An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

Latest News

  • Joining The Dots

    Joining The Dots

    I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato’s own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.Read More »
Search

Recent Updates

Hollow Earth

Ten Lost Tribes of Israel

The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel is a reference to the ten of the twelve tribes deported from the Kingdom of Israel after its conquest by Assyria in 722 BC.

The variety of identifications put forward for some or all of these groups is quite remarkable, ranging from the reasonable to the ridiculous. At one end of that spectrum the view “is that the “lost tribes of Israel” were never really lost. Many of the Jews who remained in the land after the Assyrian conquest re-united with Judah in the south (2 Chronicles 34:6–9). Assyria was later conquered by Babylon, who went on to invade the Southern Kingdom of Israel, deporting the two remaining tribes: Judah and Benjamin (2 Kings 25:21). Remnants of the northern tribes would have thus been part of the Babylonian deportations. Seventy years later, when King Cyrus allowed the Israelites to return to Israel (Ezra 1), many (from all twelve tribes) returned to Israel to rebuild their homeland.” (a)

At the other end is the entertaining idea that the Lost Tribes inhabit the interior of a Hollow Earth, which is defended by flying saucers!(b)

Nearly as extreme is the attempt to link the Lost Tribes and Atlantis, a combination that would not normally leap to mind. However, some have attempted to justify such a linkage in spite of the contradictions between Plato’s story and the details of this minority opinion.

This alleged relationship between Atlantis and Israel points out that the Biblical patriarch Jacob who had twelve sons, excluded two of them, Levi and Simeon. Jacob is then presented as having been Poseidon with the ten remaining sons ruling Atlantis. One of Jacob’s sons, Gad, is assumed to have been Gadeiros, one of the ten sons of Poseidon. After that, no further parallels are offered to connect Jacob’s other sons with the remainder of Poseidon’s offspring.

*Also See: Agartha, Baer, Baucum, Bible, Brasseur, Davidiy, Eurenius, de Landa, Olivier, Salverda and Wauchope.*

(a) https://www.gotquestions.org/lost-tribes-Israel.html

(b) https://www.ourhollowearth.com/ourhollo/index.html

Moon, The

The Moon has little connection with Plato’s Atlantis story apart from the more extreme speculations of some writers. One of the wildest is that the Atlanteans had established a research facility on the Moon(a), an idea rivalled by that of Alan Butler & Christopher Knight in their book, Who Built the Moon[0937], in which they propose that the Moon was ‘constructed’! This idea has now been revived by Rob Shelsky[1584]. In 1965, the Umland brothers[833] proposed that the Moon was a communications relay station for the Maya to make contact with their home planet!

In 1970, Michael Vasin and Alexander Shcherbakov, of what was then the Soviet Academy of Sciences, advanced a hypothesis that the Moon is a spaceship created by unknown beings.(k) These ideas inspired the title of Don Wilson’s 1976 book, Our Mysterious Spaceship Moon [1704].

The idea that the Moon was to some extent hollow was given impetus in the 1970’s, when a study of moonquakes revealed that the Moon ‘rang like a bell’ (i). Now, nearly half a century later, Wallace Thornhill, a leading Electric Universe proponent, has endorsed the hollow Moon idea and seems sympathetic to the idea of a hollow earth. This was expressed at a recent EU conference and be viewed at the 40-minute mark of a YouTube video.(j)

Neal Adams, a respected graphic artist(s), probably best known for his work on the DC Comics characters Batman and Green Arrow. He is a vocal supporter of the Expanding Earth Hypothesis(t), but, he has gone further and also proposed a growing Moon as well(u)(r). Not content with that, he has extended his expansion investigations to other bodies in our Solar System, such as, Mars, Ganymede & Europa(v). Adams considers the term “Expanding Earth” a misnomer and has named his proposed expansion process ‘pair production’!

The origins of the Moon have also been the subject of extensive controversy with one side claiming that it had been ‘captured’ moonby the earth, while the other extreme argues that it had been ‘expelled’ from our planet. The expulsion theory posits(b) that a collision with another celestial body tore material from the Earth, which in time became our Moon(h). Nils Olof Bergquist writing in the 1940’s supported the expulsion scenario and had his original Swedish book on the subject translated into English as The Moon Puzzle[0786].

The most radical of the captured moon school was Hanns Hörbiger, who proposed that there had been a series of Moon captures. Many of his ideas were adopted by H.S. Bellamy, who added that the capture of our current satellite had caused the destruction of Atlantis. Nikolay Bonev, the astronomer, caused a stir in 1961 when he expressed the view that our Moon had once been an independent planet(d) that had experienced violent volcanic eruptions that were powerful enough to have produced a ‘recoil’ effect, which nudged it towards our Earth’s orbit and was eventually captured as our satellite.

>In 1948, an amateur astronomer, L.C. Suggars, endorsed the idea of the Moon as captured planet, based on its diameter/density ratio, which was consistent with that of the other minor planets (Mercury, Mars, Venus & Earth).(w)<

More recently Emilio Spedicato expressed similar ideas(c), claiming that material taken from another large extraterrestrial body around 9450 BC became our Moon, but that the event also led to the destruction of Atlantis. Stuart L. Harris has proposed(m) that the planet Nibiru had a close encounter with our Earth in 9577 BC that resulted in the destruction of Atlantis, followed by another visit in 9417 BC during which it lost one of its satellites, which became our Moon!

John Ackerman, a keen follower of Immanuel Velikovsky claimed that there were two catastrophic events related to “the capture of the Moon into its current orbit,” marking both the beginning and the end of the Younger Dryas period(p).

The Moon controversies continue with the recent suggestion by Erik Asphaug, a professor of earth and planetary sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz, who claims that originally the Earth had two moons that coalesced into a single satellite (n)!

Gary Gilligan, the catastrophist, also supports the concept of moon capture but dated this event to as recent as 2000 BC(f) and then later advanced it to 1200 BC(g). Researcher, Mark Andrew commenting on Gilligan’s claims wrote that Although Gilligan promises more evidence to come, his theory has to contend with the varied evidence of an earlier Moon, including the earliest known written myth of the Moon’s death and rebirth, the epic poem Descent of Inanna (dating from 1750 BC), and also the oldest known map of the moon (dating from 2800 BC).”(l)

Ticleanu, Constantin & Nicolescu in their paper delivered to the 2008 Atlantis Conference very briefly touched on the origin of the Moon. They claim that our Moon, a former planet, was captured by our Earth sometime within the last 40,000 years [750.368].

Unexpectedly, the orbital speed of the Moon appears to vary on its trip around the Earth(e).

Some of the ideas above regarding the origin of the Moon are clearly extremist and are far more radical than a recent theory regarding the Sun proposed by Ev Cochrane, a comparative mythologist, in a YouTube clip(o), where he offers evidence that the Sun as observed in ancient times seemed quite different to how we see it today. This is borne out by the related mythologies and petroglyphs from our ancient past and show a global consistency that cannot be explained by imagination.

Professor Neil F. Comins of the University of Maine challenged his students with the question ‘what if the Moon didn’t exist?’ The responses were interesting (no eclipses) and amusing (a new word for ‘lunatic would be required), but not always correct (no tides). One important consequence would be an eight-hour day(q).

(a) See: Archive 3334

(b) https://www.q-mag.org/moon-mars-impacts-and-collisions.html

(c)  https://aisberg.unibg.it/retrieve/handle/10446/316/1369/WPMateRi05%282008%29SpedicatoPetruzzi.pdf

(d) https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2229&dat=19611112&id=VQIzAAAAIBAJ&sjid=7QAGAAAAIBAJ&pg=4738,1928190&hl=en

(e) https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/11/09/the-clockwork-moon/

(f) https://grahamhancock.com/earth-capture-the-moon-gilligan/

(g) https://www.gks.uk.com/moon-origin-egyptian/

(h) https://www.q-mag.org/moon-mars-impacts-and-collisions.html

(i) https://www.nasa.gov/exploration/home/15mar_moonquakes.html

(j) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gouqy4OghyY

(k) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hollow_Moon

(l) https://web.archive.org/web/20160710150837/https://atlantisrisingmagazine.com/article/late-arrival/

(m) https://www.academia.edu/37216933/Sinking_of_Atlantis_by_Nibiru_in_9577_BC_Part_3_Nibiru_sinks_Atlantis

(n) https://nautil.us/issue/74/networks/when-the-earth-had-two-moons-rp

(o) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4eAwUiadZHY

(p) https://www.firmament-chaos.com/va_scenario.html

(q) https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/what-if-the-moon-didnt-exist-the-fun-of-counterfactuals-in-science/

(r) https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/12/17/neal-adams-01-the-growing-earth/

(s) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neal_Adams

(t) https://www.naturalphilosophy.org/site/dehilster/2014/09/22/is-the-earth-expanding-and-even-growing/

(u) https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/12/18/neal-adams-02-the-growing-moon/

(v) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zy3_sWF7tv4

(w) Atlantean Research, Vol.1, No.2, September/October 1948

Pauwels, Louis & Bergier, Jacques

Louis Pauwels (1920-1997) & Jacques Bergier (1912-1978) were the authors of the bestselling The Morning of the Magicians[910] and its sequel Impossibilities Possibilities[911]. Pauwels was the founder of the Planéte magazine and Bergier was a nuclear physicist. It is reported that Nostra magazine (20-26, April, 1977) carried an article by Bergier (real name,  Mik Ezdanitoff)where he discusses the possibility of a Hollow Earth(a).

Their books rush from subject to subject like a train going from station to station without stopping long enough to pick up passengers. Uncharacteristically, they devoted quite a number of pages to Hörbiger’s strange lunar theories. This in turn led on to Tiwanaku that the authors refer to as ‘Atlantis of the Andes’ having great antiquity, but suggest that there was second Atlantis in the Atlantic that was destroyed later by “waters from the north”, which inspired the story of the Flood of Noah in the Bible.

(a) https://artivision.fr/BergieretlaTerrecreuse.html

pauwels_colour

Pauwels

bergier_colour

Bergier

Serrano, Miguel

Miguel Serrano (1917-2009) was a former Chilean diplomat in which capacity he was MIGUEL SERRANOappointed ambassador to India from 1953 until 1962. He was also an unrepentant nazi sympathiser since 1939 and over time he developed what became known Esoteric Nazism, which continues to have support particularly in his native Chile, where there are still substantial numbers of Nazi followers(a).

*Joscelyn Godwin relates[789.126] how Serrano claimed that “the Germans also found there was a way of communication with the Hollow Earth and its secret cities, where the First Hyperboreans had taken refuge from the disaster that reversed the Poles. There a secret base was prepared during the war years, and thither Adolf Hitler escaped in a vimana (flying saucer plane) to direct the “esoteric war” to this day.”*

The spitfirelist website notes that when “Serrano returned to Chile after the Pinochet coup in 1973. Finding the regime unsympathetic to his ideas, he adopted “the role of intellectual gadfly“.[9] In May 1984, Serrano gave the Nazi salute at the funeral in Santiago of SS Colonel Walter Rauff.[9] He convened a rally in Santiago on 5 September 1993, in honor of Rudolf Hess, and in memory of the 62 young Chilean Nazi supporters who were shot dead while occupying a social security building during an abortive coup in 1938.[1][10] “(c) 

Two books by the Chilean historian, Rafael Videla Eissmann, are concerned with Serrano’s views on Atlantis. Many of his other works, mainly in Spanish, are available as pdf files(b).

(a) https://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/fellows/chile_2008/

(b) https://www.pdfarchive.info/index.php?pages/Se

(c) https://spitfirelist.com/for-the-record/ftr-873-the-new-age-fascism-and-the-atlantis-myth/

 

Agartha

Agartha (Agharta) is the name given to the imaginary world believed by some to exist inside the Earth and now incorporated into a number of the Hollow Earth ‘theories’(a). In fact Agartha or as he called it ‘Asgartha’ was invented by Louis Jacolliot (1837-1890).

One site offers video clips to support the Hollow Earth idea(e), a concept first proposed by Edmond Halley in 1692(i). In fact the leading Electric Universe proponent, Wallace Thornhill, recently expressed sympathy for both a hollow Earth as well as a Hollow Moon. This was at a recent EU conference and can be viewed at the 40-minute mark of a YouTube video.(h)

In 2001, a father and son team, Kevin & Matthew Taylor, combined the hollow earth theory with the idea of an expanding earth in their book, The Land of No Horizon[823], as well as a YouTube clip(f)

*The background to the 20th century upsurge in interest in the idea of a Hollow Earth is worth a read(c).*

A number of 20th century writers have suggested that subterranean Agartha has a civilisation related to that of Atlantis. We should not be surprised by the existence of Hollow Earth theories, after all, the Flat Earth Society(b) is alive and well and functional in California(see Eric Dubay). An international Flat Earth conference in November 2017 was reportedly sold out(g).

It seems that no matter how daft the idea, followers are always available.

One website(d) describes our hollow earth as the home of the lost tribes of Israel which they defend with flying saucers.

(a) https://www.thenewearth.org/InnerEarth.html

(b) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flat_Earth_Society

(c) https://www.ancient-code.com/the-hollow-earth-theory/

(d) https://www.ourhollowearth.com/

(e) https://web.archive.org/web/20150919124636/https://thetruthbehindthescenes.wordpress.com/the-hollow-earth-theory/

(f) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aAkcugev2Yw

(g) https://boingboing.net/2017/11/12/dupes-gather-at-sold-out-flat.html

(h) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gouqy4OghyY

(i) https://dioi.org/kn/halleyhollow.htm

Le Poer Trench, Brinsley

Brinsley Le Poer Trench (1911-1995) was a member of both British and Dutch nobility with the titles of 8th Earl of Clancarty and 7th Marquess of Heusden and had a seat in the British House of Lords. He held a number of le poer trenchextreme opinions regarding extraterrestrial visitors, UFO’s and the Hollow Earth Theory and wrote a number of books in support of them.

With regard to Atlantis he placed it in the Atlantic with the Azores as its remnants[0769] and claims that those who survived its destruction became what we know as Basques, Berbers and the Celts of Britain and Ireland. He goes further and links Atlantis with Egypt together with its Sphinx and pyramids. Not content with that, he also ventures to associate the Glastonbury Zodiac with Atlantis calling it the Temple of the Stars, the title of one of his books[0770].

While his location theory is fairly standard fare he obviously forgot what he had written,
when eight years later he produced Finding Lost Atlantis Inside the Hollow Earth[778]!!

Hörbiger, Hanns

Hans-horbigerHanns Hörbiger (1860-1931) was an Austrian mining engineer by profession and in his spare time was an amateur astronomer.  Today, he is probably better known as the father of the actors Paul and Attila Hörbiger.

By gazing at the moon he became convinced that he was looking at a bright outer layer of ice. Hörbiger published his “Doctrine of Eternal Ice” around 1913 in a book[389] co-authored with a schoolteacher named Philip Fauth. Hörbiger proposed an early form of catastrophism that saw the Earth capture a number of moons in succession. Periodically, each of these moons disintegrated and as they spiralled to earth producing enormous ‘ice showers’ followed by meteors of iron. He saw the effects of these impacts as the source of Flood myths and claimed that when our current Moon was captured around 9500 BC it triggered earthquakes that led to the destruction of Atlantis. His theories were hailed in Germany during the 1930’s and 1940’s and officially backed by the Nazis (see Ahnenerbe). Heather Pringle notes[0032.180] Hitler’s personal support for Hörbiger’s theories.

>In 1966, Egerton Sykes wrote that “in addition Hitler requiring a Teutonic cosmology as well as a Germanic Europe, adopted Hoerbiger’s hypothesis, probably one of the few sensible acts that the Nazis ever made”(w).<

There was a Viennese Hörbiger Institute for World Ice Science founded in 1932(p). Their publication Mitteilungen had two volumes published from 1941 to 1944 and a third volume 1971-1976(o).

An interesting 1949 report by Manfred Reiffenstein describes the problems that the Hörbiger Institute had encountered with the Nazis from 1938 onwards. While efforts were made to close the Institute down and transfer its archives to Himmler’s Ahnenerbe organisation, this was prevented by the efforts of Hörbiger’s sons(s), which might be considered an example of postwar revisionism.

A recent paper by Graham Holton explicitly accuses Hörbiger of ‘archaeological racism’, along with Edmund Kiss, Posnansky and others in the Ahnenerbe(t).

His ideas were adopted and developed further by Hans Bellamy in a number of his books[092][096][097]. During the first half of the 20th century, many beyond the Nazi realm frequently referred to Hörbiger’s moon theory as authoritative.

Hörbiger refused to accept the evidence that his ‘icy’ moon had a daytime temperature of 100°C. Followers of Hörbiger existed in Germany, Britain and France after the war, until an actual landing on the Moon demonstrated that it was composed of neither ice nor cheese.

A number of other writers developed theories that were variations on Hörbiger’s ideas. 1954 saw the publication of The Moon Puzzle[786] by the Swedish engineer, N.O. Bergquist, in which he suggested that earth had a close encounter with a planetoid which caused the ejection of a large amount of matter, which became our Moon leaving a huge scar we call the Pacific. Although many details of Berquist’s theory differ greatly from Hörbiger’s, he never refers to the then widely supported views of Hörbiger.

In 1955, G. Demortier published a theory of cosmic catastrophe that was somewhat similar to Hörbiger’s. However, couple of years earlier, doubts were beginning to emerge regarding aspects of Hörbiger’s theories as our cosmological knowledge advanced(u), nevertheless in the same magazine Edmund Kiss attempted to justify Hörbiger’s idea of an ice-covered Moon! 

It is even more astounding that as late as 1964, Egerton Sykes, the leading British atlantologist of the day, was still clinging to the concept of an ice covered lunar surface. In fact re-reading the old editions of Sykes’ Atlantis newsletter, I am amazed at the number of contributors that offered so many articles based on Hörbiger’s flawed ideas. My personal view is that having read Sykes’ newsletters, he can only considered a gullible British gentleman. 

Egerton Sykes founded and promoted an English post-war Hoerbiger Institute through his Atlantis magazine(q). In March 1948 Bellamy contributed a short article (Hoerbiger Monograph No. 1. 2nd Edition)(n) to the newsletter, reiterating his support for the idea that the capture of our moon led to the destruction of Atlantis.

>Commander E.H. Nutter, a Royal Navy engineer, who contributed many articles to Sykes’ Atlantis magazine was considered “the leading technical authority on the Hoerbiger Theory in England” in the 1950’s.(v)<

Uwe Topper, the controversial German researcher has continued to support much of Hörbiger’s ideas. Additionally, in 2003, Gary Gilligan, a prominent catastrophist, first proposed that our Moon had been captured around 2000 BC, which he has now revised to 1200 BC(I)!

The August 2010 edition of the BBC’s Focus magazine (p.81), informs us that the Moon is moving away from Earth at a rate of 3.8cm per year, completely destroying the foundation of Hörbiger’s basic theory. The 9th Nov. 2011 issue of New Scientist published further evidence supporting this view(h), with further claims that this recession will reverse in the very distant future as the Earth’s rotation slows(r).

In the 17th century Johannes Kepler demonstrated that when an object’s orbital velocity increases, its orbital radius will expand; thus, the Moon slowly recedes from Earth(d). This idea was discussed further in a BBC documentary broadcast on Feb.1st 2011(b).

Nevertheless, updated Moon capture theories have been developed since Hörbiger. Emilio Spedicato has published a brief overview of recent contributions on the subject as well his own version(c), dating it to around 9450 BC, triggering the end of the Ice Age and the  destruction of Atlantis!

It was long accepted wisdom that a moonless earth would have made the development of complex life more difficult because of greater climatic fluctuations. However, a new study challenges this, calculating that Jupiter together with other factors would minimise the effect  of not having our satellite(g)

The story of lunar history took an unexpected turn in 2011 when the journal Nature published a paper by planetary scientists Erik Asphaug of the University of Santa Cruz and Martin Jutzi of the University of Berne who proposed that originally the Earth had two moons that later collided and formed our present satellite(e). At the end of 2011 two NASA lunar probes were launched(j) which may resolve this particular question.

In America, the WEL-Institute is dedicated to investigating Hörbiger’s ‘World Ice Theory’(k).  I note that the U.S. is also home to associations concerned with both a Hollow Earth(l)  and a Flat Earth(m)!

(b) https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12311119

(c) https://aisberg.unibg.it/bitstream/10446/316/1/WPMateRi05(2008)SpedicatoPetruzzi.pdf

(d) https://www.astronomy.com/en/sitecore/content/Home/News-Observing/Ask%20Astro/1999/03/Ive%20heard%20that%20the%20Moon%20is%20moving%20away%20from%20Earth%20by%20about%20an%20inch%2025%20cm%20each%20year%20Why%20is%20this%20happening.aspx

(e) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20160320161310/https://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2390413,00.asp

(g) https://web.archive.org/web/20190925225222/https://www.astrobio.net/news-exclusive/the-odds-for-life-on-a-moonless-earth/

(h) https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21147-how-the-cold-dead-moon-stayed-magnetic.html

(I) https://www.gks.uk.com/moon-origin-egyptian/

(j) https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2011/07sep_twomoons/

(k) https://welinstitute.wordpress.com/about/

(l) https://www.ourhollowearth.com/

(m) https://theflatearthsociety.org/home/

(n) https://www.theflatearthsociety.org/library/pamphlets/Atlantis%20Hoerbiger%20Monograph%20(No.%201%20March%201948).pdf

(o) See: https://atlantipedia.ie/samples/archive-3042/

(p) See: Archive 3043

>(q) https://www.amazon.ca/Atlantis-Organ-Hoerbiger-Institute-1965-1974/dp/B00MOKVR2Y  (Link broken Sept. 2020)<

(r) https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4199400/Earth-moon-COLLIDE-65-billion-years.html

(s) Atlantean Research, Volume 1, Number 5, January/February 1949

(t) https://www.academia.edu/30755462/Archaeological_Racism_Hans_H%C3%B6rbiger_Arthur_Posnansky_Edmund_Kiss_and_the_Ahnenerbe_Expedition_to_Tiwanaku_Bolivia

(u) Atlantis Vol.6, No.1 & 2, May & July 1953

>(v) Atlantis, Vol. 9, No. 2, January 1956, p.39

(w) Atlantis, Vol.19, No.5, September/ October, 1966<

Abbas, Zia

Zia Abbas, according to his own website(a), is a computer scientist and works as a freelance software engineer and consultant for many companies. He is the author of Atlantis: The Final Solution[001] in which he claims to prove that Plato’s Atlantis is to be found in the South China Sea. The core proposal of this book is that Atlantis was located on the continental shelf in the South China Sea, Zia Abbasknown as Sundaland, which was exposed before the end of the last Ice Age, when it was inundated as the glaciers retreated. According to Abbas, this large landmass contained the original Atlantis and was known as Idress. It is quite probable that early urban settlements did exist along the coast and at the river mouths of Sundaland, and were subsequently flooded. However, it is quite improbable that the flooding of these towns and villages were the inspiration for the Atlantis of Plato. Remember that at the same time, similar inundations were taking place much closer to home in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic and these events are more likely to have been remembered in the legends and myths familiar to Plato. The prehistoric flooding of the Sundaland region is covered extensively in Stephen Oppenheimer’s Eden in the East[004].

Abas is no trailblazer, as the idea of Atlantis in this region has been advocated since 1997 by investigators such as the late Professor Arysio Nunes dos Santos(b) and William Lauritzen(c).  Abbas’ theory is just a poor rehash of their ideas and his particular book has done little to advance their acceptance.

On the first page, Abbas claims that Atlantis was a republic, which seems rather strange for a confederation ruled by ten kings. He states that Athena was a ‘god’ of Atlantis, a claim that would have surprised Plato. Abbas also asserts that Atlantis is to be found in the Old Testament under the name of Enoch!

Further incongruity is encountered when we find that Abbas’ website includes a technical paper on Gravitation and Special Relativity.

This book is high on speculation and low on science. For many, the author’s credibility will completely vanish as soon as they encounter references to reptilian aliens a la David Icke, artificial structures on Mars or a hollow Earth. This is all a far cry from the Dialogues of Plato and probably explains the poor reviews that the book has received. Abbas also provides a website(c) that does very little to add to his cause.

*There has been little heard from Abbas in recent years, when the Atlantis in Sundaland theory has been advocated more strongly by dos Santos and Irwanto.*

(a) https://www.atlan.org

(b) https://www.earth360.com

(c) https://www.geocities.com/zia abbas/index.htm

Halley’s Comet

Halley’s Comet is named after Edmond Halley (1656-1742) who correctly Edmund Halleypredicted its periodicity and that it would return after his death in 1759. In 1694 Halley proposed(f) that Noah’s Flood had be caused by a cometary impact, a suggestion for which he was censured by the Royal Society. However, he was rather off the mark when he was the first to propose a ‘hollow Earth’ in 1692(c).

Although the comet’s average orbital period is 76 years, it has been as high as 79.3 years. The nucleus of Halley’s Comet is approximately 5x5x10 miles but has a very low density. The earliest observation of the comet was noted in 240 BC by the Chinese, although there is now a suggestion of 466 BC being the earliest reference  in ancient Greek records(e).  It has also been famously recorded on the Bayeux Tapestry, mentioned in the Talmud and frequently associated with the Star of Bethlehem(h).

A more recent suggestion has been that a fragment of HC hit the Earth in 536 AD lowering temperatures globally causing drought, famine and disease(g).

Polish Professor Kamienski considered the biblical mention of ‘an angel with a sword’ (1Chron 21.16) to be a reference to Halley’s appearance around 1010 BC. However, Kamienski dated another close encounter with Halley’s Comet, which led to the destruction of Atlantis, to circa 9550 BC.  In a similar fashion the historian Donald V. Etz in 1986(b) argued that Isaiah 14.12-15 was possibly inspired by the appearance of the same comet.

halley's cometHalley’s comet was considered a harbinger of doom as its appearance seemed to eerily coincide with various disasters, both natural and military.

>In 1956, Kamienski then entered the contentious matter of the date of the  Trojan War, which he proposed had ended circa 1165 BC and suggested that it may have coincided with the appearance of Halley’s Comet!(o)<

Halley’s Comet, in fact, comets generally, were considered to be harbingers of doom, as their appearance seemed to eerily coincide with various disasters, both natural and military.

In 1456, Pope Calixtus III  excommunicated the comet as an agent of Satan. This appears to have been theologically unsound as the comet was never a member of the Church in the first place. Amazingly, comets have continued to reappear, obviously concurrent with a least one of the daily earthbound calamities that is our lot.

The French astronomer Nicolas Camille Flammarion predicted that the appearance of Halley’s Comet in 1910 would fill the earth’s atmosphere with toxic gas and kill all life on earth! Obviously nothing catastrophic happened then nor on its next visit in 1986.

Another suggested date for Halley’s Comet leading to the demise of Atlantis is 1628 BC put forward by David Wiseman, a Bible teacher(d).

Jean Silvain Baillywas the first to compute the orbit of the comet and coincidentally also wrote on the subject of Atlantis at the end of the 18th century.

Col. Braghine theorised that Atlantis was destroyed as a result of a close encounter of the Earth with Halley’s Comet and similarly the Polish Professor Kamienski suggested that a large chunk of Halley’s Comet fell into the Gulf of Mexico in 9542 BC . Kamienski has also written very technical paper(a) on the 2320 BC appearance of the comet. The American astronomer Jack Hills, an asteroid specialist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory holds similar views to Kamienski.

Halley’s Comet has also been blamed for the disappearance of the Pannonian Lake, another proposed Atlantis location.

Jürgen Spanuth thought that Phaëton was a fragment of Halley’s Comet. Two other followers of Spanuth, Günter Bischoff and Walter Stender have written extensive papers, in German, on a meteorite impact with Northern Europe around 1220 BC, which they also identified as Phaëton(j)(n) . The same interpretation has been applied specifically to Lake Chiemgau in S.E. Bavaria and is expanded on in papers by Barbara Rappenglück among many others(k)(l)(m).

In a 2018 paper(i), Charles A Rogers associates Phaëton with Halley’s Comet, dating the close encounter to 1404 BC. He goes further, linking the ‘pillar of light’ in Exodus with both Halley’s Comet and the eruption of Thera. He then proceeds to connect this event(s) with the destruction of Atlantis on the Gulf of Gabes at the mouth of the River Triton!

Clube & Napier in The Cosmic Winter [290]suggested that the Biblical Exodus story contains the earliest reference to Halley’s Comet. The controversial Jeffrey Goodman also links a number of Biblical events with cometary encounters in The Comets of God [1687].

For trivia lovers, I note that both the birth (1835) and death (1910) of the writer Mark Twain coincided with appearances of Halley’s Comet!

(a) https://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1956AcA…..6….3K/0000003.000.html

(b) https://www.jstor.org/pss/1518410

(c) https://dioi.org/kn/halleyhollow.htm

(d) See Archive 3339

(e) https://baringtheaegis.blogspot.ie/2014/07/a-recorded-ancient-hellenic-sighting-of.html

(f) https://www.jasoncolavito.com/halley-on-noahs-comet.html

(g) https://www.q-mag.org/fragment-of-halleys-comet-hit-earth-in-536-a-d-causing-drought-and-famine.html

(h) https://ufosightingshotspot.blogspot.ie/2017/05/earth-entering-debris-field-from.html

(i) https://www.academia.edu/36855091/Atlantis_Once_Lost_Now_Found

(j) https://www.efodon.de/html/archiv/vorgeschichte/bischoff/2003-SY5%20bischoff_phaeton.pdf

(k) https://impact-structures.com/news/Stoettham_c.pdf

(l) https://www.academia.edu/2567171/Does_the_myth_of_Phaethon_reflect_an_impact_Revising_the_fall_of_Phaethon_and_considering_a_possible_relation_to_the_Chiemgau_Impact

(m) https://guginew.blogspot.ie/2011/09/fall-of-phaethon-greco-roman-geomyth.html

(n) https://web.archive.org/web/20130828191602/https://www.efodon.de:80/html/archiv/vorgeschichte/stender/phaeton.htm  (Ger)

>(o) Atlantis, Volume 10 No. 3, March 1957<