Diego de Landa (1524- 1579) was the Franciscan bishop of Yucatán who played a significant part in promoting the idea that the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel had migrated to the Americas, citing local Mayan legends that their ancestors had come from the East, aided by divine intervention! Others, such as Brasseur de Bourbourg, seized on this idea and expanded it to link the Maya with Atlantis.
Landa was ‘a nasty piece of work’, showing great cruelty towards the indigenous people and little respect for their culture. He is also considered to have produced a truly dreadful decipherment of the Mayan script. Later attempts by Brasseur de Bourbourg and Augustus le Plongeon were equally unsuccessful.
The Pleiades in Greek mythology is the collective name for the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione, while in astronomy, it is one of the nearest star clusters to Earth and the most obvious to the naked eye in the Taurus constellation. They were identified among the famous prehistoric paintings on the walls of the Lascaux Cave (16,500 BC).
The Danish independent researcher, Ove Von Spaeth, has a wide-ranging article on cultural references to the Pleiades including the Nebra Sky Disc(a). He also touches on the subject of Atlantis.
However, Jack Countryman has devoted his book, Atlantis and the Seven Stars, to the idea that extraterrestrials from the Pleiades “had initiated human civilisation through Atlantis and the Mediterranean.” A comparable idea has been proposed by Semir Osmanagic, promoter of the Bosnian pyramids, who has suggested that the Maya were descendents of the Atlanteans who in turn arrived on Earth from the Pleiades(b)!
Frank Joseph claims that the Pleiades, ”like the kings (of Atlantis) listed by Plato, they correspond, through their individual myths, to actual places within the Atlantean sphere of influence, and thereby help to illustrate the story of that vanished empire.” Joseph, concludes by associating each with particular realms within that empire, including the Azores, Morocco. Troy, Yucatan, Italy and the Canaries.[104.227]
The Cherokee Indians also have have an oral tradition which tells of ‘star people’ coming to Earth from the Pleiades and settling on five islands in the Atlantic known as Elohi Mona. Following the destruction of these islands the survivors migrated to the Americas. A Cherokee contributor to a, now offline, forum related how he always understood Elohi Mona to be a reference to Atlantis. Another site offering further ‘insights’ into the Atlantean and Cherokee linkage to the Pleiades is available(c).
Edward Alexander, in a slight twist to the tale, also claims to have been reincarnated many times on Earth, over the past 9,000 years from his distant origins in the Pleiades.
The Pleiades are known as Subaru in Japanese, giving its name to the car brand and inspiring their logo design.
*(a) http://www.thirax.dk/artikler/OveSpaeth/Ove39/index-UK.htm (offline May 2018) See: Archive 3363*
*(d) http://www.tulsaworld.com/archives/legend-of-atlantis-lives-in-bimini/article_d5552245-820b-510a-bb96-c295f7947300.html (June 2018-Not available in Europe because of the GDPR)*
Red-Haired people constitute 1-2% of the human population and are today to be found most frequently in northern and western Europe with their greatest numbers in Scotland.
In the very distant past, red hair has been depicted in ancient Egypt, red-haired people have been featured in the mythologies of both the Americas, where many red-haired mummies have been found. 4,000-year-old red-haired Caucasian mummies have been found as far as western China, highlighted by Elizabeth Wayland Barber in The Mummies of Ürümchi.
A website(d) dedicated to the subject of red hair has some strange stories to relate including the claim(e) that red hair is evidence of an Atlantean Diaspora!
Lara Lamberti, the French actress and author, has written a series of articles(a,b,c) in which she endeavours to link a red-haired race with Atlantis!
The Bering Strait between Asia and America has been a source of ongoing controversy regarding the peopling of America.
James Howell (1594-1666) relates how even in the 17th century the existence of the strait, then known as the Anian, was disputed, although at the same time there was also a theory that the nomadic Scythians had originally crossed over the Strait from America.
There is little doubt that at some point in prehistory a landbridge linked the two continents.
Although it is frequently claimed that the Hadji Ahmed Map of 1559 shows a landbridge between the two continents, it only appears to be so because of the way the map is drawn.
A recent paper(a) by Heather Pringle and Krista Langlois offers evidence that the link was more than just an isthmus, but was in fact a vast area of land, Beringia, the size of Australia and that it provided a crossing point, for humans and animals earlier and for longer than previously believed (See map above right).
After crossing the Strait there were two southward routes, one along the coast and the other via what is known as the Ice-Free Corridor Route which ran between two vast ice sheets, the Laurentide to the east and the Cordilleran to the west(c). According to a 2018 report(i), the coastal route which followed deglaciation “was physically and environmentally viable for early human migration to the Americas.” Another report in 2018 claims that the earliest settlers in America were island-hopping sea-farers from Asia(j)(k).
However, there is now compelling evidence that peopled reached South America before the existence of the ice-free corridor, suggesting the alternative coastal migration route, which, so far, has little evidence to support it.
This recent report is the result of excavations at the Huaca Prieta ceremonial mound, 600 Km north of the Peruvian capital, Lima. Human activity there has now been dated to around 15,000 years ago(e).
Pre-Columbian contact between Asia and Alaska was confirmed by a report(b) from Purdue University in September 2016. Artifacts were discovered in a house dated between 700 and 900 years old. The bronze items were identified as having been smelted in Asia, while a leather strap was radio carbon dated to between 500 and 800 years old.
Another 2016 report(d) added genetic evidence for the Beringia migration route, when the remains of two infants, dated to around 10,000 years ago were discovered at the Upward Sun River site in Alaska.
The ‘received wisdom’ regarding the origins of the Clovis people was that they had crossed into the Americas from Asia via the Bering Strait 12,000 years ago. This has been challenged in a book by two archaeologists, Dennis J. Stanford and Bruce A. Bradley, who claim “that the first Americans crossed the Atlantic by boat and arrived earlier than previously thought. Supplying archaeological and oceanographic evidence to support this assertion, the book dismantles the old paradigm while persuasively linking Clovis technology with the culture of the Solutrean people who occupied France and Spain more than 20,000 years ago.”*In 2014, Stephen Oppenheimer endorsed the work of Stanford and Bradley(h).*
A sceptical view of their work should also be read(f). Furthermore, in 2016 the Solutrean Hypothesis also appears to have been contradicted by recent genetic studies(g).
The only direct connection with Atlantis has been suggested by Albert. M. Chelchelnitsky, who proposed that Atlantis had been situated in Alaska and placed the Pillars of Herakles in the Bering Strait.
William Richard Harris (1847-1923) was Irish by birth, but moved to Canada at an early age, where he became a Catholic priest eventually becoming Dean of St. Catharines Church in Toronto. His many interests included history and anthropology, which led to a compilation of some of his lectures being published as Prehistoric Man in America.
He believed in pre-Columbian contact with America by Europeans, citing the Italian historian Ludovico Antonio Muratori, who showed that Brazil wood was a taxable commodity at the Port of Modena as early as 1306!
In the final chapter he discusses the existence of Atlantis, quoting both classical and modern authors. He concludes with his belief that Atlantis was located in the Atlantic with the Canaries, Azores and Cape Verde as its remnants.
Edward Wells (1667-1727) was an English mathematician, geographer and controversial theologian. In a 1701 work, A Treatise of Antient and Present Geography [1259.146], he refers to the belief of some linking America with Plato’s Atlantis, although he avoids revealing his own opinion on the matter. He refers to Cosmographie by Peter Heylyn (1599-1662), where the arguments are more fully expounded. Thorwald C. Franke discusses Wells in his 2016 book [1255.321], unfortunately in German only.
Patrick Neison Lynch (1817-1882) was the Irish-born third Catholic bishop of Charleston, South Carolina. In a lecture(a) in 1867, Lynch declared “I shall take it as an established fact that America was peopled by the sons of Japheth.” whom he named more specifically as the Phoenicians. Lynch also identified America as Plato’s Atlantis.
Theodore L. Urban was the author of a paper(a) delivered to the Lancaster County Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 1897. In it he stated that “I not only advocate the Platonic theory of the island of Atlantis but claim that it had a veritable existence.” He then proceeded to deny that it had been completely destroyed and argued that the biblical Ophir was Atlantis, suggesting that it had been located in the Americas, which explained the three years that the round trip took.
*A few years ago Emilio Spedicato linked Ophir with an ancient gold mine in Tibet(b)!*
Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro (1735-1809) was a Spanish Jesuit and a respected philologist. He expressed the view that the languages of South America were unrelated to those of North America. He accepted the reality of Atlantis and concluded that the south had been peopled from a stepping-stone island in the Atlantic(a).
Tom Slemen is a British writer with a particular interest in haunted places as well as other aspects of the paranormal. One of his offerings is the Giant Book of Strange but True that includes a chapter on Atlantis, which speculates on the reality of Atlantis. This is probably a rerun of an internet article(a) that he published a few years ago. In it he seems to focus on a number of Atlantis theories relating to the Americas, but fails to come to any firm conclusion.