An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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    Joining The Dots

    I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato’s own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.Read More »

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Ice Age theory

Jaye, Michael

Michael Jaye is Associate professor at the Naval Postgraduate School, in Monterey, California. He is a Michael Jayeconfirmed catastrophist focused on cometary impacts. In a lecture to the Geological Society of America in 2011(a) he describes two major events in the Earths history that had profound effects on the earth and the life one. The first was a double impact 65 million years ago and generally accepted to have led to the demise of the dinosaurs and the second 460,000 years ago.

In an April 2015 lecture entitled Resolving the Problem of Atlantis he expands on his original ideas(b) introducing a third event 13,000 years ago when another cometary impact brought an enormous amount of water to earth, which linked together previously disconnected seas and oceans.

At this point he introduces Atlantis or more correctly the alleged Google image of Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean that Jaye now claims was the Plain of Atlantis. As I have previously stated, the image in questionGoogle-Earth-disappears-Atlantis-Map shows lines that would have been kilometers in width and could not have been streets and so are also too wide to have been the irrigation ditches described by Plato. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has also debunked the silly Atlantis claims generated by these images(e). However the problem remains, that some people believe what they want to believe not what can be demonstrated.

Jaye does not accept the explanation for these anomalous lines given by Google, joining conspiracy theorists in the process. I personally think that he should stick to geology and leave the subject of Atlantis to others.

Jaye has also given me a link(c) to a video of one of his lectures. In it, one of his claims is that most of the Earth’s water is the result of a collision with an icy comet around 12,800 years ago. However, the widespread distribution of fossil fish far exceeds the areas occupied by original unconnected bodies of water suggested by Jaye. This is just one of many inaccuracies offered by him. His ideas can be read on Graham Hancock’s website(d) and his 2017 book, The Worldwide Flood [1549].

Jaye has failed to explain how his claim of a relatively recent acquisition by the Earth of most of its water, can account for the recurring Ice Ages that our planet has endured over many millions of years. Ice Age theory is well established, but according to him, the Earth would not have had enough water over that timespan to produce the glaciers that enveloped large areas of the globe, sometimes to a depth of 3 or 4 km, leading to the measurable isostatic rebound we still experience today.


(b) The Explorers Club – Events – NYC – Public Lecture Series feat. Michael Jaye ( *




Malkowski, Edward F.

Edward F. Malkowski is an American writer who coined the phrase ‘Civilisation X’ to describe a prehistoric ‘Greater Mediterranean civilisation’. exemplified by pre-dynastic Egypt. His earlier Before the malkowskiPharaohs [657] was soon followed by Ancient Egypt 39,000 BCE [921]. Although he refers to Atlantis(a), he is somewhat ambivalent regarding its existence [657.284].

However Malkowski is thoroughly fascinated by the Giza monuments, particularly the Great Pyramid(c), regarding which, he follows the ideas of Edward Kunkel(d) and John Cadman(e), who proposed that the Great Pyramid functioned as a water pump. *However, Malkowski believes that such a pump had an additional function, namely, to generate compression waves that in turn would cause the pyramid’s granite beams to vibrate. Then, “with shafts leading to the Great Pyramid’s exterior, the ‘singing’ granite would project its sound into the atmosphere. This, in turn, would create an electrical field in the atmosphere according to physics research.” (f)  This gentle electrical field would have been used to generate plant growth in the surrounding land. Why it would be necessary to build such a huge ‘machine’ to promote growth in land that is renowned for its annually renewed fertility with the flooding of the Nile, completely eludes me.*

He has also written an interest paper on Ice Age theories, which ends on a note of personal scepticism regarding currently accepted ideas(b).








Ice Ages

Ice Ages have been a fact of life on Earth for aeons, according to conventional ice age theory. There is now evidence that during the very early existence of our planet, the entire Earth was completely glaciated, possibly twice!(w)

However, the exact cause of the onset of an ice age is still a matter of active debate(ab). Ralph Ellis has now proposed a new theory based on a cyclical alteration of polar albedo by atmospheric dust(n).

Over the last three million years, a period referred to by geologists as the Pleistocene Epoch, at least thirty Ice Ages have been ‘identified’. The exact extent of the polar ice caps during the last Ice Age is the subject of some debate with new evidence from northern Sweden and Norway, suggesting a less extensive cap than previously believed.>However, there is evidence that Mauna Kea in Hawaii, which is now 13,803 feet above sea level,“had a large glacial ice cap of about 70 square kilometers until 14,500 years ago.”(ag)<

Various theories have been proposed to explain the onset and the ending of these Ice Ages ranging from changes in the earth’s orbit(g) around the sun to the effects of the Earth’s passage through the spiral arms of the Milky Way.

Over recent decades we have been consistently told that global warming is underway with a constant threat of rising sea levels. Consequently, it was no surprise when, in April 2018, The Guardian had a headline declaring that Glacier loss is accelerating because of global warming(r). However, an equally up-to-date website(s) claims that most of the world’s glaciers are actually growing and makes the comparable assertion that sea levels have stopped rising(t). Over a decade ago the well-known botanist David Bellamy made similar claims, that were refuted in a revealing article by George Monbiot, also in The Guardian(u).

Emilio Spedicato has proposed(a) that glaciations are started by asteroidal or cometary impacts on land and terminated by impacts with an ocean. The late Sir Fred Hoyle and his equally radical colleague Chandra Wickramasinghe concurred with this view. They believe that an impact of sufficient size would have vaporised and ejected billions of gallons of water into the upper atmosphere creating an immediate ‘greenhouse effect’ that then led to the melting of the glaciers. In a 1999 paper, Hoyle & Wickramasinghe wrote of the positive effect of greenhouse gases in staving off the next ice age(aa).

Spedicato contends(z) that circa 9,600 BC, an impact in the Atlantic by an Apollo Object led to the demise of Atlantis, an idea similar to the earlier contention of Otto Muck.

In 2003, scientists at Kansas University drew a lot of attention with their claim that gamma-ray bursts can cause an ice age and mass extinctions. However, the suggested frequency of a gamma-ray explosion that might affect the Earth, of every few hundred million years runs counter to conventional ice age theory which proposes that the frequency of ice ages runs to hundreds of thousands of years(ad).

The last Ice Age reached what is known as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) around 25,000 -15,000 BP, according to Ray & Adams(q). LGM describes the time when the glaciers reached their maximum extension.

Remarkably, the very existence of an Ice Age was only first conceived just over 150 years ago when Louis Agassiz first published his theory[002][003]. It took another century before it was fully realised that some of the consequences of the melting of the glaciers at the end of each Ice Age, would have been the flooding of continental shelves and the breaching of low-lying land bridges.

An example of such events would have been the submergence of the majority of the Celtic Shelf separating Britain and Ireland from mainland Europe. In the South China Sea, large chunks of what is known as Sundaland were also flooded. At the eastern end of the Mediterranean, the Bosporus was breached flooding the Black Sea, and more controversially some claim that there had been a breach of a landbridge at the Strait of Gibraltar.

Prompted by the fact that the date given by Solon/Plato for the destruction, 9600 BC coincides with the retreating of the last Ice Age, all the above submergences and breaches have been included in the Atlantis debate.

New studies have shown interesting confirmation of the ‘Out of Africa‘ theory, which had recently come under attack. The effects of the last Ice Age on the population of Europe were quite dramatic(l).  In 2013, journalist, Paul Salopek set out on a 21,000-mile walking journey from East Africa, across Asia, and down the west coast of the Americas in an attempt to emulate mankind’s long odyssey as he (mankind not Saklopek) populated the planet(v).

The most recent genetic studies suggest that “a vast inland oasis in present-day northern Botswana was once home to the founder population of all modern humans.” (x)

A first-rate work[390] by Steven Mithen on the aftermath of the last Ice Age was recently published.

Fundamentalist Christians who believe in a literal seven days of creation have great difficulty with modern Ice Age theory(b) and some propose that an ice age occurred after the biblical Deluge(f). For some fundamentalists the (only) Ice Age lasted from around 2500 BC until 1500 BC(o), otherwise, it will not fit into Archbishop Ussher’s 4004 BC date for the creation of the world!

Furthermore, it would be dishonest if I did not record that there have been more credible attempts to debunk ‘conventional’ Ice Age Theory. The late Peter K. Bros (1939-2007) expressed such views in J. Douglas Kenyon’s Forbidden History[802.44] and in Atlantis Rising magazine(ae).

Furthermore, Allan & Delair offer similar views in Chapter 12 of Part One of their acclaimed book Cataclysm[014] as does Richard E.Mooney[0842.87]. An essay by Kurt Johmann entitled “Debunking Ice Age” is also worth a read. The Thunderbolts website has a forum(h) dealing with whether Ice Ages occurred at all! Those interested in this particular controversy will find some worthwhile comments there. The same site has linked to an article that offers further challenges to conventional Ice Age and global warming theories. This report(j) concerns the discovery of the remains of a 4,000-year-old forest in the Alps at the edge of a retreating glacier, which added further evidence that warmer climates than at present were experienced since the last Ice Age. A regular Thunderbolts contributor, Rens Van Der Sluijs, also deals with global warming during the last Ice Age as revealed through mythology(k). However, Thunderbolts ‘Electric Universe’ concept has also received some highly critical reviews(m).

An interesting side issue is the work of Genevieve von Petzinger(y) who has collated recurring geometric symbols found in the Ice Age caves and rock carvings, not only across Europe but in Asia and less frequently in Africa and the Americas.

The University of Sheffield has now produced a set of maps showing the shrinkage of the last glacial ice sheet that covered most of the British Isles at the end of the last Ice Age(d). That particular ice sheet contained enough water to raise the world’s oceans by 2.5 metres when melted. Further maps have been published on Don Hitchcock’s website(i).

The retreating ice sheets also produced drumlins, with as many as 20,000 to be found in Ireland, with many of these and other Ice Age creations featuring in the placenames of my country(p).

We should not forget that Mother Nature can still spring weather surprises on us, such as the Great European Freeze of 1709 that led to widespread death of humans and livestock, crop failures and food riots(af).



(d) See:



(h) Questioning the Ice Ages – Thunderbolts Forum (v2.0) (





(m) See: Archive 922






(s) Ice Age Now – The next ice age could begin any day (

(t) Sea levels falling Archives – Ice Age Now










(ad) Scientists have new theory on ice age (

(ae) Atlantis Rising No. 41

(af) New Scientist, 07 February 2009

(ag) Ancient Hawaiian glaciers reveal clues to global climate impacts — ScienceDaily*

Allan & Delair

J. B. Delair

J.B. Delair

D. S. Allan

D.S. Allan

Derek S. Allan(1917-) & J. Bernard Delair(1932-) are two British scientists who authored Cataclysm: Compelling Evidence of a Catastrophic World Change, 9,500 BC[014], which discusses a global catastrophe that affected the planet during the 10th millennium BC.>It was originally published as When the Earth Nearly Died [1901](b).<

The authors have built upon and refined the catastrophist theories of Velikovsky[037][038]. Drawing on the details of worldwide myths and recent scientific research they have developed a plausible argument for believing that the Earth was violently impacted upon by an extraterrestrial event over eleven thousand years ago. They contend that ejecta, of varying sizes, from a supernova in the nearby Vela constellation, entered our solar system resulting in devastation on a planetary scale. The Earth did not escape and the destruction visited on our world is the sobering subject of this book. In 1977, George Michanowsky also referred[282] to the Vela supernova but dated it to 4000 BC and considered its effects to be more visual than physical. Neither Michanowsky nor his book was referred to by Allan & Delair.

The authors boldly challenge accepted Ice Age theory, denying that the usual evidence of glacial damage is correct, as such striations are found in areas that did not have to endure an ice age! This book will no doubt require revision, as our understanding of the past continues to develop, but for the present, it offers an insight into the incredible disasters that could have wiped out our ancestors. Delair wryly commented that “evolution may not be just the survival of the fittest but also the survival of the luckiest.”

>I note two things about Cataclysm, first the authors touch on the subject of Atlantis, usually in the context of catastrophism and secondly the Foreward was written by Rand Flem-Ath who is arguably the leading proponent of the idea of Atlantis in Antarctica. Commenting on the destruction of Atlantis they also wrote [p.225] that “we found Plato’s account of the loss of the legendary continent of Atlantis (the empire of Atlas) to be but one recollection of the occurrence of radical worldwide topographical changes some 11,500 years ago initiated by powerful and violent celestial agents.”[014.225] So it would seem that at the very least they were sympathetic to the reality of Atlantis!<

Allan & Delair have used scientific evidence to indicate that 9500 BC was the approximate date for their proposed cataclysmic event. The coincidence of this date with the one apparently related to Solon has been seized upon by the more fundamentalist Atlantologists, who insist that Plato’s early date for the destruction of Atlantis is, euphemistically speaking, written in stone.

The authors range over the entire spectrum of catastrophist elements, such as the Deluge, extraterrestrial encounters, bone caves, frozen mammoths and pole shift. Inevitably, they were forced to engage in some speculation, but, if nothing else, this valuable work throws some light on a dark and terrifying period in our planet’s history.

Maurice A. Williams, who has written on several scientific and religious subjects has offered a very positive review(a) of Cataclysm describing it as a ‘must-read’ book. While I concur, I would urge caution.

What fascinates me, is that Richard Firestone and his colleagues, although generally using a different set of evidence have concluded that a global cataclysm took place in the same timeframe as the catastrophe described by Allan & Delair. I wonder if some combination of the two might offer a more robust hypothesis?


(b) AA&ES; – The Search for Atlantis ( *

Ellis, Ralph

Ralph Ellis is an airline pilot by profession with a passion for ancient history and religions. His ralph ellisrevisionist views has been heavily criticised.  He has authored a number of books(a) focussing in the main on ancient Egypt. As noted elsewhere he has drawn attention to evidence for re-dating the pyramids. In a 2015 article(e) he claims that the four small shafts in the Great Pyramid had nothing to do with alignment with stars but were associated with the value of pi, an idea first suggested in 1859 by John Taylor (1781-1864)(i) in a book entitled The Great Pyramid: Why was it Built, and Who Built it? [1451]

Ellis’ 2013 book, Eden in Egypt [0951], locates the Garden of Eden in Egypt and claims that Adam and Eve were Akhenaton and Nefertiti! He has also proposed(f) that Flavius Josephus was in fact St. Paul! This idea has been taken up by others(g).

He has also co-authored a number of articles with Mark Foster(b).

In his trilogy, The Gospel of King Jesus, Ellis ‘reveals’ that Jesus was the great grandson of Queen Cleopatra and was King Izas of Edessa, in what is now northern Syria. Understandably, this has stirred up quite a controversy(a).

Ellis first touched on the subject of Atlantis in his book Thoth[0517] locating Plato’s island in the Atlantic, but in a later book, Tempest & Exodus[0656] he changed his opinion and subscribed to the Minoan Hypothesis.

Ellis has now turned his attention to ice age theory, since the exact cause of the onset of an ice age is still a matter of active debate. He has now proposed a new theory based on a cyclical alteration of polar albedo by atmospheric dust(c).

In a recent paper published(d) in Atlantis Rising magazine, Ellis reviews the mystery of the Carolina Bays, but offers little that is new and supports the growing consensus that the ‘Bays’ were the result of a cometary impact in the Great Lakes region, which was at that time covered by the Laurentide ice sheet. The impact shattered the ice and ejected millions of ‘slush balls’, many of which survived their high-speed journey through the atmosphere, creating the ‘Bays’ on landing. 

Another of Ellis’ weirder claims is that “there exists a large copy of the Great Pyramid way up in the Himalayas, highlighted in an article(h) and book, K2: Quest of the Gods” [1563]!




(d) See Archive 3025