An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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  • NEWS DECEMBER 2022

    NEWS DECEMBER 2022

    Atlantipedia will be wound down in 2023. After nearly twenty years compiling Atlantipedia on my own, and as I am now approaching my 80th birthday, I have decided to cut back on the time I dedicate to compiling this website. An orderly conclusion rather than an enforced one is always preferable, before the Grim Reaper […]Read More »
  • Joining The Dots

    Joining The Dots

    I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato’s own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.Read More »
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Thorwald C. Franke

Nowak, Peter

Peter Nowak is the author of the 2016 German-language book Everything You Wanted to Know about Atlantis (Was Sie schon immer über Atlantis wissen wollten)[1955].  Roland M. Horn, the Atlantisforschung founder, wrote the Foreword and declared that this “is one of the best Atlantis books ever written in my opinion!”(a)

Thorwald C. Franke has offered more muted support in an Amazon review(a).

(a) https://www-amazon-de.translate.goog/schon-immer-Atlantis-wissen-wollten/dp/3739241160?_x_tr_sl=de&_x_tr_tl=en&_x_tr_hl=en&_x_tr_pto=sc

Assman, Jan

Jan Assmann (1938- ) is a renowned German Egyptologist and is Emeritus Professor at the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg. In June 2018, Thorwald C. Franke (Newsletter No.117) offered the following comments on Assmann’s attitude to Atlantis. “In his works, Jan Assmann touches on the topic of Plato’s Atlantis several times. In all relevant passages, he consequently avoids formulations and wordings which declare Atlantis to be just an invention by Plato. Assmann talks about the Atlantis tradition as an Egyptian tradition.

On the other hand, Jan Assmann avoids any explicit statement in favor of the existence of Atlantis, and how to imagine this existence in detail. And of course, as a reasonable Egyptologist, Jan Assmann rejects pseudo-science approaches such as considering Egypt and the Sphinx 11000 years old.

Assmann’s book with the most relevance to Atlantis research is “Wisdom and Mystery: The Image of the Greeks of Egypt”, which is available in German only, while other works of Assmann have been translated into English.”(a)

(a) Atlantis Newsletter Archive – Atlantis-Scout (www-atlantis–scout-de.translate.goog)

 

 

Bradwardine, Thomas

Thomas Bradwardine (1290-1349) was a highly regarded mathematician and theologian, who was, for a very brief period, Archbishop of Canterbury just before his death. Thorwald C. Franke has drawn attention to Bradwardine’s rejection of Plato’s, or more correctly the Egyptian priest’s, apparent claim of a very early date for Atlantis [1255.242]. It seems, particularly as a cleric, that he found such a date conflicted with biblical chronology. It seems that in the end, he proposed that Plato’s ‘years’ were lunar cycles.

Similarly, Pierre d’Ailly (1350-1420), a French theologian who became cardinal, arrived at the same conclusion. While discussing Timaeus he realised that Plato’s dates of 8,000 and 9,000 ‘years’ before Solon conflicted with church teaching that the world had only lasted for 6,200 years until the birth of Christ. In order to avoid an accusation of heresy, he used Bradwardine’s explanation that Plato referred to lunar cycles, not solar years.(a)

It is not unreasonable to deduce from this, that Bradwardine and d’Ailly would not have bothered to offer the ‘lunar cycle’ explanation unless they accepted the reality of Atlantis. It would have been much easier to dismiss the Atlantis story as a fiction.

(a)  Pierre d’Ailly (1350/1-1420) – Atlantisforschung.de

Rodríguez Cantos, Pablo

Pablo Rodríguez Cantos is self-described as “a mathematician, a Catholic priest and an amateur poet from Granada.” We first encountered him earlier this year (2021), when he published a review (in Spanish) of Paulino Zamarro‘s book[0024], a review that can be read in English here.

Rodriguez has been studying the matter of Atlantis for some time and has published a number of related blogs on his website(b). He has now advanced further into the swampy field of Atlantology by establishing a bilingual English/Spanish forum(a) which he “expects to be a meeting point for professional, independent and amateur researchers on Atlantis topics according to a scientific methodology. Everybody can read the forum, but you must register for writing messages. Registration is completely free and really simple. Please read and accept the rules of the forum before you participate.”

Due to a daunting backlog of work I was unable to participate in it as I had hoped. I now note in his Newsletter 178(c) that Thorwald C. Franke has withdrawn from the forum as he realised “that the forum admin was not pursuing an existence hypothesis on Plato’s Atlantis at all, but an invention hypothesis.”

(a) Atlantis Forum (foroactivo.com)

(b) https://perijoresis.blogspot.com

(c) Atlantis Newsletter Archive – Atlantis-Scout

Joining the Dots

Joining the Dots was the title of my book published 0ver two years ago. Its intention was to show that there was cumulative evidence that demonstrated the reality of Atlantis and had existed in the Central Mediterranean. While individual points have limited value, when put together, it clearly shows that ‘the balance of probabilities’ favours the existence of Atlantis.

Sometime after publication, Professor Heinz-Günther Nesselrath of Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen published a review of ‘Dots’ in the highly respected Bryn Mawr Classical Review(a) (BMCR) and subsequently published an extended critique of my book, which is rather unusual!

I eventually completed a response to Nesselrath’s initial article and have published it here today (2/3/21).

>Later in 2021 Thorwald C. Franke published his Newsletter No. 175(c) in which he revealed that in the course of correspondence with BMCR they claimed that they do not review self-published books, which mine was. One can legitimately wonder why Joining the Dots was chosen for such exceptional treatment! Franke’s entire newsletter should be read.<

(a) https://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2020/2020.04.15/

(b) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340594821_How_Not_to_Join_the_Dots_Remarks_on_a_Flawed_Recent_Attempt_to_Locate_Atlantis

>(c) https://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis-bmcr-engl.htm<

Bittner, Stefan

Stefan Bittner is a German historian, who published a substantial book of over 500 pages [1730] >Atlantis – wissenschaftlich analysiert (Atlantis-Scientifically Analysed). Atlantisforschung commenting on Bittner’s book suggests that he has“made a challenging contribution to solving the Atlantis problem. He comes to the remarkable conclusion that ‘Plato uses a historical source and reinterprets it as a philosophical metaphor’.”

Bittner proposes a ‘new’ location for Atlantis in the valley of the river Oued Laou, the Wadi Laou east of Tangier in Morocco. Over the past century, a number of researchers have proposed a variety of specific locations within Morocco as the original home of Atlantis, with varying degrees of credibility. What is clear is that Plato did indicate that at least some of North Africa constituted a part of the Atlantean domain, so designating an individual valley as the totality of Atlantis is, for me, not credible and to claim that Atlantis was flooded but did not sink, contradicts Plato, which I consider an unwise position to take, as it also fails to explain how a flooded inland valley can become a hazard for navigation (Timaeus 25d).

Thorwald C. Franke has now written a more extensive review(a) of Bittner’s book.

(a) https://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis-stefan-bittner-engl.htm

Annas, Julia

Julia Annas (1946- ) is the British-born Regents Professor of Philosophy at the University of Arizona, where she now lectures and is currently researching Platonic ethics. A few years ago she published her sceptical views regarding Plato’s Atlantis(a). Thorwald C. Franke has written “a detailed analysis of her thoughts and show exactly where and why she is wrong concerning Atlantis although her general ideas about Plato are not wrong.”(b)

Franke’s forensic study of Annas’ is another valuable contribution to Atlantis literature, highlighting that regarding Atlantis sceptics “It is simply not enough that all (?) agree on the one single fact that it is an invention while proposing many contradictory reasons and interpretations for this. If it is a recognizable fiction you would expect e.g. a consolidated interpretation of the recognizable meaning of this fictional story. But there are as many invention hypotheses as there are localisation hypotheses.”

(a) https://www.u.arizona.edu/~jannas/Published%20Articles/atlantis.pdf

(b) https://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis-julia-annas-engl.htm

Babylonians

Babylonia was one of the great nations of ancient Mesopotamia in what is now Iraq. Its capital, Babylon, was founded towards the end of the third millennium BC(a). For many, it is best known for its frequent mention in the Bible. The region has also produced what is arguably the earliest epic narrative in the form of The Epic of Gilgamesh, who was a semi-mythical king. In it, we have a flood myth, which is accepted by some as an earlier version of Noah’s Deluge account(b).

Babylonian astronomy can be traced back to the fourth millennium BC(c), although some argue that their interest was in astrology rather than what we would call scientific astronomy(d). A similar debate concerns the claim that the Babylonians had used trigonometry more than a thousand years before Hipparchus(e).

>Dieter Bremer has identified references to Atlantis in various ancient Mesopotamian traditions(g) that, for him, justify his claim that Atlantis was a space station! This daft idea of an Akkadian connection he supports with quotations from the Bible and Homer and also some modern writers. All his ravings are in German only, but MSEdge will translate them automatically.<

Any suggested connection between the Babylonians and Atlantis is lacking any real foundation. Thorwald C. Franke summed it up as follows:

Babylon = Atlantis?

 The city of Babylon has a many-fold symbolic meaning for the history of humankind: First, as the best known Mesopotamian city, it is a symbol of the development of urban civilization in the course of the history of humankind. Secondly, from the biblical records, Babylon became a symbol of decadence and arrogance which lead to decay. Because of this symbolism, some identified Babylon with Atlantis.

 But similar symbolism should not seduce to an identification. Babylon is not on an island, it is a quadratic, not a circular-shaped city, and the biblical myth of the Tower of Babel has no correspondence with Plato’s Atlantis account. Indeed, Babylon is old enough for Atlantis but the Bible especially refers to the neo-Babylonian empire 626-539 BC.

For adherents of the invention hypothesis, Babylon is considered to be one of the models after which Plato allegedly invented the Atlantis account. But even under this perspective, the similarities are much too vague in order to make reliable statements on the question.”

(a) Babylon – World History Encyclopedia (archive.org)

(b) https://www.gotquestions.org/Gilgamesh-flood.html

(c)  https://www.livius.org/articles/person/kidinnu-the-chaldaeans-and-babylonian-astronomy/

(d) https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/02/babylonians-scientists/462150/

(e) https://atlantipedia.ie/samples/tsikritsis-minas/

(f) https://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis_bible.htm

(g) Mesopotamian traditions | Atlantis Mythology (atlantisbremer.de) *

André-François Boureau-Deslandes

André-François Boureau-Deslandes (1689-1757) was born in Pondicherry, a former French territory in India. He was a philosopher, a scientist and a sometimes controversial writer. Thorwald C. Franke notes [1255.325] that contrary to some reports, Boureau-Deslandes favoured the Atlantic as the home of Atlantis in his 1737 work, Histoire critique de la philosophie [1604].