Johan S. The eleventh
Much has been made about the myth of Atlantis, reaching fabulous conclusions that go beyond the true myth. However, the myths start from circumstances real historical that form a related poetic set, on the which others overlap myths, either, they just lose his meaning original by he disuse of customs and he forgot of details historical. To the perpetuate stories the myths HE become _ true annals of! prehistoric world, full of data ethnographic, transmitted from generation in generation and to times preserved by families to who belong the authorships of the narratives. He myth of the Atlantis not is a exception, ha amalgamated a series of myths, many of they imported to the world Greek, conserving finally in the form in which Plato wrote them.
The scholarly studies that yes they have done about he book critics ode the Atlantis generally they are connected to the of the Timaeus, due to his continuity narrative and stylistics. It is commonly admitted that Plato left this work unfinished to write the Laws, in whose third book, talk about Crete, it has been tried to see the continuation of! dialogue of the Atlantis. But this time, the Athenians no longer face the Atlanteans but the Persians .
The study of the myth of the Atlantis has raised difficulties, because there is no mention of an island called Atlantis before Plato, although in the Timaeus reference is made to the fact that the verses of this myth were sung at some festivals 1 • However, it is very probable that the myth collected information about islands in the Atlantic and combined them into one, which Plato called Atlantis. This compilation It was made, on the one hand, from mythology Greek regarding the Hesperides and Cassiterides islands, and on the other, an important compilation of the Memorie that lasted from Minoan Voyages to these islands, from which Crete was supplied with tin. TO in turn, the context of their customs was reconstructed, names and characteristics with elements to its reach, both from Homer and from the Hellenic world and the barbarian peoples that surrounded them.
1 Plato, Timaeus, 21b.
Plato’s work, Atlantis, has given rise to a copious literature on the subject, which has grown substantially in recent times, of which it is worth summarily mentioning an interpretation of the myth that is not without ingenuity.
2. He discovery of America and the Atlantis 2 •
The discovery of America brought with it speculation about what were the clues and background that They led to colon to perform the crossing. There were those who thought that the discovery of the Indies had been inspired by reading of the Timaeus and critics of Plato, as us account he chronicler spanish Lopez from Gomara (1552) 3 •
One of the Spanish chroniclers who dealt with the matter in more detail was Sarmiento de Gamboa (1572), who devoted several chapters to the respect in his History of Incas. He maintained that the Atlantis, “almost together with the Coast of Spain, if joined the island of Cadiz, or Gadir, or Caliz, as it is now called”4, and extended across the Atlantic Ocean until it joined with America, forming a single great continent. However, the strangest of his narration is who calculates the flood that destroyed the Atlantis by 1320 AC5, being very approximate to which HE currently holds 6 • He I reckon it does turning the 9,000 years (EvaKtcrx’tlta ‘far1) that gives Plato, in years moles and so you can adjust this event to the biblical chronology that was used at the time of the conquest.
The identification of the atlantis with america supposes he knowledge of the route to America via the Atlantic in pre-Columbian times, but there is no evidence to support such a fact in Plato’s time. The closest thing to this knowledge was Strabo’s hypothesis, which held that if a trip were made from Iberia to China, there was the possibility of finding a continent in the middle 7 • Ibarra Grasso argues that since the phoenicians the trips to America se they performed for he Pacific, a journey longer,
2 To see further about this issue: Imbelloni, the second sphinx Indiana, appendix AND. also in him book of the Atlantis, “Humanitor Collection”, Section. B, t. 3, Buenos Aires, 1939, or in its French edition Le free from Atlantides, “Bibliotheque historique”, Publishing House Payot, Paris, 1942.
3 Lopez of G6mara, History general of the Indies, Vol. 1, pp. 30 and 35.
4 Gamboa, History of the Incas, 3.
5 Idem, 4.
6 Vine irifra.
7 Strabo, geography, YO, IV, 6.
but further sure. demonstrated this, in a scholar job based in the studies of the map of Ptolemy of the second century of our era 8 •
3. Description topognifies of the Atlantis.
The first references that does Plato to the Atlantis are in he Timaeus and says verbatim: “There was, in effect, a island, situated forehead to the narrow, what in your tongue you call the columns of Hercules. This island was further big that the Libya and he Asia gathered; the navigators pass from there to the other islands, and from these to the mainland, which this sea bathes … ” 9 • The description does doubtless his location further there of the narrow of Gibraltar. He size that attributes 10 is obviously exaggerated, but rules out the Madeiras and other nearby archipelagos. The continent you mention is the European, since, according to the myth, the name of the island Atlantis and of the ocean Atlantic derive from the same root, Atlas, he first king of the island 11 • He origin of! name of! ocean Atlantic precedes the of the atlantis, put that this ocean this linked to myth of the God Atlas, of where inspiration is born for both the island and its king. The god Atlas gave his name to many regions -such as the Atlas Mountains-, all linked to his mythology. In the case of Atlantic, Atlas is punished for his participation in the war of the titans and kicked out for Zeus to the extreme western of the world, forehead to the Hesperides, forcing him to hold the world; as consequence of this, to Atlas HE it associates with the regions of the west, that’s why is he father of the Pleiades, the hyades and others constellations that HE dive into the ocean of the west either Atlantic. The Atlantis, in Greek ‘ktAavttc; (Atlantis), means “daughter of Atlas” 12 , like a’t ‘Ecrn:eptoec; (the Hesperides) are the “daughters of Hesperus” 13 , being a poetic description of where they are.
Other spot of importance that mention the appointment antecedent, is that the sailors passed of this island atlantis to others, of it that HE infers that was a island frequented by
8 ibarra Grasso, Without Atlantis or UFOs: The feat of/ man, Editorial The friends of Book, Cochabamba, 1984 and The representation of America in roman maps of time of Christ, Editorial Ibarra Grasso, Good Aires, 1970.
9 Plat6n, timeo, 24e y ss
10 Larger than Libya (the African continent) and Asia -then the Anatolian peninsula par excellence-. All exaggerations that has he myth they have one function poetic, for give a idea of splendor, like says Aristotle: “In a general way, the impossible must be justified in terms of poetry…”. Aristotle, Poetics, XXV, 1461a.
11 Plato, Critias, 114a.
12 Como el epithet: “Atlantis Maya”. Hesiod Theogony 935-940 .
13 “Ecntepos (Hespero) means sunset and by extension west; in Latin evening, of where derives “evening”
and others words related with he sunset. hespero is he planet Venus.
merchants and navigators. Is by that that their inhabitants were under the protection of Poseidon 1 4 • ” ••• Poseidon, having received the island of Atlantis as an inheritance, installed in a certain place of bliss island the children that there was begotten the of a women mortal near from sea, but to the height of! center all the island, there was a plain… AND nearly the plain … there was a mountain that had in all its parts an average height ” 15 • This is the first description that did plate of the island, supplemented with the of a channel that connected with he center of the island: “Of this way they arranged a entrance to the ships come from high sea, as if was a port They practiced on it a puff enough to that the biggest ships could come in in he channel” 16 • The description in his set resembles the part south of the island of Great Brittany with he river Thames, more that a channel artificial, that connects with him center the island. just like it says Plato, of this island, HE going to other islands probably to Ireland 1 7, Horcadas, etc. and to the mainland.
And I add Plato to the topographical description of the island “… a circular wall that began at the sea … This wall ended by closing on itself in the throat of the channel that opened on the sea side ” 1 8 , mentioning in turn that: ” … all the land around the city was flat… surrounded by mountains that extend to the sea” 19 , in a clear identification of the walls with the limestone escarpment that surrounds the island of Great Brittany, forming a Wall natural almost constant. This The description of the island is repeated in the ancient myth of the eleventh labor of Heracles: the theft of the apples of the Hesperides ” … in whose care they are, on the other Beside the famous ocean, the beautiful golden apples and the trees that produce this fruit” 20 ; Atlas built a solid wall around the Hesperides to prevent them from being stolen 21 . In Germanic mythology these apples reappear, which give immortality to the gods; being low the protection of the goddess Idun, to the equal what in he myth Greek were stolen by a giant 22 •
continuing the description of the island, Plato says: “Was flat, of level uniform, oblong as a whole … This region throughout the island was oriented to the south, to the
14 But they were also under his protection to give them the character of barbarians, as opposed to the peoples Greeks, ruled under the aegis of Zeus. Figure that is also used with the Cyclopes “arrogant and lawless ” sons of Poseidon: Homer, Odyssey, IX, 105-115.
fifteen Plato, critics, 113c.
16 the same 115 d.
17 La ancient Ireland.
18 the same l 17e.
19 the same 118a.
20 ” ‘Ecr1tEp’t0a<; 0’, d’ µry..a 1tEp11v KA.ui:08 ‘f.hcmvo-io XJJOOEa KUMJ µu..oucrt <pEpovi: a i:E OEVOpm Kap1t6v”
Hesiod Theogony 215
twenty-one serious, The myths greeks, Yo 13c.
22 sturluson, edda Minor, Ieng. art. sc., 1.
shelter from the north winds” 23 • He also mentions that it was located in the middle of several islands 24 about the which government 25 , it that match with he territorial scope on which England exercised his influence from the prehistory, from the shetland until Ireland. Plato seems describe scotland when speaks of mountains with numerous villas that They are the ones that protect the island from the boreal wind2 6 •
However, the only geographical point well known to the Greeks that Figure in Plat6n ‘s work, is the city of Cadiz, formerly called Gadir, Gaddir or Agadir (“strong square”) by the Carthaginians, whose inhabitants are called Gaditans to this day. “His twin brother [Eumelos], born after he [Atlas], obtained in inheritance the extreme part of the island, on the side of the columns of Hercules, facing the region now called Gadirica … ” 27 • By “front” he means as described by a boater 28 and No of a spot of view geographical, is say, as he last port from which splits directly at the mouth of the Thames.
If indeed the myth refers to the island of Great Britain, then when says: ” … they all dressed in very beautiful dark blue robes … ” 29 , Is alluded in a shape hellenized to as HE they painted the bodies of blue, it that them deserved the name of Picts (“painted”), a characteristic that even Julio Cesar describes 30 • and it is also feasible that the rings of water surrounding the mountain be the “moats” English, known in Ireland and Scotland as “crannogs” 31 •
23 Plat6n Criticism 118a y ss.
24 the same I13e.
25 the same 114c.
26 the same 118b. El with the wind Boreas come from about! norte
27 Same, 114b. All the description made so far reproduces almost the same information that Julio received. Cease of first hand of the islanders: “The island is of figure triangular. In a side stand falls off in front of the Gaul; of this side the angle that the Cancio promontory, where ordinarily They come to emerge the ships of the Galia, is looking to the East; the other less than Noon. This first side is nearly five hundred miles; he The second looks at Spain and the West. Towards the same side lies Hibernia, which is believed to be half less that Brittany, in equal distance from she that the Gaul. In half of this narrow this is an island called Man. It also says that there are several islets beyond … “. Julio Cesar, Comments of the wars of the Gauls, V, XIV.
28 Probable origin about! reported
29 Plat6n Criticism 120b.
30 July Caesar Comments about las wars about las Gauls 5 XIV.
31 See Plato, Critias, 113 ff. Although artificial hills surrounded by water channels are typically druids, no we know how old can be its origin. (Michell, The view over Atlantis, II, 2). However, in the myth of Atlantis, these rings acquire dimensions that modify the topography of the entire island.
4. He trade minoan with England.
But why England? How did this myth come to Plato? Despite what is commonly thought about ancient geographic knowledge, Greek traders knew the trade route to the British Isles very well; this was the which Pytheas took about the middle of the fourth century BC, the description of Celtic customs seems to have been quite widespread since Aristotle does not speak of them as something unknown 32 . Even the memory of the voyages of the Greeks was still fresh at the time of Tacitus, who wrote: “Some say that Ulysses, coming to fall in this Ocean in his long and fabulous journey, arrived6 to Slang and fund6 and gave name toArciburgio, city located at shores of! rhine and that still this inhabited. They add that HE found a altar consecrated to Ulises with he name of laertes, his father, and that still exists in the confines of Germania and retia some monuments and graves with Greek inscriptions” 33 • Narrative that recalls the remote antiquity of the maritime trade and of the cultural exchanges . Cicero and zenon, by his part, describe the poles covered of ice 3 4 but without doubt geographic knowledge No are so late. The first reference written safe on voyages and raids in the northern seas appears in the Odyssey. The interpretation of Apollodorus reduces the trips to the Mediterranean, around Sicily, but it is not evident, since that HE admits that the islands floating erratic calls 35 are icebergs, the lestringonia with his light perpetual and their fjords, so as the Cimmerians that they live in the darkness 36 They are both descriptions of the Norwegian coast in different seasons.
In times of development of the Minoan culture in Crete around 3000 BC . c., tin was imported from the largest source of this metal known at the time, the British Isles 37 • “According to he norwegian arche6logo Anton Wilhelm Brogger existed a age of gold from ocean navigation during the period from approximately between the years 3000 and 1500 BC, that is to say, before the Phoenician navigation”. 38 That’s how I remembered it he myth of the Atlantis : ” … _ the elderly part of the [resources] that are necessary
32 Aristotle, Politics, II, saw , and Morality to Nicomachean, III, VIII. makes comments about the appreciation of the women Celts for manly love and recklessness of its sailors facing the rough waves.
33 Tacit, Slang, III.
- 4 Surely they deduce that the Antarctic Pole is covered with ice by analogy with the North Pole, which has already I knew well. Cicero, Saber the Republic, SAW, 20, and Laertius, Lives, Opinions, and sentences of the jil6sofos more illustrious, Zeno, 106.
35 Homer, Odyssey , XII, 55-72. interpretation to the that also arrived Graves, The myths greeks, 170, 4; for the Odyssey and for the journey of the Argonauts: idem, 151, i.
36 Homer , Odyssey, X, 80-132, and eleventh, 13-22. So as serious, The myths greeks, 170, 4.
37 Friedrich , Prehistory de Europe, IV , I.
38 Presentation of! Second International Congress of Prehistoric Sciences and Protohistorics, Oslo, 1936, reviewed by Vilhjalmur Stefansson in his Ultima Thule, New York, MacMillan Press, 1946, p. 31 , and in Greenland, New York, Doubleday Publishing, 1942, p. 26. Apud. Sarton, History of science, I, I, p. 8.
for the life HE the provided the island same. In first place, all the hard metals or malleable that HE they can extract from the mines” 39 . In Greek, by malleable (-rEK’ta) soft and easily meltable metals such as lead and tin are meant. In Minoan times this abundance of tin made the British Isles deserving of from the name of Cassiterides (Km:,o’hi::pt8ei;: “islands of tin”), whose route was dominated by the gaditanos However, Casiterides seems to have been just a nickname of the islands 40 • Julio Cesar mentions that: “In the middle of the island there are tin mines … Copper is brought in from outside” 41 •
Is very It’s probably that the relations commercial have facilitated the import of myths. Even he same name of Britain may have come of a myth Cretan, although this statement is only a hypothesis. Britain has traditionally been depicted as a goddess carrying a spear, analogous to Artemis. The etymological origin of the name Britain (“Britain”); without however, it is admitted not it is an attempt to reproduce a Celtic name or the proper name of the place 42 • In Minoan Crete a nymph was known from whose name the root that gave rise to this name can be derived: Britomartis (“gentle goddess”), companion of Artemis. The myth tells that this, fleeing from King Minos, jumped from a rock 43 into the sea and was saved from drowning by a fisherman’s net. Of there their powers of patroness of the fishermen and navigators. Artemis, in reward to Her chastity made her immortal and that is why she accompanies her on her hunts. Among the Germans this goddess is not unknown, since Gefiun is the one who remained a maiden, for it which one all serve Those that caste die 44 • In he third labor of Heracles, the hind of Cerinia, animal attributed to the goddess Artemis, ran the same luck than Britomartis; she was persecuted by Heracles until exhaustion and the I catch 45 in the Hesperides, hence Pollux calls Heracles “Melon”, a nickname that derives from the word greek MfJ)..ov (meelon: apple) 46 • “Other version of the fibula is that this deer was the one that Taigete’s pleia, sister of Alcione, had dedicated to Artemis in gratitude by have it temporarily transformed in hind and to have I have avoid like this the hugs of Zeus” 47 • The agreement with he myth minoan is evident, but is
39 Plat6n Criticism 114e.
40 Seg(m Dionysius Periegetes, 563 las those Casiterides son las Hesperides
41 July Cease, Comments of the wars of the Gauls, v, XII.
42 “The Greek and Roman forms [of the word Britain] are doubtless attempts to reproduce a Celtic original…”,
The Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 4, p. 583.
43 1, Perhaps el pefi6n de Gibraltar?
44 Sturluson, In the past Minor, aluc. Gylji, 34.
45 Graves, The Greek Myths, 125a. It should also be noted that chasing an animal until exhaustion, mostly deer, is a form of game common to many prehistoric peoples; for examples in South America Canals F., The indigenous populations of the Argentina, II, 4 and 5.
46 serious, The myths greeks, 125.1.
47 ldem, 125c.
important that he whereabouts be the Hesperides and that a star of the constellation of the Pleiades, daughters of Atlas, is the one pursued by Zeus.
Hesiod gives it What does it seem to be a more idealized version of these islands. Alla went to give the race of the heroes to the die; to these ” … Zeus Cronid and Father the set away of men, installing them in the confines of the land. There they live, with hearts free from care, in the islands of the Lucky ones, in the edges of the raging ocean, happy heroes to whom the fertile earth bears sweet and flourishing fruit three times a year” 48 • Fertility and abundance are virtues that Plato also attributes to the Atlantis, and says: “It should be noted that the inhabitants harvested the products of the land twice a year” 49 •
5. Thera and he sinking of the Athintida.
They are obvious – and already observed by many – the constant analogies that exist between Crete and the Atlantis, so That maintains that the myth of the destruction and sinking of Atlantis comes from-as rightly put it said to. Galanoupulos of the University of Athens- from the explosion of! ancient volcano of the island of Thera 50 , around 1450 BC However, the disappearance of Thera was not important enough to become a myth by itself herself, but for her consequences. The explosion of the volcano produced all the conditions of a true regional cataclysm, with great earthquakes and floods that affected the entire eastern Mediterranean. that were the causing of the decay of the culture Minoan 51 • East event it was so important that came to times of Strabo, though a bit mixed up with more events
48 Hesiod, The jobs and the days 168-173. He original says:
“Zeb<; Kpov’1ori Ka-tevacrcrE ltU’t’TlP a; ltEtpa-ta <pa’tri – Ka\ ,:o\ µEV va\.oucrt V <XKT\Offi 0uµov ‘eyoV’tE EV
?aK<XpOlV vficrotcrt 1tap’ ‘£lKWVOV 13<x0uo’1vri , 1999 . Oh tot TtJ)Ol , 1999 . ‘t:0°tcrtv ?EAlT\Offi Kapitov 1:p’1?2 EtEO 00’.A.AOV’s
<pepn l;i1oropo &poupa”. The name of the islands of the Fortunate or Blessed comes from the word Greek MaKap (macar) that in addition to its meaning of fortune and happiness, also means blessed, and by extension HE Barnaba µaKapto (macarians) to a person of range superior. By it that can understand what are you islands were of the chosen, those that by his dignity were going to a place different to the orcs where I was going the com(m of the souls in greek mythology
49 Plato Criticism 118c saber la abundance: the same 115b.
50 La actual Santorini
51 As already it they noticed in he century past: “Dissertation south l’Atlantid” in he book of TH martin etudes south le Timee; and in this century: “The lost Continent” in he Times (Landres) of 19 of February of 1909. This theory I stay confirmed by the discovery in 1966 in Kato Zakro of a perfectly preserved Minoan palace, a finding indicating that this palace was abandoned by a sequence of floods and earthquakes. However, some archaeologists maintain that the explosion of Thera happened half a century before! abandonment of! palace and that probably the Causes of the abandonment were socio-political: (Finley, The primitive Greece. IV, p. 56). Is plausible what in he myth HE have recognized a series of earthquakes, floods and droughts as consequences of the rash of Thera. In all case, these facts marked a decay in the Minoan culture regarding
modems, says that the floods and earthquakes will extended up Syria and the Cyclades 52 • Of the flood of the atlantis and their consequences in he Mediterranean, Plato wrote: “… big tremors of land they gave place to floods; and in a only day, in a single fatal night, the earth swallowed all your [Athenian] warriors, the island of Atlantis disappeared among the waters…” 53 . “They have elapsed in total nine thousand years since estal16 the war [between the atlantes and the Greeks]” 54 and in he course of these nine thousand years have been happened four deluges 55 , as says Plato: “A alone evening of Deluge did disappear all the land that there was in took to she [the Acropolis] and left6 this part entirely naked. HE produced simultaneously tremors of land and a Deluge, that was he third before of the catastrophe of Deucalion” 56 • He Deucalion, the fourth deluge, without place to doubt, is the catastrophe caused by the volcano of Thera, of there let homer do the following genealogy: “In the midst of the vinous point, surrounded of!sea, exists a land beautiful and fertile, Crete… Between the cities will find Knossos, great city in the which queen6 by space of nine years Minos, that talked with he great Zeus, and was father of my father, of the magnanimous Deucalion. This begat me [Eton] and to the king Idomeneus…” 57 • Each king represents a cultural stage, such as he case of Nestor that HE say what survived three generations of men 58 , of there that the nine years that queen6 Minos can be a stage cultural that lasted6 nine generations or nine hundred years. Without embargo, he king Minos It represents all the culture minoan 59 until the catastrophe of Thera, whose survivors are the deucalids, the that HE took refuge in the mountains, according to Plato 60 ; survivors who are incarnated in King Deucalion.
The Athenians, at first they were allies of the Atlanteans 61 , that is to say, from the Minoans, going on to be their enemies, put that, as HE says in he myth of the king Minos, the Athenians had to give a tribute of seven boys and seven girls so that the
to the earlier period, since in the Middle Minoan between 2000 and 1600 BC . c. “…was one of the periods of more progress tremendous in the spheres of! political power, the wealth and of the Arts… when built palace complexes…”. Idem, IV, p. 47.
52 Estrab6n geography 1 3, 16.
53 Plat6n I fear, 25 d.
54 Plat6n Criticism 108e.
55 Idem, 111 to. All the towns they have tight to his history four big cataclysms, every one produced by one of the four elements, though in some towns, as Jose greeks and aztecs, they have substituted all these by latest element, the water; Plato speaks of thousands of causes, among further important the fire and he water, Plato, Timaeus, 22e.
56 ibidem, 112a.
57 Homer, Odyssey, XIX, 172-181; 1/iada , XIII, 446- 455 .
58 Homer, Jliada, I, 254-285 .
59 Minos is son of europe princess Syria, that HE joins with Zeus: Homer, liad, fourteenth, 322. He myth represents the influence of the peoples of Asia Minor on Crete, since Europe derives from the name of the wind of! East, the Euro. Cultural influences are evident, even the Cretan alphabet derives from Syrian.
60 Plat6n Criticism 109d y I fear, 22 d.
61 Plat6n I fear, 25c.
devour the Minotaur 62 • This war was a real historical event, Aristotle says of it: “Furthermore, Minos reached6 he empire of the sea and of all the islands immediate that conquered or colonized; and, finally, he took his arms to Sicily, where he died near Camico” 63 • This is a sample of how all the histories of the Cretan world were amalgamated, giving this complex union of ideas a mythological continuity.
6. The second Troy.
These Minoan stories have formed part of a oral tradition and the we can trace in Germanic and Celtic literature. Many old British poets and writers have named London as the second Troy 64 , and have suggested that its foundation is due to the Greeks. This has been misconstrued as an attempt to to assimilate the origin of these peoples to the great Mediterranean cultures, in the same way that a(m) is currently go on holding that the Babylonian cultures and Egyptians have “invented” the civilization, as a product of “invention” of the agriculture and that this has been spread by all he world in time of recognize the bases infrastructural that They carry to the development of the economy agricultural and he slow process of development cultural to it long of the paleolithic.
One of the that follow this tradition is Geoffrey’s Monmouth, who wrote in he century X of our was his Historia regum Britanniae, in whose first part describes the travels of Brutus, a descendant of the Homeric character Aeneas, in his search for the land promised by Diana 65 in an omen, which said:
“Bnlta, in the West, further to the of the queens of Gaul,
there is a island in it oceana, radiated of sea pair tadas parts;
that island in he oceana Thu inhabited in back times pair giants 66 ,
62 This myth can have several interpretations; the tribute can mean that they made human sacrifices consecrated to the god Minotaur, either HE turned them into public officials children and in concubines to the girls, ta! as it happened between the incas, either further likely still, for carry out games rituals in cumshots of Bulls, it that included a risk of death and that’s why HE says they were immolated Minotaur. “… [he] jump of! bull, what likely represented some shape of rite more than a Mere sport… ” finley, The Greece primitive, IV,
63 Aristotle, Politics, II, VII.
64 Monmouth, HRB, II, 22.
65 Is curious that even here reappear the goddess Artemis.
66 The giants are the sons of Gaia, the sons of the land of Beowulf, the descendants of Adam (adam in Hebrew means earth), coinciding with the word man that it derivates from gay and It is related to humus. which means earth Paleolithic man is understood by this first humanity, as it has been exposed Bernardo Ellefsen in his essay más. The four eras of! Genesis. Its enormous size appears to have been a ethnographic observation of the hunting peoples, ta! how they noticed it Spanish chroniclers: “Speaking in
and now it is deserted, waiting for your people. Bitscale, well be your home perennial. Over there your children will build a second Troy; kings of your blood will be born there, and they
HE submit all the nations def Universe” 67 •
The counterpart germanica of this tradition literary HE ha conserved in the snori saga. Odin descends from Priam and comes from ” … the Called Troy, there in which we say Turkey” 68 • The idea of migrating to the lands bathed by the sea Atlantic also arose as an inspiration, because Odin knew from omens that in the north he would be more honored 69 • There he built and organized a city (“the second Troy”) just as it had been done in Troy 70 •
The Difference of the names the explains Plato of following way: “… No you It must surprise you that you often hear me give Greek names to barbarous people. See what is the cause of it. Solon, wanting to use this narrative in his poems, asked what was he sense of these names. AND discovered that the Egyptians, who had been the first in write this story, they had transcribed in their language. He himself, having rediscovered the meaning of each name, translated them a second time into our language, to write them” 71 • This same explanation is given by Snorri, thus: ” … but with few words I can tell you that most of the names have come to him from the made of that, having so many languages in he world, all the peoples have considered that they needed to adjust the name to his own language for can invoke him [Odin] and pray for themselves…” 72 • As much to Odin, as to the Platonic Atlas, we have to consider as gods and like heroes, “AND I I have for myself that are this odin and its siblings who govern he darling and the earth; us we suppose that has to
general, seems that the nations of elderly height and others something less elevated, but all of beautiful proportions, and the further wandering, lazy, strong, arrogant and untamed, were the Coats; that others something further low, but also warriors, powerful, untamed, and further agile, cunning, perfidious and bit less wandering, were the fisherwomen; that the less wandering, the kindest and most peaceful were women farmers Among the latter there are some of good stature, but also others who are the shortest, ugly and in all the most pusillanimous and despicable”. Azara, Description of/ Paraguay and of/ Rio de la Plata, XI, 2.
67 Monmouth, HRB, II, 16. This augury late6 in be fulfilled. He empire British ha been he more extensive that ha
existed and until he day of today, although HE ha displaced his center, the sphere of can of! Anglo-Saxon world continues exercising its influence over a large part of balloon.
68 Sturluson Edda Minor, for!., 3.
69 the same for 4.
70 there, for 5.
71 Plat6n Criticism 113a.
72 sturluson, edda Minor, aluc. Gy!fi, 19.
call himself that, because that is the name of the greatest and most famous hero that we know of, and this may also be his name” 73 .
In how much to Rough, seems have other origin. Geoffrey adapts this name because it says that the name of the island derives from it 74 • This name may come from “Bryt” which means Breton, or of a real character who assimilated him to the myth, Decimo Brutus; who must have been renowned among the ancient Britons, for the He commanded the Roman squadrons of Julius Caesar who in the Gallic War destroyed the fleets of the Vaneses 75 and the British, nations that monopolized the maritime trade of the time in that region 76 • This event must have been important because, both in the Edda Minor as in the History of the Kings of Britannia, the conquest of Aquitaine is present 77 •
Here two appear new characters, Corineo and Tor; both HE stand out by his strength, great worth and hobby to kill giants 78 • In a battle against the aquitanos “Corineo loses the sword, but he random you provides a axe of double edge with the that part in two to everyone who reaches…” 79 • By your part, Tor leads a war against him giant Geirrod, for it which has that wade he river Vimur, that is identified by he same snorri with the Mame river 80 • Tor does not carry the double-edged ax, but his powerful hammer called Mi6llmir 81 • In the double-edged ax we find again the vestiges of Cretan culture. The palaces of Knossos, Hagia Triad and goumia HE they loved with are axes
73 Here HE does a difference between he odin heavenly and he odin land. Idem, aluc. Gy/hee, 5.
74 Monmouth, HRB, II, twenty-one.
75 Population of the current Brittany in France.
76 July Cease, Comments of the wars of the Gallias, III, VII.
77 Monmouth, HRB, II, 18. sturluson, edda Minor, pro!., 4.
78 CF note 66 about giants. “Corineo … [was) endowed with a force ta! when was fighting with a giant, he defeated him in the twinkling of an eye…”. Monmouth, HRB, II, 17. “[Thor] the enemy and exterminator of the giants and ogresses”. Sturluson, Minor Edda, aluc. Gy/ji, 4.
79 Monmouth, 2010. HRB, Il, 18.
80 Sturluson, Past Minor, aluc. Gy/ji, 18.
81 The ax and hammer are symbols of Lightning, compatible and interchangeable. The representations are of Paleolithic origin and persist in characters such as Tor, Zeus Labrandeus, the goddess of Tell Aroachiyah in Iran: Vian, The Religions of Minoan Crete and Achaean Greece, p. 220. Among the Slavs in Novgorod the god thundering Perun carried a Neolithic stone ax in his hand: Frazer, The Golden Branch, XV. The metaphor of! axe as ray HE explains of the following form: “And you gives with his ray as HE you gives to a tree” (RgVeda, II, 14, 2) … “as he axe [abbe] the trees”. RgVeda, X, 89, 7 and X, 28, 7-8; apud. Dumezil, The destination delguerrero, III, 4. A of the more metaphors beautiful of the Inca world explains very well the for that of! hammer: one maid (sumac iusta) carries a pitcher with rainwater and when his brother breaks it with a hammer pitcher create the thunder, lightning and rays, leaving go out he water: Garcilaso of the Vega, Real Comments, YO, XXVII.
double-edged. This cult survived in Caria with Zeus Labrandeus 82 , whose name derives from “labrys” 83 the native name of the double-edged axe.
With these elements power us interpret rnas to background he meaning of some references of Plato. of the name corineo comes he of the region that he chose to govern; “… the region that today is Barna Comubia, either by alteration of the original name [Corineo], or because it is, as it is, geographically, the commun or horn of Britain” 84 • Currently to this region is the barna Communes and is very likely to be this the which Eurnelos obtained in Atlantis 85 .
In this way, the two sources mentioned by Plato make sense: “[In the center of the island, Poseidon] He made two fountains of water spring up from underground, one hot, one cold…” 86 • The same idea appears in the Iliad: “… the two crystalline springs, which are the sources of the Xanthus raging. He first has he water hot and it it covers he I smoke as if there were a blazing fire there; the water that springs from the second is in the summer like the hail, the cold snow either he ice” 87 • Are sources are the that are born together with ash tree Yggdrasil and have their roots in German mythology; one is the Barnada Urd 88 , where the Fates reside; the other is the Barnada Mirnir, the source of wisdom, because: “The hydrorniel or elixir of the eye of Odin are the waters of the source of Mirnir” 89 , in a clear relationship between the sense of sight (observe) and wisdom, just as we associate learning with apprehend (grab, retain). adernas, the sources and slopes are propitious for altars and oracle; in this case Mirnir is an oracular head or jaw because, as Snorri says: “Mirnir’s head – Odin sings” 90 •
82 Robert serious suggested that the god Zeus is a manifestation heavenly of Heracles: The Goddess White, YO, VIII,
- 162-3. Although this interpretation must be taken with reservation and certain limitations, in this case in particular there was the explicit intention of the Celtic mythographers and Germans of to assimilate Zeus Labrandeus with Tory Corineo, as well as, there are the god Odin and the hero Odin. CF note 73.
83 Of here it comes the word “labyrinth”, in a relationship between the variegated architecture of the cretan palaces and their function as temples of! double edged ax
84 Monmouth HRB 2, 21.
85 The region that be in front a las Columns about Hercules
86 Plato Criticism l 13e.
87 Rosemary, iliad, XXII, 131-168. The first are waters volcanic that represent the currents underground, while the others are the meltwater that comes from of snowfall and represent the waters of! darling.
88 This source equals the waters of! darling. “The third root of! ash tree it’s in the sky, and under there is that root a very sacred spring which is called the spring of Urd”. Sturluson, Minor Edda, aluc. Gylfi, 14. Regarding the fountain of water hot it ha upset his meaning, position that the root that goes to the fountain of the mimir so only It is terrestrial and there is a third root that goes to the Hvergelmir (“the roaring pot”), an underground source that is in the Niflheim, hell. Idem.
89 Ibid. There odin “… asked a drink of the fountain, but No it got until that He delivered in garment his eye”.
Ibid. Of there that let’s keep going using the phrase I ha side stand a eye of the expensive.
90 ibid., aluc. gylfi, fifty. In ancient times the prophetic heads were common, ” …the head of Orpheus continued singing and prophesying…” Graves, The White Goddess, I, VI, p. 126.
The similarities continue; Plato says: “Over there [in Atlantis] spawned and The [Poseidon] raised five generations of sons and twins. He divided the entire Atlantis island into ten parts. to the firstborn of the two oldest, I assign his mother’s dwelling and the plot of land around it, which was the largest and best. I established it as king over all others. TO He made these princes vassals of that one and each one of them gave him authority over a large number of men and over an extensive territory. He gave names to everyone: the oldest, the king, received the name that served to designate the entire island and the sea called Atlantic, since the name of the first king who reigned then was Atlas. His twin brother [Eumelos], born after him, inherited the extreme part of the island, for the part of the Pillars of Hercules… AND he name that HE you gave HE turned into he country name” 91 • TO continued Plato mentions the others eight siblings: Amferes, Evaimon, Mneseas, Autochthonous, Elasippo, Mestor, Azaes and Diaprepes; whose relations with the German names are not clearly noticed due to the lack of data given by Plato regarding them; however, the name of Azaes, whose origin is not Greek, is reminiscent of that of the family of Odin, the Aces. Eumelos is listed in the catalog of the ships of the Iliad as son of I admit and Alcestes, and king of fairs in Thessaly 92 , and in the odyssey se adds that he was husband of Iftima, sister from Penelope 93 ; stood out to have the top horses of the that they went to Troy 94 • Achilles gave to Eumelos a special prize for having suffered an accident in the race of cars, when I had the best possibilities to win 95 • The main characteristic of the Platonic character Eumelos is having been the the only one I know mentions the region that received6, which he took his name, with it that HE relates to Corineo who had ” … the privilege to choose province before the others…” 96 • In the same way it seems that Plato chose the name of Evenor, a native of the island, father of Cleitus (mortal mother of the kings of the Atlantis) because the only mention of an Evenor in the Odyssey is as a father 97 •
There is also talk of an Evaimon (or Evem6n), father of Euripilo and king of Ormenio, of the Hyperea fountain, Asterio and the snowy peaks of Titanus 98 • Mestor appears as the son of Priam and die in the war troy before time in which the action of the Iliad 99 • The name of Diaprepes so only appears in plays very later
91 Plat6n Criticism 114a y ss.
92 Homer, 2, 711-716 y 23 289.
93 homer the odyssey IV 797
94 homer I / iada 2, 760-780 .
95 Idem, XXIII, 558- 562 .
96 Monmouth, 2010. HRB, II, 21.
97 Father of Le6crito. Homer, Odyssey, II, 242 y XXII, 294.
98 homer Iliad II, 736; 5 79; 7, 167; 8 265 y 11 575
99 The same 24 257
and is important that he pseudo Heraclitus assign this name as epithet of the Hesperides 100 .
On the other hand, some of these names have specific meanings such as: Euµt:Aov (Eumelos) means “rich in sheep” 101 ; ‘AµffiT]pT] (Amferes), “with oars on both sides”, is say, rower either navigator; Mvl)<Jt:a (wag) drift of µvT]<JCO “make memory”, “remember”; ‘E11,i;crt1t1tov (Elasippo), “to lead a horse”, “to ride”; ta1tpe1tT]i; (Diaprepes), “eminent”, “conspicuous” either “distinguished” and mfimopa (Mestor) or also MTJ<J’tcop, means “counselor”.
The atlantis HE divided into nine regions, more a central, the of Atlas. Here, the picture of the distribution is a so much distorted In origin it’s twelve o’clock parts into which it is divided, plus a thirteenth that occupies the center, following ancient calendrical canons, very probably took this version of ten Kings because HE assimilated to the cretan organization of ten Cosmos, equivalent to the ephors of Lacedaemon 102 • In the Younger Edda, Odin “appointed there some kings ta! as there had been in Troy; twelve sen.ores put in the city for that will administer the law … ” 103 this was a ” … temple where are their twelve chairs, plus! throne that have the Universal Father…” 104 • But I do not know divided so only the city, but all he kingdom “… [in] twelve kingdoms and a high king” 105 • AND the reason by the which the cities HE divided in twelve 106 was by emulate he movement of sun in whose orients a god was located. The most appropriate symbolic element to represent this is a tree, whose estate HE extend by he subsoil, his trunk HE rises in he world habitable and their branches HE extend toward he darling. He ash tree yggdrasil fulfills this function. This is rise in the center of the world near of the city of Troy 107 , their three roots arrive to the sources infernal and in their twelve branches that “… HE extend about all
1 0th Appointment _ that No I have I have find and the I have taken out of the translation that did Francisco of Q. Samaranch of
Criticism O la Atlantis (3, 2).
101 Tai instead himself relationship with el epithet M1711.ov of Heracles.
102 Aristotle politics 2, 7
103 Sturluson, Edda Menor, pr6l., 5.
104 Ditto, aluc. female, 13.
105 ibid., pr6l., 3.
106 The Athenian citizens: “They divide themselves in its entirety in four tribes, imitating the seasons that sedan in he year, and each of the tribes HE divide, to turn, in you will go parts, of Way that In total there are twelve parts, he same number of months of year, and those parts are called tritys and phratries; in the phratries are ordered thirty lineages, the same as the days <lei month, and the lineage has thirty men”. Aristotle, Const. At., frag. 5.
107 “In he same center of!Universe -over there where ought be the Capital perfect- HE Raise a wonderful tree: unite the Ninth Sources with the Ninth Heavens, the Underworld of! World with its Summit. it has been called the Straightened Forest (Kien-mu) and it is said that at noon nothing that remains next to it perfectly straight, it can give shade”. Grauel, The Thought Chinese, p. 224. “I know believes that its roots [of! oak of Zeus] extend underground as deep as its branches rise in the air… it that you does symbol of a god who rules Heaven and Hell.” Graves, the Goddess Blanca, I, X, p. 230.
the world and reach the sky” 108 are the mansions of the Germanic gods: Tor, Balder, Niord, tyr, Bragi, Heimdal, Hod, Vidar, Vali, Whoops, Fortesi and Loki 1st 9 • thai time the confusion of the myth of Atlantis , by naming only ten regions, arises because both Balder and Hod They are called “mates of Hell” 110 , is to say that died, of there he count only ten
In he center of the ash tree HE find the Valhalla, where Odin resides, there has a throne called Valaskialf 111 , name that is also given to the Valhalla. This throne is the heavenly equivalent to that exists in troy “… that HE calls Hlisdkialfy, when the Universal Father [Odin] HE sat there in he throne, saw all the worlds” 112 . And in he Valaskialf “… together to the ash tree Yggdrasil; there HE gather the gods in tip every day” 113 , to this place Plato refers to when he says: “To this end [Zeus] gathered all the gods in his noblest and most beautiful mansion; this is located in the center of the Universe and can see from the high [on his throne] all that partakes of the becoming” 114 • That is why, albeit in a distorted way, Geoffrey says of Brutus who lives in the center of the island, “Brutus, who sees everything” 115 • The iconography of Atlas is partially assimilated to the meaning of the tree like bra of the darling; the adopting representations human beings is known, it is enough to remember the Egyptian Shu that separates Geb, the personification of the earth and Nut, the of the darling. He parallelism of the iconography of both, Atlas and he tree, HE gives clearly in a tomb in Deir-El Medina in Thebes of 13th century New Kingdom
BC where there is a wall painting of a deceased couple kneeling before the goddess Nut whose torso anthropomorphic arises of the trunk of a tree along with others branches. But in paganism man is also represented as a tree. “It is true that the proper name of druids will believe by good authorities on the matter that No means another which men of the Oak or men-oaks” 116 , in the edda Minor, odin and their two brothers gave life to man from two trunks, the man was called Ask (“ash”) and the woman Embla (“elm”) 117 , in he Popol Vuh he man is carved of a tree Tzite 118 ;
108 Sturluson, Edda minor, aluc. Gylfi, 14.
109 Of these characters we can identify with the of the atlantis the following: Niord, that carry a life fisherman _ and navigator (Sturluson, edda Minor, aluc. gylfi, 22), with atmospheres; to Bragi, poet that remember the past (idem, 25), with Mneseas, and perhaps Vidar, who is characterized by being silent (idem, 28), with Diaprepes.
110 Idem, Ieng. Art. esc., 5 y 13.
111 Ibidem, aluc. Gylfi, 16.
112 Ibidem, 8.
113 Ibidem, 14.
114 Plat6n, Critias, I 21 b.
115 Monmouth, 2010. HRB, II , 18.
116 Frazer, The rama gilded, XV.
117 Sturluson, aluc. Gylfi, 8.
118 An6nimo, Popol-Vuh, IV.
Romero also makes constant comparisons between trees and men 1 19 • Not without reason we continue to use until he day of today the expression “to take root” and to the thorax and abdomen it we call “trunk” . A analysis simple of this relationship between tree and man
you can find them _ _ _ columns , that are understood as trees integers further that as
s impl es poles, cost it has been done not origin _ and between the column s gothic whose ribbing represent
the branches and he set of the colors and the stained glass they try play he atmosphere of a forest. He capital is the proper head of the columnna, in Latin drift of capitellum, the diminutive of caput (“head”), in Greek is £1ttKpavov (epicranon) that is so much touched as a capital, which is associated with the word Kpaviov (cranion) which means skull. Also are the columns with shapes human known as Atlas and Caryatids , however, exist intermediate stylistic relationships that HE call epµa (henna), that they are quadrangular pillars with genitals that later carried a head and were narrowed towards the base 120 •
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