An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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  • NEWS September 2023

    NEWS September 2023

    September 2023. Hi Atlantipedes, At present I am in Sardinia for a short visit. Later we move to Sicily and Malta. The trip is purely vacational. Unfortunately, I am writing this in a dreadful apartment, sitting on a bed, with access to just one useable socket and a small Notebook. Consequently, I possibly will not […]Read More »
  • Joining The Dots

    Joining The Dots

    I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato’s own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.Read More »

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Terrence Aym

Atlantis Nonsense #18 *

The subject of Atlantis has kept the ‘lunatic fringe’ busy for over a century. In total defiance of commonsense and/or science, there is a continual outpouring of nonsensical ideas and claims that are totally at variance with the only real source of information regarding Atlantis, namely, the writings of Plato. I have already written about the worthlessness of ‘channelled’ information. Some of that material is the result of plagiarism or self-delusion. In other instances, we are dealing with simple hoaxes, while in other cases we are possibly reading the sad consequences of some psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. The advent of the internet has provided an inexpensive and readily accessible outlet for both the deluded and the dishonest. So, from time to time I shall add examples of these fantasies and frauds, the reader will have to decide which are which and whether they warrant laughter or tears.

Atlantis Nonsense #18

Dolores Cannon offered the following titbit of historical trivia – “It would appear that the long vanished pyramids of Atlantis and the ruins of pyramids that remain in Egypt and elsewhere in the world were built with the knowledge or assistance of aliens. What their exact purpose was and is remains to be discovered.”

Aliens: The Pyramids of Atlantis, Egypt and the Ancient World – Dolores Cannon ( *

This information she gleaned from ‘past lives regression sessions’ with various subjects. Although the same sources ‘revealed’ that the pyramids were built using levitation and pure mental energy. Yet, she cannot tell why they were built! All fairly standard humbug.

Atlantis Nonsense #17

Delahnnovahh-Starr Livingstone is the author of a number of books and the website. If there was an award for the worst website in terms of literary bilge, Mr Livingstone would have my vote. I spent a considerable time trying to decide what excerpts might be more representative but found that it was all so bad that I chose the first paragraph and two others entirely at random(e).

Fourteen thousand years ago saw the founding of Atlantis at the beginning of the Virgo dispensation, signified by the Great Pyramid. Also called the ‘Temple of the Hieroglyph’. Pyramid geometry was used extensively at strategic leyline locations all around the World at the time to help in the induction and dispersement of the incoming frequencies of Virgo. Virgo saw the establishment of Planetary Law of one hundred and eight at the third dimensional level of consciousness for the first time as a first step back towards full inter-dimensional Galactic Law normalcy starting to come in now.”

“During Atlantis, you had been brought forward into prominence in preparation for the opportunity of clearing within the Christ cradle to come two thousand years ago. During Atlantis most of you were located in Sodom and Gomorrah, being the most removed from the mainstream of Atlantian civilization.”

“Similarly in the warm-up to Atlantis the main portion of the Grand Canyon was carved. The Atlantians travelled in magnetic levitational devices called Vailxes, able to move a hundred miles an hour up and down the meridians and a thousand miles an hour across. An early Atlantian had sat in a Vailxe over the canyon watching it being carved out and later recounted it.”

(e) Atlantis | Island of Atlantis | Sodom and Gomorrah | Black Masters of Altlantis ( 

Atlantis Nonsense #16

It appears to me that somewhere out there is a training school for people that want to use Atlantis as a marketing tool. Book publishers are notorious for inducing authors to include ‘Atlantis’ in the title of their books. It seems that Zoë Devi graduated from that school.

She is a typical example of a self-appointed guru delighting the world with goodies such as ‘Nordic Light Healing’ and ‘Soul Vibration Marketing’. However, when she ventured to include Atlantis in her vast output of bovine manure, I had to say something. She offers to reveal Atlantis Codes that will wait for it, ‘awaken your DNA’. Now, I did not know that our DNA was asleep and neither did you. Zoë’s video with start you on the road to ending this dormancy.

DNA activation – The Codes of Atlantis – Introduction – Bing video

Atlantis Nonsense #15

Just over a decade ago, the following headline adorned one website “Cocaine Mummies as Evidence for Atlantis in Antarctica”. With visions of pharaohs having damaged septa as well as junkie penguins, I was not sure whether to laugh or cry. The story of the cocaine mummies has been around since 1979 and has been used to prove the existence of very early trans-Atlantic contacts. That debate has rumbled on, while the Antarctica connection could easily be mistaken for the ramblings of an addled addict’s brain.

Atlantis Nonsense #14

It is some time since I added anything to my collection of Atlantis nonsense. This is due to a lack of time rather than material. This contribution comes from the keyboard of Geoffrey Keyte, Atlantean Reiki Grandmaster.

“Using Atlantean crystals which you intuit as “clear” (not previously programmed), you may tap into the Atlantean Crystal Matrix–the “light net” connecting all the Atlantean crystals to the greater universal grid of UNITY Thoth calls the “Attasic,” which is beyond the half-light reality-universe in which we collectively maintain in our field. To aid you in accessing the Atlantean Crystal Matrix, you may wish to visualize a blue-green light in the centre of which is a sparkling clear crystal radiating rainbow colours. Chant the mantram OMU-RA-SA-SET-TA until you feel that you have successfully entered the matrix. Then chant AB-E-VEH-SEE-MA-ON-UR-EH as you call upon these codes to quicken your light body to the “Attasic” Universe.”

*  (link broken Dec. 2019)

Atlantis Nonsense #13

It is some time since I added anything to this nonsense section, not because there was any shortage of Atlantis drivel to entertain us, but because I had other more important matters to attend to. Today’s bovine effluent came from the keyboard of Antoinette-Lyons Glynn in 2014 as a promo for a workshop.







Atlantis Nonsense # 12

The marketing power of the name Atlantis has been long recognised. Today’s delight is from a site endeavouring to get the unsuspecting to part with their cash for what is promoted as ‘Classic Atlantean Triads’ and which – joy of joys – also include EMO beads. A snip at $3500.

The lengthy copy includes so much drivel that the following will have to suffice;

“The Atlanteans had machines. Lots of machines, lots of what is considered now ‘modern’ technology, including safety razors, pressure-cookers, perfumes, complex dinner menus, fast food shops, timepieces, water and windmills, steam engines, maps, compasses and astrolabes, complex hand-operated computers that rival any Swiss watch for intricacy and engineering, indoor plumbing, hot water heaters, ice cream and ice makers, leather shoes, dentistry almost as sophisticated as today’s, refrigerators, wireless telegraphy, electroplating and sets of building and measuring tools as good as any you’ll find in your modern hardware store.”

Atlantis Nonsense # 11

Hollywood It seems that actress Shirley McClaine revealed that A Dweller on Two Planets[1014], by Frederick S. Oliver, “jumped out of a bookshelf into her hands” in a New Age bookstore in Hong Kong (and obviously had a big influence on her subsequently)! I think a comment is unnecessary.

A Dweller on Two Planets Index (  

Atlantis Nonsense # 10

This gem comes from a site dealing with the astrological meaning of individual letters in a person’s name. Comment would be superfluous.

“BRIAN (letter B)

People whose name starts with the letter B are controlled by the planet Saturn. If you have a B in your name then you are helpful, humorous, mostly resolved, but often fearful. Looking at the letter B one sees the heart which mirrors feminine energy. It also looks like a figure eight lying down and that can mean infinity. The task is to discover the world, and to find sacred powers to gain greater protection for themselves and others. If you have a B in the name, then you have been incarnated in several races: Lemuria, Atlantis, and other planets. Through the experience accumulated from previous lives, you are the one who wants to prove himself in this life.” (offline Mar.2016)

Atlantis Nonsense # 9

It is some time since I added to this section, but today I must share with CooperDiana166x178you some of the drivel published by Diana Cooper, with which her website abounds.

I met my first unicorn when I was sitting on the lawn with my laptop on my knee. A beautiful white presence appeared by my side and I was amazed to realize it was a unicorn. It gave me information about the unicorn realms and told me that they are looking for people of high energy who want to help the world. They will connect to them and help them.

   Unicorns are pure white seventh-dimensional horses who have returned to Earth for the first time since Atlantis to help us with our ascension. They are known as the purest of the pure and have qualities of love, peace, calm, gentleness, hope, majesty, caring, magic and mystery. They will come to you when you are ready, helping you too to develop your unicorn qualities. (Link broken Feb. 2019) See:

Atlantis Nonsense # 8 For New Age crazies, have included here an offering from the keyboard of StinsonDeanna Jaxine Stinson, who admits to co-owning “a paranormal business that seeks out extraterrestrials, demons, ghosts, monsters, vampires and so much more.” Stinson is an Atlantis sceptic but does tell us that “the story is that Atlantis is a highly developed society that just goes missing one day. There is a lot of debate and there is really no good evidence that this was a real place or where it was. It is more of a spiritual place. People who connect with the spirit world through crystal skulls commonly process that the people of these times were using crystal skulls and that they summoned something that caused their city to be sucked into some kind of vortex and transported to another dimension.” There is more literary effluent where that came from.*Stinson also informs us that “the ancient lost city of Atlantis is believed to have been destroyed by crystal skulls.” (a)


Alantis Nonsense #7 As a rule I encourage recycling, but when it comes to the regurgitating of old and sometimes discredited Atlantis stories, my blood boils. An example today (5 Sept. 2014) concerns the 2001 claim by Zelitsky and Weinzweig that they had discovered a sunken city off the west coast of Cuba, between the island and the Yucatan Peninsula. Nothing substantial has been heard since, but it’s reasonable to wonder why the cash-poor government of Cuba has failed to capitalise on what potentially should be one of the world’s most lucrative tourist attractions. The story got a lot of attention at the time and is occasionally ‘recycled’ by careless researchers. Some of the images are suspect and not a single piece of verifiable scientific evidence has been offered to support the original claim. Even if the ‘city’ exists, there is absolutely no reason to identify it with Atlantis. Sunken cities exist all over the world. And so, today (5th Sept 2014) we have Terrence Aym misleadingly presenting(a) the story again as if it was new and inaccurately locating the proposed Cuban site inside the Bermuda Triangle, which it clearly is not. This sort of sloppy research is what I expect from someone desperate for publicity. All that Aym has produced is another piece of literary bovine manure, however, he has not cornered the market for that exotic product.


 Atlantis Nonsense #6   This contribution comes from the fertile imagination of Lewis E. Graham PhD who in a radio interview(a) ranging over many subjects including astronomy, the Nephilim, geology, and Atlantis. Graham was Lewid E. Grahama minister by both the Temple of Knowledge and the Huna Heiau, which also awarded him its Doctorate of Divinity degree (D.D.) in 2000. He locates Atlantis in Antarctica which was destroyed by an encounter with the rogue planet Tiamat. He also claims that the Atlanteans averaged 8.5 feet in height and had an alphabet of three-dimensional symbols, the first three of which are the basis for his brand of Atlantean meditation. He further claims that there was a linkage between the language of ancient Egypt and that of Hawaii! In his interview, which lasts for two hours, he quotes frequently from Robert Schoch, the Flem-Aths, Graham Hancock and the Bible. Plato, however, gets very little mention. It is a collection of unsubstantiated claims based on ‘revelations’ made to him. His sincerity is not for me to judge.

(a)  (audio only)

Atlantis Nonsense #5 In February 2014 it was reported(a) that two scientists had announced in Bern that they had ‘proof’ that Atlantis had existed on Mars and had traded with the ancient Egyptians! Dr Stephan Weisz and Egyptologist Conrad Vetsch claimed that “a recently deciphered Egyptian scroll first led them to believe that Atlantis was located on Mars. The scroll describes a technologically advanced civilization existing beyond our own planet “in the vast, black ocean of space.” It also alludes to space travel and the use of a shuttlecraft to ferry manlike extraterrestrials from a space-bound mother ship to the surface of Earth.” The credentials of these two gentlemen were not provided. No information regarding the scroll was forthcoming. Apparently, Plato did not get a mention, nor was there any explanation of how Atlanteans capable of space travel were defeated by the relatively primitive Athenians. In the absence of further information this b.s. should be treated as a hoax, concocted to achieve for the perpetrators ‘their fifteen minutes of fame’.


Atlantis Nonsense #4

This offering is from ‘The Solar Brotherhood of the Seven Rays’ and signed by Rev Dr Robert Ghost Wolf robert ghost wolf“The Atlanteans were a very scientific and intellectual people, with little regard for the natural laws of cause and effect. The Atlanteans were a Patriarchal society, and the Lemurians were a Matriarchal society, their philosophies as well as their perceptions being constantly at odds. The Atlanteans were as well obsessed with the acquisition of ever-increasing levels of power and control over nature, and if possible the Earth herself.  This carries over into a blatant recklessness regarding their experiments. Their attempts to harness the Earth’s energies, at one point caused a complete tear in the membrane of the Earth’s atmosphere itself.  This tare in the fragile living membrane occurrence was much like the ozone layer is behaving today, the membrane was spreading of its own accord, causing rips in the time-space continuum.  This allowed for thin spots or holes as it were to appear in the membrane. Once it was realized what was occurring it was too late, there was no way to slow the process, as they had little knowledge of that kind of science.  Eventually, there were leaks from the layers that separated the dimensions; allowing life forms from many different dimensional expressions to enter not only into the Earth plane, but also into all manner of expressions of life forms thereon, including humans, and animals that dwelled upon her.”

Atlantis Nonsense #3 This gem comes from a forum on David Icke’s website. This contribution links Atlanteans, Reptilians, crystal skulls and Easter Island! david icke“The once-mighty Atlanteans came from the star system Epsilon Bootis to Earth about 20,000 years ago. The Atlanteans are benevolent! They settled on Easter Island until they were wiped out by the Reptilians about 12,000 years ago. The Easter Island monoliths were meant to ward off humans from finding the secrets off the shores of Easter Island and the buried secrets below Easter Island. This was set up by the Reptilians. The crystal skulls are artefacts of the Atlanteans. The malevolent Draconian Reptilians captured and eliminated most of all the ancient Atlante and altered their DNA. In fact, the Queen of England is .333 part Reptilian and about .012 Atlantean. When the 13 skulls are found, then this will give humans information on how to build ships to reach distant star systems and colonize them.”

> (Link broken March 2020)<

Atlantis Nonsense # 2 This offering comes from an American, Mark Hammons, in a piece entitled Accessible Remains of Atlantis. This lengthy blog jumps from Tesla to LSD to Stargate Atlantis and beyond. The entire blog must be read if appropriate treatment is to be recommended, but the following extract should give you a flavour; “Among the accomplishments of the Atlanteans, for example, was “perfect” weather control. Now the average immediate notion is of abundant fields of waving grain in endless summer alongside the most beautiful of beaches. They had that, and it bored them; too utilitarian to them as we might look at a vineyard. They left such backlands to the serving creatures. The Atlanteans had come into the physical world essentially for stimulation. They loved storms. Whole areas of their land were given over, like national parks, to violent displays of atmospheric turbulence. Their servants, of course, were less fond of these events, which could in the equivalent of  ”artistic license” spillover and kill them, at will. Some did, some didn’t. They also had the ability to affect geological events for their experiential pleasure. Volcanic fountains were a favourite, but much was done with steam and mineral venting for an artistic result. They had plenty of time–the earlier ones were still immortal. More than one volcanic seamount poking its head above the waters of the Atlantic Ocean started out this way. Later, of course, they lost control. “  

Atlantis Nonsense # 1 This first piece of drivel comes from the pen of the prolific Frank Joseph. These are excerpts from a paper entitled Atlantis and the Great Pyramid from the July/August 2006 edition of Atlantis Rising magazine. ” They (the Egyptians) somehow foresaw some inevitable celestial catastrophe with potential for extraordinary destructiveness. As the object’s orbit began to noticeably decay, ground-observers concluded that an impact with our planet was un­avoidable, and began to prepare for the event by constructing a device that would bolster earth’s ionosphere, thereby deflecting the course of the falling object. The pyramid builders erected their geo-transducer because they understood that the earth was periodically en­dangered by recurring cycles of celestial bombardments. The Great Pyramid was built to guard against future colli­sions from outer space.” “These and other revelations are not mere speculations, but bolstered by evidence for Atlantean influences in Egypt, Mesopotamia and North Africa, as presented in my four published books on the subject. A straightforward ex­amination of the evidence shows that the Atlanteans created a material culture in some respects superior to and in most aspects entirely different from our own. But their strange technology, however powerful, could not save them from the sudden oblivion that consigned Atlantis to the realm of legend. All this began prior to but also accompanied the official rise of high cultures, some five thousand years ago. The fate of this lost race and the ultimate purpose of their Great Pyramid are interwoven motifs laying bare the roots of our civilization. Those roots are not hidden in the sands of Egypt but under the dark fathoms of the ocean that derived its name from the lost homeland of mankind.”


Pole Shift

Pole Shift is a term used to describe a range of theories that includes an alteration to or even the complete reversal of the magnetic poles, a change to the axis of rotation of the entire planet as well as a possible sudden movement of the outer crust of the Earth relative to its axis.

The magnetic poles are always on the move and well documented, while their complete reversal is a much slower process, previous reversals have left us with geological ‘fingerprints’. It is suggested that another reversal is imminent, while some ‘prophets of doom’ have nominated late 2013 for the event, with dire consequences for mankind(f).

The latest data shows drift of about 40 miles a year, with a recent movement of 161 miles in just six months, creating navigation problems and the re-designation of airport runways which are named after their compass orientation(i).

Jason Colavito has unearthed an early reference to some form of an axial pole shift, proposed as early 1883 in a book [1595] by the somewhat eccentric Australian, John Wood Beilby (1818-1903)(q). However, according to Colavito, there was an even earlier reference to a Pole Shift by Brasseur de Bourbourg in his Historical Chronology of the Mexicans of 1873(r). He also linked this event to the destruction of Atlantis(n).>However, it seems that Robert Hooke controversially suggested the idea of pole shift as early as the seventeenth century(z).<

David Hatcher Childress recently (2023) offered another 19th-century reference to pole shift when he wrote that “About 1885, (James)Churchward found his way to Siberia and the valley of the Lena River. He was now looking for evidence of ancient cataclysms, which, if it could be found, would lend credence to the idea that an ancient, advanced civilization such as Mu could disappear. Churchward wanted to see the piles of mammoth bones and tusks washed up in tidal waves on the Lackoff Islands (The Islands of Bones) just beyond the mouth of the Lena. He was convinced by these giant piles of ivory and bones that a ‘pole shift’ phenomenon had occurred in the past, where the earth’s crust slipped several degrees toward the equator causing massive tidal waves to wash over portions of the earth and ultimately cause the sinking of entire continents such as Mu.” (y).

The suggestion that an ancient axial pole shift was the consequence of plate tectonics has been disputed by William Sager & Anthony Koppers of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Although conceding that plate tectonics may have played a part they describe the 16-21 degree change, 84 million years ago as “an odd event.”(t)

The idea of wandering (magnetic) Poles was first proposed by the German priest Damian Kreichgauer(1859-1940)(g) in 1902[513], although at the time he found little support for the concept. The late Terrence Aym was of the opinion(l) that a magnetic pole reversal was a sign that the next Ice Age was beginning! Today, NASA provides us with a more sober view of the phenomenon of magnetic pole shifts(k).

Another theory suggests that a severe reduction in sunspot activity may herald the imminent return of another ‘little ice age’ such as was experienced in the 17th century and known as the Maunder Minimum. During that period only 50 sunspots were recorded instead of the usual 40-50 thousand(w). NASA has denied that there is any such impending cooling and that the possible effect of any reduced solar activity would be more than offset by the warming caused by human activity(x).

There are a number of variations on the basic concept of an axial change and an array of suggestions for the date of the last displacement. Generally speaking, the mechanism required to cause such a catastrophe is believed to be an impact by or close encounter with a large asteroid or comet. The continuing discovery of huge impact craters around the globe reinforces this possibility. However, recent studies have identified other processes that may have led to polar changes in the past(e).

The suggestion of an Antarctic location for Atlantis, as proposed by Rose and Rand Flem-Ath[062], is totally dependent on a pole shift. The Flem-Aths have interpreted the characteristics of our present icecaps as strong evidence for a number of previous pole shifts. This idea was inspired by the work of Charles Hapgood[369], who was convinced by such evidence as the Piri Reis Map and other ancient maps that seemed to indicate the existence of an Ice Age civilisation now partly covered by the Antarctic icecap. Hapgood has noted[1494.71] that in the 1950’s Karl A. Pauly[1496 and George W. Bain[1498 also supported a form of crustal shift, the former building on the work of A. S. Eddington[1497 of some decades earlier.

Nevertheless, a more critical look at Hapgood’s theory reveals a number of flaws(s), which should be considered in the light of the fact that Hapgood was a professor of history and not a geologist and Graham Hancock, who heavily endorsed Hapgood’s ideas is neither.

‘Project Atlantis’ is the title of an assignment(p) given to first-year geology students at Malaspina University-College in British Columbia. It was set by lecturer Professor Steven Earle with the intention of developing the critical thinking of his students. The objective of the task is to investigate the Crustal Displacement theory of the Flem-Aths, whose ‘Atlantis in the Antarctic’ hypothesis is totally dependent on the occurrence of a pole shift resulting from some form of earth crustal displacement. Kyle Bennett has written a book and a number of papers on the subject.

Pole Shift [0795] by John White, frequently associates the destruction of Atlantis with a pole shift and anticipates another one in the near future, but unfortunately, most of the ‘evidence’ he offers in support of this contention comes from psychic sources, which cannot be accepted as reliable. However, it seems that some years later White completely revised his opinions according to a 1996 report(m).

Although the majority opinion is that pole shifts occurred as a result of encounters with extraterrestrial bodies, Hapgood contended that only the outer crust of the earth shifted and that this was the result of a build-up of ice at the Poles causing instability. However, it has since been calculated that the polar ice constitutes such a small percentage of the mass of the crust that it could not possibly have caused the slippage proposed by Hapgood. This idea and others are discussed on the Pole Shift Forum(o).

Another researcher, S.F.Wells, was prompted by Flem-Ath’s work to examine the Avebury stone circle to see if there was any evidence of a pole shift there. To his surprise, he did discover at Avebury and at other ancient monuments in the locality clear evidence of a pole change of up to 30° in the past. In 2003, he wrote a paper outlining his observations(c).

Flavio Barbiero has written a paper proposing that an impact with an asteroid as small as half a kilometre in diameter could result in a rapid pole shift.

A number of facts are proposed to support the idea of a pole shift. One of the most popular is the extermination of the mammoth, which once again was central to a recent book by Charles Ginenthal, The Extinction of the Mammoth [0514]+, which dates the last pole shift to around 1500 BC. Perhaps the most impressive evidence came from Sweden in November 2009(b) when settlements dating to 9000 BC were discovered in the north of the country in a region that according to accepted theory should have been covered by ice at that time.

Wolter Smit points out that the orientation of some Mayan Temples is apparently out by around 17 degrees from what would be expected. A structural feature at the 4,000-year-old temple of Saar in Bahrain is believed to have been used to record the summer solstice is now out by 10 degrees. Similar anomalies were noted by G.F. Dodwell during his study of ancient gnomons. A further indication that our present knowledge of polar changes may be flawed is highlighted by the fact that on April 15th 136 BC we have a record of an eclipse that completely darkened Babylon that should have had its zone of totality over the Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean. This is a difference of nearly 50 degrees and implies that either the Earth has slowed or the polar axis has shifted.

The idea that Pole Shift(s) can be linked to the location and orientation of many ancient sites is explored by Mark Carlotto in his new book, Before Atlantis [1600].

Amy Smith also claims that the Earth ‘tilted’ around 10,000 BC(d) referring to two ancient quotations that may support the reality of this Pole Shift – one from Plato (Tim.22d) and the other from the Book of Enoch/Noah (65.1).

The Hutton Commentaries(a) contain many articles relating to an impending pole shift based on the readings of Edgar Cayce.

In October 2004, Alexander Chechelnitsky, a Russian astrophysicist claimed that Atlantis was located in the Yukon River valley in Alaska[515]. This, he believes, was the result of a pole shift although he admits that scientific evidence is lacking for this theory!

A recent overview of the Pole Shift theory was published in July 2014(h).

[0514]+ Available online: Free Electric Universe theory ebooks and related research papers ( 

(a) Hutton Commentaries – Archives 




(e) See Archive 3029



(h) Antartica, Atlantis, and the Earth crustal displacement theory | CanadaNewsLibre (

(i) See {2268} 




(m) NHNE: Pole Shift Torpedoed by Author ( 



(p) See:










(z) *