An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Archive 7057

Atlantis in the scientific literature
by Dr. Rainer W. Kühne
The subject of Atlantis is mainly known through
popular scientific, pseudo-scientific and esoteric
writings (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esoterisch). This
one-sided perception has often led to the view that
dealing with Atlantis is unscientific. However, there is
an extensive scientific literature on the subject. In this
post, I create an annotated list of scientific papers on
Atlantis.
The best-known localizations of Atlantis have been
discussed in the scientific literature. Numerous authors
located Atlantis in the North Atlantic (http://de.wikipedi
a.org/wiki/Nordatlantik) and dated its demise to the end
of the last ice age (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiszeit)
[1]
. Several arguments seemed to support this view.
Mitchell interpreted the newly discovered Mid-Atlantic
Ridge (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mittelatlantischer_
R%C3%BCcken) as the remnant of a sunken mountain
range [2]
. The volcanic rock tachylite (http://de.wikipedi
a.org/wiki/Tachylit) found in the deep sea near the
Azores seemed to indicate sunken land, according to
Termier, as he assumed that tachylite could only form in
the open air.
[3]
. Zoological and anthropological
arguments were also put forward.
Scharff pointed to the similarities of Central American and Southern European wildlife [4]
. The Marquis de
Folin took the view that both the Basques (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basken) and the mollusks (http://de.wik
ipedia.org/wiki/Mollusken) native to the Pyrenees were alien to the rest of Europe and therefore immigrated
from a North Atlantic continent.[5]
. Verneau interpreted the indigenous people of the Canary Islands (http://de.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanarische_Inseln), the Guanches, as Cro Magnon people (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cro
_Magnon_Mensch) who, in his opinion, came from Atlantis [6]
. Babcock finally interpreted legendary islands
like Antilla as remnants of Atlantis [7]
. The localization of Atlantis in the North Atlantic is now considered to
be refuted [sic!] because it has been shown that the bottom of the Atlantic is not only millennia old, but already
millions of years old [8]
.
Several authors argued that Minoan Crete (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoische_Kultur) was Atlantis [9]
.
Marinatos (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marinatos) suspected that the Atlantic culture refers to Minoan Crete,
its demise refers to the eruption of the volcano Thera-Santorini (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santorin) north of
Crete (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kreta) and the Atlantic War refers to the Sea Peoples (http://de.wikipedia.or
g/wiki/Seev%C3%B6lker) Wars [10]
. Galanopoulos held the similar view that the Minoan Thera was Atlantis,
the volcanic eruption had caused the demise of Atlantis [11]
. According to a third view, Atlantis was identical to
the Iron Age (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenzeit) Tartessos (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartessos) in
southern Spain. [12]
.
Based on the reports of Herodotus (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herodot) and Diodorus (http://de.wikipedia.or
g/wiki/Diodor) about a Libyan people named Atlantioi, who are said to have lived on Lake Triton (http://de.wik
ipedia.org/wiki/Tritonsee) near the Atlas Mountains (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlas-Gebirge), Borchardt
Fig. 1 In addition to countless popular and borderline
scientific as well as ideological/esoteric publications
dealing with Atlantis, there are also a whole series of
explicitly scientific publications, most of which are
covered in this article. Image: Atlantis nach P. Borchardt,
in: A. Petermann, Mittheilungen aus Justus Perthes’
Geographischer Anstalt, Folge 73, 1927
and Herrmann suspected a Bronze Age Atlantis at the
Schott el Djerid (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schott_el_
Dscherid) in Tunisia (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunes
ien) [13]
. Bérard assumed that Atlantis had existed in
northern Tunisia near Carthage (http://de.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Karthago) but before him [14]
.
Gidon suspected a Bronze Age (http://de.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Bronzezeit) Atlantis between Ireland (http://de.wik
ipedia.org/wiki/Irland_(Insel)) and Aremorica (http://de.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Aremorica) [15]
. However, this part
of the continental shelf has (http://de.wikipedia.org/wik
i/Kontinentalschelf) already sunk in the Mesolithic (htt
p://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesolithikum). Zangger
equated Troy (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troja) with
Atlantis [16]
. His view was critically discussed [17]
and
rejected [18]
. Like the Minoan Knossos (http://de.wikipe
dia.org/wiki/Knossos) or Phaistos (http://de.wikipedia.o
rg/wiki/Phaidros), Troy does not agree with Plato’s description of Atlantis. Collina-Girard suspected that
Atlantis was the Majuan Bank, which during the last ice age had been an island called “Spartel Island” within
the Strait of Gibraltar (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stra%C3%9Fe_von_Gibraltar).
[19]
. However, this view
cannot explain Plato’s description of Athens and the culture of Atlantis.
I take the following view [20]
. According to Broneer, Plato’s description of Urathen refers to The Late Bronze
Age Athens [21]
. According to Marinatos, the war of Atlantis against the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean
is based on an Egyptian account of the Sea Peoples Wars. The description of the geography and culture of
Atlantis refers to the Iron Age Tartessos [22]
.
Many authors consider Atlantis to be a fiction of Plato [23]
. The war refers to the Persian Wars [24]
. The
description of the city of Atlantis is Plato’s knowledge of Syracuse [25]Carthage [26]
and Athens [27]
borrowed.
The fall of Atlantis is the downfall of the Greek city of Helike (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helike) [28]
or the
island of Atalante near Euboea (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eub%C3%B6a) [29]
borrowed. Both proponents of
the existence of Atlantis [30]
as well as the representatives of a literary fiction [31]
pointed to the similarities of
Atlantis with Sheraia, Homer’s island of the Phaeacians.
To two of the best-known Atlantis localizations exist in the scientific literature only counter-statements, namely
to the Helgoland localization [32]
and bimini (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bimini_(Bahamas)) localization [33]
.
Continuation:
Atlantis in the Scientific Literature – Bibliography
About the author:
Dr. Rainer W. Kühne, born in 1970, holds a doctorate in physics. He is (co-)author of fourteen scientific physics
treatises. In Atlantisforschung.de you will find R.W. Kühne’s Atlantis thesis under: “Atlantis at Cádiz – at the
Bronze Age”; Contact the author: E-MAIL kuehne70@gmx.de
Notes and sources
Fig. 2 Less in the field of science than in that of political
esotericism were the writings of A.L. Herrmann, who
suspected an Aryan-Frisian Atlantis in Tunisia. Image:
Atlantis reconstruction on the cover of Herrmann’s “Our
Ancestors and Atlantis” (1934)
This article by Dr. Rainer W. Kühne (©) – 09.04.2004 – was first published online at Mysteria 3000; it is
published by Atlantisforschung.de in an editorially edited and illustrated version.
Fußnoten:
Bild-Quellen:
1) A. Petermann, Mittheilungen aus Justus Perthes’ Geographischer Anstalt, Folge 73
2) A.L. Herrmann, “Unsere Ahnen und Atlantis” (1934); nach: Atlantis – onderzoek naar mogelijke
locaties (http://home.planet.nl/~zeven230/geo.1.atlantis.htm), unter: Atlantis in Afrika (http://home.plane
t.nl/~zeven230/geo.7.atlantis.htm) (Bild-Adresse (http://www.kunstgeografie.nl/atl.a.hermann.atlantis.jp
g))
1. Mitchell 1877; de Folin 1892; Mortillet 1897; Verneau 1898; Scharff 1903; Scharff 1909; Wilckens 1913;
Termier 1913; Germain 1913; Termier 1915; Babcock 1917; Matthew 1920; Germain 1924a; Germain
1924b; Germain 1924c.
2. Mitchell 1877.
3. Termier 1913; Termier 1915.
4. Scharff 1903; Scharff 1909.
5. de Folin 1892.
6. Verneau 1898.
7. Babcock 1917.
8. Schuchert 1917a; Schuchert 1917b; Schuller 1917; Kukal 1984.
9. Frost 1913; Leaf 1915; Balch 1917; Marinatos 1950; Brandenstein 1951; Andrews 1967.
10. Marinatos 1950.
11. Galanopoulos 1960.
12. Jessen 1925; Hennig 1925; Hennig 1927; Schulten 1927; Schulten 1939.
13. Borchardt 1927a; Borchardt 1927b; Herrmann 1927.
14. Bérard 1929.
15. Gidon 1934.
16. Zangger 1993.
17. Renfrew 1992.
18. Bloedow 1994.
19. Collina-Girard 2001; Collina-Girard 2002; Collina-Girard 2003.
20. Kühne 2004.
21. Broneer 1939.
22. Jessen 1925; Hennig 1925; Hennig 1927; Schulten 1927; Schulten 1939.
23. Kluge 1910; Rudberg 1917; Robert 1917; Herter 1928; Taylor 1928; Taylor 1929; Heidel 1933; Herter
1944; Hackforth 1944; Pallottino 1952; Corbato 1953; Rosenmeyer 1956; Vidal-Naquet 1964; Schott
1967; Vitaliano 1971; Rexine 1975; Gill 1977; Remage 1978; Gill 1979; Forsyth 1980; Dombrowski
1981; Dusanic 1982; Giovannini 1985; Szlezak 1993.
24. Taylor 1928; Pallottino 1952.
25. Rudberg 1917; Corbato 1953.
26. Pallottino 1952; Corbato 1953.
27. Vidal-Naquet 1964; Dusanic 1982.
28. Taylor 1928; Herter 1944; Giovannini 1985.
29. Forsyth 1980.
30. Leaf 1915.
31. Kluge 1910; Vidal-Naquet 1964; Gill 1979.
32. Schott 1967.
33. Harrison 1971; Tarling 1978; McKusick 1980; Smith 1985.
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