An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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    Joining The Dots

    I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato’s own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.Read More »
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Morocco

Bisceglia, Carlos Alberto

Carlos Alberto Bisceglia is the author of Atlantis 2021 – Lost Continent Discovered [1895]. He has several other books currently being translated from their original Italian.

Bisceglia’s central claim is that Atlantis was situated on an ‘island’ in northwest Africa. He claims “that the ‘geographical coordinates’ left by Plato indicate that the empire of Atlantis included the regions enclosed by Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, the adjacent islands, and possibly southern Spain.” He further claims that this territory was known to the Egyptians as ‘Ma’, being an abbreviation of Meshwash!

The African Humid Period which ended between 6,000 and 5,000 years ago, saw North Africa as home to some very extensive river systems and huge lakes. In what is now Western Sahara, the Tamanrasset River flowed from the Atlas Mountains southward and then west to the Atlantic. This creates a virtual ‘island’ enclosing the Atlantean territory delineated above, leaving a relatively small ‘isthmus’ in the Atlas mountains between the Mediterranean and the source of the river.

A comparable claim was made by Michael Hübner in 2008, when he described the Souss-Massa plain of Morocco as an island, surrounded as it is by mountains and called ‘island’ by the native Amazigh people!

I did not find Bisceglia’s claim convincing. His insistence that the Atlantis war took place 9,000 years before Solon, millennia before Athens even existed and certainly well past the African Humid Period is, for me, untenable. His book lacks focus and could have been fruitfully edited to half its size. Having described his Atlantis, he wanders off all over the world to Göbekli Tepe, Gunung Padang, Nan Madol and many other places, all interesting, but without any real connection with Atlantis in NW Africa.

Bittner, Stefan

Stefan Bittner is a German historian, who has published a substantial book of over 500 pages [1730] that proposes a ‘new’ location for Atlantis in NE Morocco. Over the past century a number of researchers have proposed a variety of specific locations within Morocco as the original home of Atlantis, with varying degrees of credibility. What is clear is that Plato did indicate that at least some of North Africa constituted a part of the Atlantean domain, so designating an individual valley as the totality of Atlantis is, for me, not credible and to claim that Atlantis was flooded but did not sink, contradicts Plato, which I consider an unwise position to take, as it also fails to explain how a flooded inland valley can become a hazard for navigation (Timaeus 25d).

Thorwald C. Franke has now written a more extensive review(a) of Bittner’s book.

(a) https://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis-stefan-bittner-engl.htm

Gough, Andrew

Andrew Gough is a well-known TV presenter of historical mysteries programs and a contributor to The Heretic Magazine, which explains why he has written a lengthy article about Atlantis on his website(a). In it, he admits to have been initially attracted to the Minoan Hypothesis, but further research brought him to conclude that the Moroccan Atlantis location proposed by the late Michael Hübner was more credible.

*Gough has written a series of fascinating papers on the cultural importance of the Bee in very many ancient societies.*

(a) https://andrewgough.co.uk/was-atlantis-in-morocco/

Ugas, Giovanni

ugas on leftGiovanni Ugas is an archaeologist at the University of Cagliari, Sardinia, who has written extensively about the Shardana, their name, origin and language(c). The Shardana are usually counted as one of the Sea Peoples.

He has also touched on the subject of Atlantis, describing it as a fabulous story with a political message, but this does not preclude the existence of a physical and historical substratum on which the myth is built. The task of tracing the shreds of history and geography of this story is fraught with pitfalls.”

Ugas places Atlantis in northwest Africa across Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia and has concluded that in the second millennium BC, the Atlanteans joined forces with the Sea Peoples to attack Egypt.

He also claims that the Mediterranean coast of southern Spain and France, along with the Italian peninsula was the ‘true continent‘ referred to by Plato (Timaeus 25a).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

>(a) http://www.sardegnasoprattutto.com/archives/9496

(b) L’Isola del continente: L’Atlantide tra fantasia e storia (1) [di Giovanni Ugas] | Sardegna Soprattutto (archive.org)

(c) http://www.sardiniapoint.it/5085.html (Italian)<

Mille, Pierre

mille-pierrePierre Mille (1864-1941) was a noted French journalist. In the 1920’s Mille declared(a) that the argan tree, which grows in Morocco, Madeira and Azores was the last survivor of Plato’s Atlantis. He was an honorary member of Paul le Cour’s Atlantis Association.

The fruit of the argan tree was claimed by Michael Hübner to have been the ‘golden apples’ sought by Hercules in the Garden of the Hesperides.

(a) https://cdnc.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=MT19290810.2.36&srpos=53&e=——-en–20–41-byDA-txt-txIN-Plato+Atlantis——-1

Greig, Andrew (L)

Andrew Greig is the author of Mysteries of the Ancient World: The Secrets of Atlantis[1165], which is a Kindle offering of a few dozen pages. Greig suggests that the Atlanteans were the descendants of extraterrestrials from Osiris, who became stranded on Earth. He claims that they eventually settled off the Atlantic coast of Morocco on an island that was destroyed by a meteorite! This book is full of inaccuracies as well as unsubstantiated speculation. Keep you money in your pocket.

Two Crops a Year

Two Crops a year is one of the characteristics of Atlantean agriculture according to Plato (Critias 118e).

The North African climate was slightly wetter at the time of Hannibal (2nd & 3rd cent. BC), later, Algeria, Egypt and particularly Tunisia, were the ‘breadbasket’ of Rome(b) and may also have been so for the Atlanteans who earlier had control from North Africa to Tyrrhenia! Even today well-irrigated plains in Tunisia can produce two crops a year, usually planted with the autumnal rains and harvested in the early spring and again planted in the spring and harvested in late summer. The Berbers of Morocco produce two crops a year—cereals in winter and vegetables in summer(a).

*It is worth noting that Mago, the Carthaginian author of a 28-book work on the agricultural practices of North Africa. had his books brought to Rome after the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, where they were translated from Punic into Latin and Greek and were widely quoted. It is clear that Mago’s work was a reflection of a highly developed agricultural society in that region, a description that could also be applied to Plato’s Atlantis!*

Although two crops are possible annually in other parts of the world, I must emphasise that North Africa is the only part of the Atlantean territory referred to by Plato (Timaeus 25b) that was so productive and continued to be so until the Romans, who depended on it along with Egypt to feed Rome.

(a) https://www.britannica.com/place/Atlas-Mountains

(b) https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Tunisia

Pätznick, Jean-Pierre

PatznickJean-Pierre Pätznick is a French Egyptologist who is due to address a conference in May 2015 with the theme of L’Atlantide et l’Égypte (Atlantis and Egypt). His own paper is entitled Atlantis and the Land of the Pharaohs: Egyptian origin of the myth?

I’m given to understand that Pätznick is influenced by the theories of the late Michael Hübner.

In August 2020, Thorwald C. Franke drew attention to a recent article by Päznick in the French Egyptological magazine Pharon. Franke has written a review of the article (in English)(a) , expressing overall disapointment with its content. Päznick now appears to favour Spain and/or Morocco as the location of Atlantis?

(a) https://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis-paetznick.htm

 

Bourgon, Emilio

Emilio Bourgon is an Italian researcher, and a keen follower of the work of Albert Slosman. Bourgon agrees with BourgonSlosman that a terrible cataclysm 12,500 years ago resulted in the destruction of Atlantis recorded by Plato(a). Subsequently, survivors reached Morocco and eventually travelled to Egypt where they brought their civilisation and the memory of their origins.

(a) https://mrubioarmas.eresmas.com/egit%20atlant.html (Spanish) (offline)

See: Archive 2399  (Rnglish machine translation)