An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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    Joining The Dots

    I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato’s own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.Read More »

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Wolter Smit


Mammoths existed as a number species in many parts of Eurasia and the Americas and were the ancestors of today’s elephants, part of the fauna of Plato’s Atlantis. Mammoths existed for around 5 million years until their extinction over 10,000 years ago, apart, apparently, from a small population on Wrangel Island in Siberia(d), which appears to have lasted until possibly as late as 1700 BC.>An intensive study of mammoth remains on Alaska’s St. Paul Island, which was once part of the Beringia landbridge has revealed that they finally died out there 5,600 years ago(e). “The St. Paul mammoth demise is now one of the best-dated prehistoric extinctions,” the researchers report today (August 1, 2016) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.<

The remains of mammoths were probably not studied scientifically until early in the 19th century, with individual specimens such as the ‘Adams’ and the ‘Berezovka’ receiving great attention(c).

However, it was not until the 20th century that mammoths began to slowly enter the pages of the Atlantis story. Both John Cogan and Wolter Smit have used the mammoth evidence to support their belief that Atlantis was destroyed by an asteroid strike which caused a sudden Pole Shift and consequent freezing of the mammoths.

Ludwik Zajdler believed that there was evidence of a collision between the Earth and Halley’s Comet in 9570 BC and that this caused a 30° alteration to the axis of the earth resulting in the sudden freezing of the Siberian mammoths.

Then Antarctica was also nominated by the Flem-Aths as the home of Atlantis, also caused by a Pole Shift, but in their case by a wholesale movement of the Earth’s crust as a result of an excessive build-up of ice at the poles!

Theosophists have seized on the sudden demise of the very many mammoth remains discovered in Siberia and Alaska as vindication of Blavatsky’s Atlantis claims.(a)

R. Cedric Leonard has also reviewed the matter of the apparently instant death of many mammoths bodies discovered and the date of their end and posed the rhetorical question “Can it be merely coincidence that this is the very date (circa 10.000 BC) indicated by Plato for the floods and seismic disturbances which led to the sinking of Atlantis and the destruction of its empire?” (b)






Dendera Zodiac

The Dendera(h) Zodiac is a well-known bas-relief taken from the ceiling of the Hathor temple at Dendera in Egypt. The temple was constructed during the Graeco-Roman Period and removed by the French in 1821 and brought to Paris, where it can now be viewed in the Louvre.

Inevitably, there is controversy regarding the date that the zodiac was intended to represent. Not unexpectedly, the zodiac has also been drawn into the Atlantis debates with Albert Slosman claiming that the zodiac indicates a date of July 27th 9792 for the destruction of Atlantis[0550]!  Slosman’s extreme ideas on the subject greatly influenced the thinking of others, including Patrick Geryl & Gino Ratinckx, Wolter Smit and Carlos Barcelo. Hossam Aboulfotouh has also offered an alternative interpretation of the Dendera Zodiac(a), with many more available on the internet.

Robert Bauval has written a series of seven short papers about Dendera and its Zodiac(b).>A 2012 paper by Dr Rosalind Park & Bernard Eccles also offers a study of the Zodiac’s date(c).<



For the other six papers substitute 1058 with 1062, 1065, 1067, 1074, 1076, and 1080.

>(c) (99+) (PDF) DATING THE DENDERA ZODIAC – EGYPT’S FAMOUS GRECO-ROMAN “ZODIAC” (2012) | Roz Park and bernard eccles –<

Smit, Wolter

Wolter Smit was born in Wanneperveen, Holland in 1945 and after a period of work in Switzerland, he now lives in France. He has worked as a freelance computer engineer, but currently concentrates on his research and writing.

Wolter_Smit_2He runs a website, in French and English(a) that investigates the Atlantis story, based on his book, Était – elle l’Atlantide? (Was this Atlantis?) [0716], in which he generally supports Otto Muck’s theory that an asteroid impact in the Atlantic led to the destruction of Atlantis.

In 2011 Smit published an English translation of his book[0887].

He develops the idea that this impact altered the earth’s axis and rate of rotation. Smit agrees with the date of 9792 BC for the destruction of Atlantis as proposed by Albert Slosman.

Smit has a valuable section entitled, Population and Size, in which he calculates the size of the Atlantean army as 1,200,000.

Nevertheless, I feel that Smit undermines any claim to scientific objectivity by the introduction of the readings of Edgar Cayce into his dissertation. This is all the more inexplicable as Smit in his Foreword states that he does “not want to consider things about magic crystals” and then devotes so much of his book to the ramblings of Cayce who attributed a crystal power source to the Atlanteans.

Although there are a number of inaccuracies in Smit’s book, there are also some interesting sections that should be studied.


Slosman, Albert

Albert Slosman (1925-1981), was a French professor of mathematics and an expert in computer science, having helped NASA with some of their programs. As a member of the French Resistance, he was captured and tortured by the Gestapo. Ironically, after the Liberation of France, he was unjustly accused of desertion and deported to Cameroon. While there, he heard of a local myth that told of a great cataclysm with which God had punished the wickedness of man and almost completely inundated a large continent in the Atlantic, where we now have Fernando Poo (Macias Nguema Biyogo). Afterwards Slosman travelled to Egypt and while there began to study hieroglyphics and also engaged in a serious investigation of the Denderah Zodiac.

While travelling in the Moroccan Middle Atlas Mountains, near Midelt, he was interested in the metals found there thinking that there was a connection between Moroccan oricalcita, a copper derivative, and Plato’s orichalcum!

His Egyptian studies led him to conclude that (i) Atlantis existed in the Atlantic and that after its submergence survivors migrated across North Africa and eventually became settled in Egypt and that (ii) the Denderah Zodiac indicated a July 27th 9792 BC date for this destruction of Atlantis[0550]! He managed to publish ten books, two of which related to Atlantis, before his tragic death following a fall in 1981. Unfortunately, many more publications were still at various stages of development at the time of his death.

Slosman has a number of devotees, one of whom is Emilio Bourgon, who published a paper in support of Slosman. An English machine translation of this is available in the Atlantipedia Archives(a).

Wolter Smit, on his website, appears to accept Slosman’s interpretation of the Denderah Zodiac regarding the destruction of Atlantis. Likewise, Patrick Geryl and Gino Ratinckx were so impressed by Slosman’s interpretation that they incorporated parts of it into their book[066] on an impending catastrophe in 2012. Carlos Barceló is also a fan of Slosman’s interpretation.

More about Slosman can be found at the following Spanish language website(a).


(b) See: Archive 2399

NOTE: Juan Garcia Atienza also wrote a book entitled Los Supervivientes de la Atlantida.

Population of Atlantis

The Population of Atlantis has been estimated by a number of Atlantologists, based on the data provided by Plato.

Otto Muck[098] considered the population of Atlantis to have been at least 20 million.
“Let us begin with the allegedly excessive numbers of inhabitants. This can be roughly calculated from the details Plato gives of the organisation of the Atlantean armed forces: 480,000-foot soldiers, 120,000 horsemen, 160,000 manning the 10,000 heavy chariots and 60,000 light chariots, and 240,000 sailors. These add up to approximately one million men under arms.” From this, Muck extrapolated a total population of between twenty and forty million for Atlantis.

Zhirov suggested 5-6 million, Bryusov 20-25 million, while Imbelloni & Vivante decided on 138 million.

Wolter Smit estimates(a) the Atlantean population figure to be between 28 and 155 millions. Constantin Benetatos suggests(b) a lower figure of between 6 and 10 million but also considers Plato’s data to be exaggerated.worldPopulation

The total population of the entire world in 10,000 BC has been estimated at somewhere between one and ten million (c)(d)(e)(f). Even if we accept the somewhat questionable higher figure, we can see that this is only a half or a quarter of the population of Atlantis on its own. Consequently, we are forced to conclude that either Plato’s dating is wrong or the Atlantean military manpower is exaggerated or, as I suspect, both are incorrect. Therefore, once again we are forced to view Plato’s numbers with some suspicion.

Recently, P.P. Flambas in his oversized Plato’s Caribbean Atlantis[1368] has suggested that the world population at 11,000 BC was stable at around three million people, although there is a greater consensus that the figure was one million. However, Plato’s total for the Atlantean military alone is one million, which forces us to either consider that his date for the Atlantean War and/or the size of the Atlantean army seriously wrong.I consider both to be exaggerated by a similar factor. The fact that the Athenians defeated the Atlanteans suggests much smaller armies and a lack of any archaeological evidence on Greek territory of more than a handful of troglodytes in the 10th Millennium BC contradicts the date.





>(e) How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth? (<



Pole Shift

Pole Shift is a term used to describe a range of theories that includes an alteration to or even the complete reversal of the magnetic poles, a change to the axis of rotation of the entire planet as well as a possible sudden movement of the outer crust of the Earth relative to its axis.

The magnetic poles are always on the move and well documented, while their complete reversal is a much slower process, previous reversals have left us geological ‘fingerprints’. It is suggested that another reversal is imminent, while some ‘prophets of doom’ have nominated late 2013 for the event, with dire consequences for mankind(f).

The latest data shows drift of about 40 miles a year, with a recent movement of 161 miles in just six months, creating navigation problems and the re-designation of airport runways which are named after their compass orientation(i).

Jason Colavito has unearthed an early reference to some form of axial pole shift, proposed as early 1883 in a book [1595] by the somewhat eccentric Australian, John Wood Beilby (1818-1903)(q). However, according to Colavito there was an even earlier reference to a Pole Shift by Brasseur de Bourbourg in his Historical Chronology of the Mexicans of 1873(r). He also linked this event to the destruction of Atlantis(n).

The suggestion that an ancient axial pole shift was the consequence of plate tectonics has been disputed by William Sager & Anthony Koppers of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Although conceding that plate tectonics may have played a part they describe the 16-21 degree change, 84 million years ago as “an odd event.”(t)

The idea of wandering (magnetic) Poles was first proposed by the German priest Damian Kreichgauer(1859-1940)(g) in 1902[513], although at the time he found little support for the concept. The late Terrence Aym was of the opinion(l) that a magnetic pole reversal was a sign that the next Ice Age was beginning! Today, NASA provides us with a more sober view of the phenomenon of magnetic pole shifts.(k).

There are a number of variations on the basic concept of an axial change and an array of suggestions for the date of the last displacement. Generally speaking the mechanism required to cause such a catastrophe is believed to be an impact by or close encounter with a large asteroid or comet. The continuing discovery of huge impact craters around the globe reinforces this possibility. However, recent studies have identified other processes that may have led to polar changes in the past(e).

The suggestion of an Antarctic location for Atlantis, as proposed by Rose and Rand Flem-Ath[062], is totally dependent on a pole shift. The Flem-Aths have interpreted the characteristics of our present icecaps as strong evidence for a number of previous pole shifts. This idea was inspired by the work of Charles Hapgood[369], who was convinced by such evidence as the Piri Reis Map and other ancient maps that seemed indicated the existence of an Ice Age civilisation now partly covered by the Antarctic icecap. Hapgood has noted[1494.71] that in the 1950’s Karl A. Pauly[1496 and George W. Bain[1498 also supported a form of crustal shift, the former building on the work of A. S. Eddington[1497 of some decades earlier.

Nevertheless, a more critical look at Hapgood’s theory reveals a number of flaws(s), which should be considered in the light of the fact that Hapgood was was a professor of history and not a geologist and Graham Hancock, who heavily endorsed Hapgood’s ideas is neither.

‘Project Atlantis’ is the title of an assignment(p) given to first-year geology students at Malaspina University-College in British Columbia. It was set by lecturer Professor Steven Earle with intention of developing the critical thinking of his students. The objective of the task is to investigate the Crustal Displacement theory of the Flem-Aths, whose ‘Atlantis in the Antarctic’ hypothesis is totally dependent on the occurrence of a pole shift resulting from some form earth crusal displacement. Kyle Bennett has written a book and a number of papers on the subject.

Pole Shift[0795] by John White, frequently associates the destruction of Atlantis with a pole shift and anticipates another one in the near future, but unfortuntely, most of the ‘evidence’ he offers in support of this contention comes from psychic sources, which cannot be accept as reliable. However, it seems that some years later White completely revised his opinions according to a 1996 report(m).

Although the majority opinion is that pole shifts occurred as a result of encounters with extraterrestrial bodies, Hapgood contended that only the outer crust of the earth shifted and that this was the result of a build-up of ice at the Poles causing instability. However, it has since been calculated that the polar ice constitutes such a small percentage of the mass of the crust that it could not possibly have caused the slippage proposed by Hapgood. This idea and others are discussed on the Pole Shift Forum(o).

Another researcher, S.F.Wells, was prompted by Flem-Ath’s work to examine the Avebury stone circle to see if there was any evidence of a pole shift there. To his surprise he did discover at Avebury and at other ancient monuments in the locality clear evidence of a pole change of up to 30° in the past. In 2003, he wrote a paper outlining his observations(c).

Flavio Barbiero has written a paper proposing that an impact with an asteroid as small as a half a kilometer in diameter could result in a rapid pole shift.

A number of facts are proposed to support the idea of a pole shift. One of the most popular is the extermination of the mammoth, which once again was central to a recent book by Charles Ginenthal, The Extinction of the Mammoth[0514], who dates the last pole shift to around 1500 BC. Perhaps the most impressive evidence came from Sweden in November 2009(b) when settlements dated to 9000 BC were discovered in the north of the country in a region that according to accepted theory should have been covered by ice at that time.

Wolter Smit points out that the orientation of some Mayan Temples is apparently out by around 17 degrees from what would be expected. A structural feature at the 4,000 year old temple of Saar in Bahrain is believed to have been used to record the summer solstice is now out by 10 degrees. Similar anomalies were noted by G.F. Dodwell during his study of ancient gnomons. A further indication that our present knowledge of polar changes may be flawed is highlighted by the fact that on April 15th 136 BC we have a record of an eclipse that completely darkened Babylon that should have had its zone of totality over the Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean. This is a difference of nearly 50 degrees and implies that either the Earth has slowed or the polar axis has shifted.

The idea that Pole Shift(s) can be linked to the location and orientation of many ancient sites is explored by Mark Carlotto in his new book, Before Atlantis [1600].

Amy Smith also claims that the Earth ‘tilted’ around 10,000 BC(d) referring to two ancient quotations that may support the reality of this Pole Shift – one from Plato (Tim.22d) and the other from the Book of Enoch/Noah (65.1).

The Hutton Commentaries(a) contain many articles relating to an impending pole shift based on the readings of Edgar Cayce.

In October 2004, Alexander Chechelnitsky, a Russian astrophysicist claimed that Atlantis was located in the Yukon River valley in Alaska[515]. This, he believes, was the result of a pole shift although he admits that scientific evidence is lacking for this theory!

A recent overview of the Pole Shift theory was published in July 2014(h).


(b) See:



(e) See Archive 3029



>(h) Antartica, Atlantis, and the Earth crustal displacement theory | CanadaNewsLibre (<

(i) See {2268} 







(p) See:







Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream was first identified in 1513 by Juan Ponce de León. It is a critical feature of the North Atlantic that is responsible for keeping the climate North-West Europe warmer than its counterpart at the same latitude of North America. However, it is wrong to assume that this benign feature has functioned permanently.

Gulf StreamIn 1955 Professor E.F. Hagemeister of Tallin, in Estonia, published her view that based on the disintegration of ionium, an isotope of thorium, at various depths in the Atlantic, she believed that the Gulf Stream came into existence (again) around 10,000 BC. She believed that this event, the sinking of Atlantis and the ending of the last Ice Age were interrelated and that all took place around the same time.(d)

It is generally accepted that during the last Ice Age the glaciation reached as far south as London. Otto Muck contended[098] that this would not have happened if the Gulf Stream had been functioning as it is today. His argument is that something had blocked its path and that the ’something’ was Atlantis. An early proponent of this idea was Edward Hull.  Andrew Tomas advanced a similar notion a few years before Muck[348]. Wolter Smit, who is a keen student of Muck’s ideas, supports his views on the Gulf Stream(b). This idea was also adopted by Prescott Rawlings in his recent book, Atlantis, the Great Flood and the Asteroid[763]. Nevertheless, a 2016 report(c) from CAGE (Center for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Climate and Environment) offers evidence that the Gulf Stream was not cut off during the Ice Age.

>Another view was expressed in a New Scientist article in 2007, which proposed that the bursting of a glacial lake in Canada, 8,000 years ago, dumped an estimated 100,000 cubic kilometres of water into the North Atlantic, shutting down the Gulf Stream.(e)<

Gradually, evidence has been emerging that the progressive melting of the Greenland ice sheet may cause the Gulf Stream to shut down again. In 2005 data has been gathered which shows that the efficiency of the Gulf Stream has been reduced by 30% in the past 50 years and generated speculation that the Gulf Stream could shut off within ‘decades’. Such a disastrous event would, of course, seriously undermine Muck’s hypothesis, as it would demonstrate that a mid-Atlantic Atlantis was not required to generate an Ice Age. Furthermore, the Gulf Stream’s ability to absorb CO2 has also been halved(a)>between 1996 and 2005.<

>In May 2010 the Gulf Stream briefly shutdown once again without the need for an Atlantis to cause it. At last, there appears to be a greater appreciation of the number of elements that can interfere with the flow of the Gulf Stream, such as global warming, reduced salinity(f and geological heat flow(g).<

(aOcean Less Effective At Absorbing Carbon Dioxide Emitted By Human Activity — ScienceDaily (







Brown, Ray

Ray Brown, a naturopathic practitioner from Arizona is constantly referred in books and websites as having found evidence of Atlantis off the Bahamas. The claim is that in 1970 while diving in 135 feet of water near the Bari Islands he discovered a 120ft high pyramid that he described as ‘shining like a mirror’. The story relates that only 90 feet of the pyramid was visible above the sand and that there were the remains of a ruined city around it that stretched for 5 miles.

This is quite an unbelievable tale. If such a pyramid with its tip only 45 feet under water had been found, why has there been no subsequent exploration over the following decades? An organisation such as A.R.E. would have been expected to have pursued the matter without any delay but obviously did not place any credence in it either.

How could Brown have known that the base of the pyramid was 30 ft under sand without digging to that depth? If the base of the pyramid had been covered to a height of 30ft, would not the alleged remains of any ruined city have also been completely covered?

A December 2010 article(a) by Greg Little provided further information on the Ray Brown story and his ‘Atlantean’ crystal  and in which he concludes that the whole affair was probably just an attentionseeking hoax. Little also advises us thar Brown died in the mid-1990’s.

The late Philip Coppens also wrote a paper(b) on this controversial subject, which was rather more sympathetic. On the other hand Wolter Smit, whom I expected to have had more carefully honed critical faculties, seems to have been completely taken in by Brown’s fantasy tale[887.182].

In 2012 there was a report that in the same region “oceanographer Dr. Meyer Verlag discovered giant glass pyramids at a depth of two-thousand meters. The use of other devices have allowed scientists to determine that these glass giants are both made of a crystal-like substance, and are nearly 3 times bigger than the pyramid of Cheops in Egypt.” It did not take long before it was realised that Dr. Verlag was non-existent and that the whole story was pure b.s.




Army of Atlantis

The Army of Atlantis, according to the details given by Plato portrays a force comparable with any of the major empires of the Mediterranean or Middle East.

Even today the U.S. army only numbers around 1.5 million active soldiers. Atlantis had 800,000 foot soldiers, 200,000 horses, 10,000 chariots, and 1,200 ships. Most writers seem to have glossed over the enormous size of the Atlantean war machine although a few such as Wolter Smit have commented on it(a).

There is no need to maintain an army of that size unless there are potential enemies of similar strength. Who were these enemies? If the 9600 BC date is accepted, the size of this Atlantean army seems quite excessive. A fascinating military website(b)should have its first three chapters studied closely. Among many other matters it describes how in 2300 BC, Sargon of Akkad was hard put to maintain an army of 5,400 men. The same site relates how a thousand years later the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II had a mainly conscript army of 100,000 soldiers to maintain his entire empire, although another source(c) puts the figure as low as 20,000. Towards the end of the Roman Empire an army of 350,000 men controlled its vast territories.

The Battle of Karkar (Qarqar) in 853 BC was fought between the Assyrian army of Shalmaneser III against an alliance of eleven kings led by the king of Damascus. It is claimed to have had the greatest number of combatants up to that date. The Assyrians claimed to have had 100,000 troops, but this is disputed by some scholars(d).

The military numbers presented by Plato do appear inflated to the same extent as his dimensions of the Atlantean capital city as well as the date of the war with Atlantis. Either the entire story is an invention or Plato felt obliged to embellish an account of a real prehistoric military power with his own numbers in order to emphasise their might. Alternatively, we must consider the real possibility that all of Plato’s large numbers are suspect and should be revised downward by a common factor, probably ten!


*(b) See:*

(c)  See:


Muck, Otto


Otto Heinrich Muck (1892-1956) was born in Vienna and graduated as an engineer at the Munich College of Advanced Technology. Muck had a very productive life that saw him hold patents for around 2000 inventions at the time of his death. During World War I, he was a flying officer and during World War II, he invented the U-boat schnorkel and was also a member of the Peenemunde Rocket Research Team. After the war Muck was a scientific consultant to large industrial concerns. He died in 1956 following an accident.

Muck published his worthwhile contribution to the Atlantis mystery, in German, Alles über Atlantis[1468], in 1954. It was translated into English by Fred Bradley and published in Britain in 1978[098]. The book was well received and his views continue to have support today.

Muck’s book is now out of print, but English translations of  it can now be viewed and downloaded from the Internet(a).

Muck believed that Atlantis had been located on the Mid Atlantic Ridge and was destroyed as a consequence of an asteroidal impact. He maintained that the asteroid hit the Atlantic, east of the Caribbean, creating the remarkable Carolina Bays en route with its attendant debris and causing tectonic disturbance of such a magnitude that it led to the sinking of Atlantis. He considered the Azores to be remnants of Atlantis.

Muck attributes many of our flood myths to the ensuing tsunamis. With Teutonic precision he pinpoints the time and date of this disaster to 8.00pm on June 5th, 8498 BC, but carelessly omits to tell us whether this is Greenwich Mean Time, Central European Time or some other zone.

Muck’s impact theory would appear to have been ‘inspired’ by the studies of two American geologists, F.A. Melton and W. Schriever in the early 1930’s and the later work by W.F. Prouty(a).

However, I must point out that when an aerial survey was carried out in the 1931, when the number of ‘bays’ was counted at 3,000. Muck estimated that the bombardment was even greater off the coast, with as many as 7,000 more hits in the ocean. So based on this total of 10,000 Muck proceeded to calculate the mass of the asteroid. Now that we know that the bays on land may number as many as half a million, Muck’s estimations need serious revision. 

Muck MapMuck identified what he considered to be two huge impact craters in the Atlantic east of Puerto Rico as evidence of the catastrophe that led to the destruction of Atlantis. Unfortunately for Muck supporters, improved satellite imagery since the 1970’s has shown these ‘craters’ to be chimeras(c).

He further contended that prior to the destruction of Atlantis in the Atlantic the Gulf Stream had been blocked and that after the catastrophe it had pushed northward improving the climate of the British Isles and northwest Europe. In this regard he was following the views of René Malaise.> A German article(b) by Dr. Gerhard Kühn, in 2016, has offered some support for Muck’s suggestion that the Gulf Stream had been deflected by a large island in the Atlantic before the end of the last Ice Age.<While in the same year, another report(d) proposed that the Gulf Stream had not been interrupted during the last Ice Age!

Understandably, half a century later, advances in various scientific disciplines have demonstrated flaws in his theories. Nevertheless a number of researchers, such as Wolter Smit, Dale Drinnon, Roland Horn and Prescott Rawlings still support aspects of Muck’s theories. More recently, Andrew Collins has adopted Muck’s Atlantic impact theory in his Atlantis in the Caribbean[1197].

However, Muck’s book is still worth reading as a study in theory building. Used copies can (Feb. 2013) be had very cheaply (€0.01) through Amazon.

Over twenty years after his death, another book commenced by Muck was published as: Geburt der Kontinente (Birth of the continents)[1100], completed by F. Wackers and edited by Mario Muck and Ferdinand Wackers.