The Nephilim in the Old Testament were the offspring of the “sons of God” and the “daughters of men” before the Deluge, according to Genesis 6:1-4. Many early translations of the OT, as well as the King James version, preferred to translate the original Hebrew word as ‘giants’.
The World Heritage Encyclopedia offers a range of theories regarding the etymology of the word(a). Wikipedia has further background information on the subject(c).
In more recent times it was the work of the late Zechariah Sitchin that revived interest in the Nephilim, the Anunnaki and the existence of extraterrestrial visitors in ancient times. Unlike the more than dubious claims of Erich von Däniken, Sitchin’s ideas appeared to have a more reliable scientific foundation. However, this foundation was composed of Sitchin’s own interpretation of Sumerian texts, which has been heavily criticised(b).
In 2019, Ryan Pitterson, tried to revive the idea of a connection between Atlantis and the biblical Nephilim, but failed miserably. He is the author of Judgement of the Nephilim , which he claims to be “the first comprehensive biblical study of the nephilim.” Promotional interviews for the book gave him his fifteen minutes of fame, which is more than this book deserves.
>Petros Koutouplis has also published a paper on Graham Hancock’s website, in which he investigates the biblical origins of the Nephilim and the possibility that they were ‘giants’, based on the evidence of the language of the Bible(d).<
Jose D.C. Hernandez wrote an extensive article for the world-mysteries website in 2013, entitled A Celestial Impact and Atlantis(a). In this fully illustrated paper he outlines his belief that an impact around 12,000 years ago was responsible for the biblical Deluge, the creation of Australia and the destruction of Atlantis. He specifies the Richat Structure in Mauritania as the remains of Atlantis.
Jonathan Black is the pen-name of British author, Mark Booth. He has studied Philosophy and Theology at Oriel College, Oxford. His best known book is The Secret History of the World, which is a trip through secret societies and esoteric beliefs.
In a section on Plato’s island he notes that “a little research shows that classical literature is packed with references to Atlantis.” [p.121] He identifies the Flood of Deucalion with the biblical Deluge. He also touches on the story of the dubious Scott Stones, claimed by Aaron du Val to be Atlantean and 12,000 years old. After his 15 minutes of fame, du Val, faded from view for the past twenty years.
I can say with some certainty that Black’s research into Atlantis is flawed. His treatment of other subjects in his large volume, I shall leave to others to assess.
Alan Baker (1964- ) is an English author with a mixed output of both non-fiction as well as some fiction. His chief interest would appear to be historical mysteries, which led to the publication of The Enigmas of History. This book touches on a number of subjects covered on this site; Noah‘s Deluge, Stonhenge, Amazons and, of course, Atlantis. He briefly discusses a few of the more popular theories; Bimini, Thera, and the Atlantic, but arrives at no firm conclusion, although he appears sympathetic to its existence. In his Destination Earth he delves into the disappearance of Percy Fawcett and the mysteries relating to South America.
Philip Runggaldier (1963- ) “is a geography graduate with a keen interest in ancient archaeology, mythology and ancient texts.” He is also the author of Atlantis and the Biblical Flood in which he offers evidence of a megaflood around 14,700 years ago which devastated southwest Britain and southeast Ireland. He believes that this disasterous event caused the destruction of Atlantis and was the source of the biblical story of the Deluge.
He attributes this megadeluge to the breaching, on two occasions, of an ice dam that had contained a vast lake where the Irish Sea Basin now exists. This caused the catastrophic inundation of the plain on the then exposed Celtic Shelf to the south as well as the land east and west in Britain and Ireland.
Runggaldier should have stopped at this point as his research had possibly revealed new important information deserving of further investigation.
However, he went on to suggest, without any great enthusiasm, that Atlantis may have been situated on that Celtic Plain. In fact, I suspect that the introduction of Atlantis was just a marketing ploy – ‘Atlantis’ in a book title will always inflate sales!
Jay Yoon is the American author of the short ebook, Atlantis Shrugged  , also known as Atlantis: The Underworld(b). His views on Atlantis are also available on the Internet(a) where he supports the Caribbean Basin as the location of Atlantis, which he believes was submerged around 9600 BC.
He claims that originally the Basin, although nearly 13,000 feet below sea level, was kept dry by the range of surrounding mountains which was subsequently breached by the earthquake referred to by Plato. Yoon outlines his theory in the form of a Platonic Dialogue, in which the participants are Solon, Aristotle and Critias.
For anyone interested, Yoon has supplied the following co-ordinates for his chosen location for Atlantis – 17°09’54.95″ N 65°03’32.64″ W.
In my opinion his basic idea is fanciful. Why would Yoon’s Atlanteans send an army climbing mountains over 13,000 feet, in the Caribbean, to launch an attack in the eastern Mediterranean, over 5,000 miles away, at a time when suitable ships did not exist in order to attack Athens and Egypt, which did not exist either? Would it not have made more sense to expand into North and/or South America from the Caribbean?
It is more likely that if a dry Caribbean Basin did exist in 9600 BC, it was flooded by the rising sea levels resulting from the melting icecaps.
In March & April 2016, Yoon, then Brad and later Brady Yoon, rehashed his Caribbean theory on the Ancient Origins website(e). In one(d) he discusses the Deluge and its possible connection with the demise of Atlantis. In the concluding paragraph of the other(c) he admits that “all of this speculation could be entirely baseless”, a view I enthusiastically endorse.
Nevertheless, Yoon has written an interesting article(g) on the origin of Utah’s Great Salt Lake. Originally believed to be the result of the biblical Deluge, today it is claimed that the salt came from tributary rivers which remained after the water evaporated. Yoon offers strong evidence that the salt came from seawater and by extension reinstating the Deluge theory!
Jason Colavito has published a critique of some of Yoon’s earlier posts on Ancient Origins(f).
>Yoon has now assumed the title of ‘The Atlantis Expert’ and has posted a number of YouTube videos(h) which claims to support his Atlantis theories!<
In broad terms the books are an intense study of the origin of the mythology of the Great Flood as well as the history of measure. Chapters 13 & 14 of Deluge are devoted to the story of Atlantis. Both books can be read online(a).While dealing with specifics such as, the etymology of Atlantis, Orichalcum and the Pillars of Heracles, I think the authors unusual conclusion is best expressed in their own words;
“It is found then, that Plato’s Atlantis ultimately is no more than another rendition of the ‘Great Flood’ mythology, in this case utilised by him to illustrate his importance in lawgiving. If the Ten Commandmentswere given to Adam and Eve instead of Moses then there would be a direct Biblical comparison. In essence, the story of Atlantis reinforces the analysis of the flood and creation legends as outlined in Deluge as in addition to the celestial events described therein, there is the devastation caused by known flood events at Sundaland to which his description decidedly points, some 11,000 years ago. This approximate date is dictated not merely by Plato’s ‘9,000 years’ for Atlantis’s demise, but also his depiction of its City and its central mound [the World Mountain supporting the axis of the heavens] as symbolically representing the constellation of Hercules when Tau Hercules was the Pole Star.”
Silvertsen and Redman were guest authors on Graham Hancock’s website with a paper(b) entitled Science versus Religion.
Americo Huari Román (1950 – ) is a Peruvian electrical engineer who was born in the former Inca capital of Cuzco. He is the author of La Atlantida y el Imperio de los Incas (Atlantis and the Empire of the Incas). This is a bilingual book with a somewhat flawed English translation.
He contends that originally Atlantis had been an island in the Atlantic from where their influence spread to the the cultures of Europe, Africa and South America.Huari enters the realms of speculation with the wild claim that the Atlanteans used some form of levitation using anti-gravity fields! At the same time he also claims that they did not have the wheel as they did not need it! He quotes Blavatsky and other theosophists and psychics, which is probably where he got his ideas of advanced technology in Atlantis that is comparable with our own.
Even more disappointing for me was Huari’s failure to address Plato’s account, in particular the control of the Western Mediterranean by the Atlanteans from North Africa northward as far as modern Tuscany, and does not adequately explain the war with Egypt, if, as he claims[p.211] it was already an Atlantean colony!
Before the Great Deluge, Huari claims that most of central Brazil had been a huge inland sea and that Atlanteans and Arawaks lived around this lake and that one artifact left by them is the enormous carved Ingá Stone(c).
After the Deluge a cataclysm inundated Atlantis and Brazil rose 100 metres, which got rid of the inland sea. Some groups fled to the Andean highlands of Peru, eventually developing the Empire of Tiwanaku which later morphed into the Incan Empire.
Huari supports his views with a number of video clips (a) which unfortunately are only in Spanish. Huari published a new video(b) in July 2014.
Michael A. Cahill (1961- ) is an Australian Lecturer in Biochemistry & Cell Biology, author of multiple patents, and scientific cofounder of the biotechnology company ProteoSys AG. He is also the author of an extensively researched two-volume work(b)(c), published in 2012, entitled Paradise Rediscovered: The Roots of Civilisation[818/9]. This offering of over 1100 pages is, by the author’s own admission, controversial. In it he puts forward the radical idea that “the long forgotten high society of Atlantis existed in the pre-Diluvian Stone Age at the mouth of the Black Sea [the location of present day Istanbul] and that its legends have come down to us in Indo-European and Middle Eastern mythologies (including the biblical Genesis account)”(d).
However Atlantis is only a tangent to main theme of this book, which opens with Solon in the Temple of Neith at Sais from Plato. Cahill recognised that the myth of Phaeton related by the old Egyptian priest actually referred to a supernova in the constellation of Cygnus. This was confirmation that the Atlantis account referred to the transmission of actual historical information by Plato, rather than fictional imagination, inspired further investigation.
For Cahill the inundation of Atlantis would have corresponded to the biblical Deluge, which Ryan and Pitman’s Noah’s Flood equated with the Black Sea Flood, dated at 6400 BC(e) after the breaching of the Bosporus. This date is around 1,200 years earlier than that suggested by Christian & Siegfried Schoppe, while Cahill’s proposed location for Atlantis, namely in the vicinity of modern Istanbul, is south of the Schoppe’s proposed Snake Island in the Black Sea. This location has, understandably, some local support from Adrian Bucurescu(g) and more recently from George K. Weller (h).
Linguistics analysis had suggested the origin of the Indo-European languages in Anatolia (i.e. next to the Black Sea) around 6400 BC. Cahill looked for and found otherwise unlikely traces of Indo-European words in flood accounts, such as Genesis, The Book of Enoch, and The Epic of Gilgamesh. He has published a summary of the arguments in a poster presented at the 2011 Atlantis Conference in Santorini, Greece. Based upon the society reconstructed from the written flood accounts, from Indo-European comparative mythology, and from a host of other sources, the book concludes that this society was dominated by god-kings who commanded secret scientific Neolithic knowledge, possibly including an elixir which extended the life-span of the elite(f).From the Stonehenge-like circular Atlantis complex at the Bosporus the “gods” exerted a monopoly on power until 200 of them defected, revealing secret knowledge to “the daughters of man” to start a new farming culture that spread across Europe with its Indo-European languages. Paradise Rediscovered certainly poses challenging questions for many established social and archaeological paradigms. Whether or not this shadowy reconstruction is correct, and even Cahill does not insist that it is(d), it is well researched and its elaborate arguments are surprisingly plausible. (The above synopsis was written by Cahill at my request. TO’C)
Cahill has had problems with selling his books through Amazon and offers an alternative source for purchasers(h).
Frederik Klee (1808-1864) was a Danish scholar and was a parliamentarian from 1858 until his death. He published his Le Déluge in Copenhagen in 1842 and in Paris in 1847, a work which included many original ideas. He was one of the first to suggest the possibility of an earth axial shift, although in the French edition of his book he discusses the 1844 theory of Baron René de Boucheporn, who also supported the idea of a pole shift. But, Boucheporn followed Carli, attributing it to an encounter with a comet in contrast to Klee’s contention that the cause was internal.
Full English language biographies of Klee plus excerpts from his book are now available(a)(b).
(a) See: Archive 5144)