (Hebrew)
Sbl (Aramaic word): “to suffer”, “bear”, “to support”. (Babylonian and Talmudic
dialects ) Sbl: “to carry”, “endure”. (Christian, Palestinian and Aramaic
dialects ) Sbb’l: from S’b’l; a porter: – (to bear, bearer of) burden (-s). (Hebrew)
Sb’lh: from Sb’l; porterage: – burden. (Hebrew)

Atlas also meant one who “suffers, endures, or experiences difficulties.” As it turns out, the ancient Semitic form Sbr (SaYB’aR http://club.telepolis.com/gadeiros/sonidos/SaYBaR.mp3 ) is also known . Thus an old Semitic form like “Y-Saybar-ya”(which would be pronounced roughly like “YSeYBeRya” http://club.telepolis.com/gadeiros/sonidos/ysaybarya.mp3) and that it would mean “the land of the Sufferer (a burden, weight, or punishment)”, could with the passage of time -and after several conquests and colonizations of foreign peoples of Indo-European origin, such as the Greeks, Celts and Romans- transform in the sound variant, “Ysbirya”, which some Indo-European peoples such as the Greeks would understand as Ibêr or Ibêria, without the s (which in Greek would be pronounced as “ibêr” and “ibêria” http://club.telepolis.com/gadeiros /sounds/eebeeria.mp3), and other peoples such as the Carthaginians would understand it as “Y-Sbail-ya”, due to confusion with the other Semitic root of similar meaning Sbl (Sbal / Sbel / Sbail). Later the Romans would understand this Carthaginian variant of * Y-Sbail-ya or * Y-Spail-ya as “Ispal” or “Hispali”. A pronunciation quite close to the ancient Phoenician or Carthaginian form must have survived until the Middle Ages, because – as has already been pointed out – the Arabs called the ancient Roman Ispalis with the name of “Ysbiliya” (Isbililla or Isbilla). From the custom of the Hispano-Muslims to hear and pronounce this Semitic variant, “Ysbilya”, and product of the mixture with the romances derived from Latin and the emergence of the Castilian language, the initial Y (or I) would end up being lost. ,leaving the pronunciation as * S’bilya, or also by a well-known phenomenon in linguistics, which is called “metathesis”, which is the transposition or exchange of sounds within the same word, such as, for example, the Latin “miracle” that it became the Castilian “mîlagro”; in this way, the first Y or I would occupy a second place behind the S, remaining in “Sibilya”, a form that is documented as prior, immediate, to the current name of Seville.the first Y or I would go on to occupy a second place behind the S, remaining in “Sibilya”, a form that is documented as prior, immediate, to the current name of Seville.the first Y or I would go on to occupy a second place behind the S, remaining in “Sibilya”, a form that is documented as prior, immediate, to the current name of Seville.

Spanish philologists have explained the origin of the name of Seville -through the preserved sources- from the Arabic “Ysbiliya” and this form from the Latinized form * Hispalia, Hispali or Ispal, but they had never understood where the Roman name of Hispal, as it is well known that this is not a word of the Latin language. It was known that it must be the Roman or Latin-adapted form of some indigenous name of the place, but no one had previously discovered what that indigenous form could be. My theory raises a possibility that goes beyond the merely probable. The analysis of Plato’s texts could be the key to the remote origin of the name “Seville” or “Ysbiliya”,as the original name of the city and region that Solon translated as Atlantis and that according to the Critias dialogue had taken its name from its first king Atlas, whose original name in the Phoenician or Semitic language would then be * Sbal, * Sbael or * Sebil, that is to say, “the one who Supports, Endures, Supports, Suffers (a burden, weight or punishment)”, since these are precisely the meanings of the word Atlas and its derivatives: Atlantis, Atlanta, Atlantos, Atlantidis, Atlantidos, Atlantikos, Atlantikê, etc .. To all these evidences we would also have to add that there is another Semitic root present in the ancient Aramaic, Babylonian, Talmudic, Paleo-Christian, and ancient Palestinian dialects, which would also explain the true origin and meaning of the name of Tarte-ssós or Tarshish,name that received the kingdom or commercial empire that dominated in the same geographical area where the city of Ispalia, Ysbilya or Seville was established. This Semitic word is just Trsy (pronounced as Tarsiy http://club.telepolis.com/gadeiros/sonidos/TaRSiY.mp3 , and as Tarsea or Tarsia http://club.telepolis.com/gadeiros/sonidos/TaRSeA.mp3 ), and in addition to explaining the origin of the name from Tarschish or Tartessós, as we will see below, also coincides with one of the meanings of the Greek word Atlas.

First we will make a brief analysis of the name of Tartessós, which is a Greek variant. The oldest Greeks used as a suffix behind the names of cities and countries the word -ssós, which apparently meant “country of” or “land of”, like the city of Kno-ssós in Crete. Therefore the name that the Greeks must really have heard would be something like * Tarte. Derived forms of this name registered by Roman authors such as Turd / e-tania and Turth / e-tani and Turd / u-los are known. As the endings -tani and -los are also used by the Romans, like the Greek -ssós, to designate “country of” or “region of”, then again we are left with the word * Turd / eo * Turth / e , but as we have seen that the vowels were changed in the different variants of the same name,then we reduce the root to * T’rth. (T’rz) In this way we arrive at a form quite similar to that recorded in the Old Testament as Trshy (Tarshis), keeping in mind that this th sounds similar to a z as in shoe or as the c in heaven. In the main lexicons and dictionaries this name is assumed to be a word of foreign origin, and most scholars for centuries have identified the Biblical Tarshish with the Tarte-ssós of Iberia. Thus, the original Iberian form of the name that the Greeks recorded as Tartessós, and the Hebrews as Tarschish or Tarshys, must have been * T’rth. But what did this word really mean? The Greeks say nothing about its meaning, nor do the Romans, and neither do the Hebrews. However,It would be logical to think that its original meaning would be very similar to one of the names that the Romans later used to name Iberia, such as Hispan-ia, Hispal-ia or Ispal-ia. We have seen that there is a great possibility that the primitive name that evolved to become Seville was “Ysbailya” (thanks to medieval Arab authors), and how this name could be derived from another ancient Semitic name (probably Phoenician) such as * Y- Sbl-ya or * Y-Spl-ya, “The island of Sbal / Spal”, that is, “the island of the Bears, Endures, Supports, Suffers (a burden, weight or punishment)”. Well, if my theory is valid, and it goes along good paths, then we should find another Semitic root similar in semantics to the previous one,and coincident or very close in phonetics to the reconstructed form of the original name of Tartessos, that is, * T’rth or * T’rs / z, which would form the original name of Tarschis or Tartessós … Well, precisely in the ancients Aramaic, Babylonian, Talmudic, Paleo-Christian and Palestinian dialects, I have discovered the aforementioned root of Trsy, which was pronounced in ancient Aramaic in two ways: Tarsea or Tarsia, and Tarsiy. And this Semitic root was used to name precisely the one who “supports”, “supports” or “supports” (this is how they appear in the old Aramaic version of the New Testament in † Mattai – 6:26; † Luqa – 12:24; † Ephesians – 5:29). This word, as we have seen, coincides with other of the meanings of the other Semitic root “S’bail / Spail”, and with another of the semantic values ??of the Greek voice “Atlas. “The circle closes.

Thus, Hispal or Ispal, Roman name for Seville, a city located in the geographic and neuralgic center of the Tartessian kingdom, was the Latin or Roman form of the Semitic name * Ysbailya / * Yspailya, documented by the Arabs as “Ysbiliya”, and whose meaning would be “The Island of Sbail / Spail” “, that is,” the island of the one who Supports, Endures, Supports, Suffers (a burden, weight or punishment) “; while on the other hand, Tartessós would be the Greek form, and Turdetani and Turthetani the Roman forms of the other Semitic name T’rth (* Tarthi) whose meaning could be the one that “supports”, “supports” or “supports”. In the same Aramaic language there is the form Tarsiyt’uon ( http://club.telepolis.com/gadeiros/sonidos/TaRSiYTuON.mp3) as a variant of Tarsiy, whose pronunciation may have originated the usual Greek form -in accusative- Tartessón, although Polybius (Pol. 3.33.9) mentions another variant, in Greek spelling, Thersi ( http://club.telepolis.com/ gadeiros / sounds / Thersi.mp3 ), which corresponds to the Aramaic Tarsiy. In this way, we have two ancient Iberian names, * Ysbailya / * Yspailya and * Tharthi, with similar meanings, which in turn coincide with the same meanings of the Greek word Atlas and its derivatives: Atlantis, Atlanta, Atlantos, Atlantidis, Atlantidos, Atlantikos, Atlantikê, etc. Mere coincidences, unimportant? It certainly doesn’t look like it …

As we all already know, Solon translated the names of the places and characters from Egyptian into Greek – as indicated in the Critias dialogue – because they had done it equally from the indigenous language of the Atlanteans; therefore, the name of Atlas and Atlantis is not the original name of the island and civilization that flourished next to the Pillars of Hercules or the Strait of Gibraltar, because it is well known that this name (and all its derivatives) is indisputably Greek , as Greek as all the others that he mentions that he uses in the story to translate the indigenous names. But since we also know what the name Atlas means in Greek, we can then reconstruct the original name of this famous western maritime civilization that flourished alongside the great outer ocean.And this is how we got here. Up to this point where we have been able to recognize and identify the ancient names of Seville and Tartessós, as the original names that the Egyptians translated into their language and later the Greeks into theirs with the name of Atlas, and of Atlantis. But despite everything, someone might ask what assurance we can have that the names that the Egyptians translated into Egyptian were Semites or Phoenicians. Well, I have an answer. Solon warns that the Greek names are not the real names, but translations that he made of the original or indigenous names, just as the Egyptians did before, but Solon was careful to leave one of the original, indigenous or native names of the war and conquering country,perhaps so that there would be a testimony that could be used by readers and scholars to determine the original language of the Atlanteans, and of course their true nationality or ethnicity and geographical origin. Of all the names that Solon had before him at the time of writing his work, he chose only one, and left it in the narrative as is, in its indigenous form, indicating its respective translation or meaning in Greek, which he did not do before or after with none of the other names, and this name was precisely that of the region of the twin king of Atlas, Gadeiros, who gave rise to the name of Gadeira, the ancient region and city that the Phoenicians themselves knew as’ GDR (Gadir / a) , the Greeks like Gadeira, and the Romans like Gadira and Gades, present-day Cádiz, since the Arabs pronounced it as Qadish or Qadiz.A region within the kingdom or region of * Tarthei or * Tharsi (Tartessós); region that was closely related -commercially- with the interior of the Baetis or Baitis river (Guadalquivir) and the area where the city of * Ysbailya, ancient Seville, was located, as evidenced by archaeological sources. The name of Gadeira is also of Semitic origin, as some Roman sources attest. Solino and Plinius claim that it was a Phoenician name. Thus, if the name of Gadeira was an indigenous name of the same country and civilization whose name or denomination Solon translated by the Greek voice Atlas and Atlantis, according to Plato through Critias, then the language of the Atlanteans would be an ancient language Semitic or Afro-Asian. Therefore,The analyzes that we have carried out that allow us to reconstruct the original meanings of the ancient names of Seville and Tartessós as Semitic forms, are not far removed from the logic and the path traced by the own words of Plato and other ancient Roman authors. Gadeira was a Phoenician name, therefore Semitic; * Ysbailya = Seville, it is a Semitic word, and * Tharsi = Tartessos, it is also of Semitic origin.

Conclusion: The original name that the Egyptians translated into the Egyptian language of the civilization located next to the Pillars of Hercules (Gibraltar), could be, perfectly, * Y-Tharsei-ya or * Y-Sbal-ya / * Y- Spal-ya. The Semitic roots, * Sbail / * Spail and * Tharthei -in either case- could be translated by the Egyptians and by Solon himself by equivalent names in the meanings (just as stated in the Critias that Solon did, guided by their meanings); meanings such as, “the one who bears, endures, holds or carries (a weight or punishment)”; “the one who serves as support and support”; “the one who bears or suffers (a burden, weight, or punishment)”. Subsequently Solon (as Kritias claims) would translate one of these two names (or both at the same time,namely …) by the Greek name of Atlas and its derivative Atlantis to name the entire island / peninsula and kingdom, since this was the only male proper name existing in ancient Greek that presented the same meanings as the roots * Sbail and * Tharthei.

Thus, the island or peninsula that Solon named Atlantis, and that was located just ahead (pro) and above, on (epi) the same Pillars of Hercules (Gibraltar), could only have been * Y-Sbalya / * Y -Spalya or * Y-Tharsiya, “the island of Sbal or Spal”, or “the island of Tharsiy”, in both cases: “the island of the one who Bears, Endures, Supports, Suffers (a burden, weight or punishment) “. The island or peninsula of Iberia; the same one that centuries later would be romanized as Hispalia or Hispania.

Posted by DesdeLaVegaRDiemoene at 15:10