An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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    Joining The Dots

    I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato’s own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.Read More »
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Bernhard Beier

Atlantisforschung.de

Atlantisforschung.de is the name (meaning Atlantis Research) of an important German website(a) launched on October 1st, 2010. Extensive preparation by Roland Horn and Bernhard Beier has produced a very valuable portal with a range of comprehensive articles relating to ancient history, with an emphasis on the Atlantis mystery.

However, the genesis of the site goes back to as early as 2001 when Beier and Horn decided to establish an all-embracing database relating to Atlantis and ancient civilisations generally. The initial version was online from 2002 until 2004 when the compilers decided to close it down, improve the software and expand the content. This took place over the ensuing six years until the current site was activated in 2010, with its well-deserved outstanding success.

>In a FAQ session, the following revelation emerged

“Does Atlantisforschung.de have an ‘editorial position’ on the geographic localization of Atlantis?

“Jain”. Basically, we don’t see it as necessary or useful to have a unified editorial position on the localization issue, but of course, we as individuals have our respective opinions. As for these, the current team members agree that “Atlantis” should be viewed as a prehistoric pan-Atlantic cultural complex which – at least temporarily or in phases – radiated out to both the Afro-European West and the American continents and affected cultural diffusion.

With regard to the exact geographic location of the metropolis of the putative Atlantean kingdom described by Plato, we as ‘Atlanticians’ assume that both locations IN the Atlantic (e.g. in the mid-Atlantic, in the Caribbean or in the area of ??today’s Bahamas) and AM Atlantic (e.g. in Iberia, Northwest Africa, but also Mexico) come into question.” [My only comment is, that if too many people sit on the fence, it will break]<

For those, like myself, who only read English, just using your browser’s translator, will reveal a vast store of information and references.

I had to announce the unexpected passing of Bernhard on January 29th, 2021 His contribution to atlantology was inestimable and he leaves a most valuable legacy for generations to come. His colleague and friend Roland Horn will, at least temporarily, take over the maintenance of the site.

In March, 2021 it was announced that new editors were being sought for Atlantisforschung. Applicants will require a command of German and be sympathetic to the objectives of the website. Those interested should contact Roland – https://atlantisforschung.de/index.php?title=Wir_über_uns

(a) www.atlantisforschung.de

Beier, Bernhard

Bernhard Beier (1960 – 2021) was born in Krefeld am Niederrhein in Germany. Marketing is his profession, but his first love is researching ancient history. Along with Roland Horn, they are the driving force behind theBernhard_Beier important German website, Atlantisforschung.de(a)launched on October 1st 2010.  Beier, who has been studying the Atlantis mystery for thirty years is the editorial director of the new website.

>With great sadness, I have to announce the unexpected passing of Bernhard on January 29th. His contribution to atlantology was inestimable and he leaves a most valuable legacy for generations to come. His colleague and friend Roland Horn will, at least temporarily, take over the maintenance of the site.<

(a) https://www.atlantisforschung.de/

Marcellinus, Ammianus

Ammianus Marcellinus (330-395 AD) was a Greek historian, who was well-known to the Roman Emperor Julian.>He is one of a number of classical authors accepted as supporting the existence of Atlantis.<

He is widely quoted on the internet as having written that the destruction of Atlantis was an accepted fact by the intelligentsia of Alexandria. However, I am indebted to Bernhard Beier of Atlantisforschung.de for pointing out that no such statement was made by Marcellinus, referring to the English translations of his work by John C. Rolfe(a) and Charles D. Yonge(b). On the Atlantisforschung website(c) be suggests that the quote originated from an overly liberal interpretation of a line from Lewis Spence’s The History of Atlantis[259.33]. He described a class of earthquakes that suddenly swallows up large tracts of land as had happened in the Atlantic to a large island.

>A paper on the Atlantisforschung website ends with the following balanced comment;

“It certainly seems legitimate to classify the Roman historian as one of the ancient advocates of the historicity of the Platonic Atlantis account. However, his preoccupation with the subject was apparently only peripheral, and his apparent acceptance of the idea that a great island once sunk in the Atlantic is probably mainly due to his special esteem for Solon, Plato and the Ancient Egyptians to understand. After all, he apparently assumed the existence of a highly developed – in a completely unbiblical sense – ‘antediluvian’ culture that left its traces in later Egypt. It is possible that the lost parts of his ‘Res gestae’ contained other interesting clues to the mysteries of the prehistory, but this can only be speculated on.”<

(a) https://archive.org/details/ammianusmarcelli01ammiuoft

(b) https://archive.org/details/romanhistoryof00ammiiala

(c) https://atlantisforschung.de/index.php?title=Ammianus_Marcellinus  (German) *

Copper

Copper was obviously a vital commodity for the Bronze Age Atlantis described by Plato. The source of this copper has led to frequent speculation among Atlantologists. Frank Joseph proposed that copper was the foundation for the wealth of Atlantis. He is convinced that there is evidence of enormous copper mining activities in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula around 1000 BC. He refers to these miners as Atlanteans [0102] and maintains that the extracted copper was brought to the Mediterranean, claiming that there is no trace of it in North America!

Joseph’s wild claim runs counter to the evidence offered by one of the leading mining engineers of his day, T.A. Rickard (1864-1953)(m). In 1934, Rickard published an extensive paper in The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland entitled The Use of Native Copper by the Indigenes of North America(n). Rickard notes how early European colonists observed the native Americans using copper for tools and ornaments. A more recent entry(o) in Wikipedia offers further details reinforcing Rickard’s contention. Similarly, a March 2021 article in Archaeology offers evidence that native Americans were producing artefacts from copper as early as the 7th millennium BC and were probably the world’s first coppersmiths(r)(s).

In another article in Atlantis Rising magazine, Joseph proposed that the exploitation of the Michigan copper began in the sixth millennium BC with the arrival of the Red Paint People from Europe!(i)

Frank Joseph and Gavin Menzies are late with their claims regarding the exploitation of the Michigan copper by Atlanteans. In 1928, it was Giacinto Perrone in his book L’Atlantide [809] who was an early promoter of the idea of Atlantean involvement in the ancient Michigan copper mining(t).

J.S. Wakefield has written an extensive article(j) linking the Michigan mines with Poverty Point in Louisiana, where, he contends that the copper was cast into oxhide ingots. In the same article, he identified the Sea Peoples as the Atlanteans and their allies. In another paper(q) he presents a case for identifying the copper oxhide ingots discovered in the Late Bronze Age Uluburun shipwreck found off Turkey as originating in Michigan. He bases his claim on the unusual 99.5% purity of these copper ingots, which he claims is only to be found in the Great Lakes mines. Wakefield is a co-author with Reinoud de Jonge of Rocks & Rows: Sailing Routes Across the Atlantic and the Copper Trade [0760].

Roger Jewell has written an important book [0243] on this same historical mystery but dates the early mining to 2500 BC and estimates the quantity of copper mined at 20 million pounds. Jewell offers a range of evidence that points to Minoan traders, an idea taken up recently by Gavin Menzies, who quotes estimates of between three and five hundred million pounds, while others have suggested as much as 1.5 billion pounds have been extracted. These wild speculations have been derided by commentators such as Jason Colavito(b).

Dale Drinnon has an extensive entry on the Michigan copper mines on his wide-ranging website(c).

Philip Coppens also wrote a speculative article on the possible part that Michigan’s copper plated in global trade around 3000 BC(g). Commenting on the possible market for the Michigan copper, he wrote that it is remarkable, “that Bronze Age Europe ended in 1200 BC, which coincides with the end of the mining activities in America. Coincidence? The mining technique in America is also identical to those used on the British Isles, where the other component, tin, originated from.”

The America Unearthed TV series, presented by Scott Wolter, also examined the idea of Minoans mining in Michigan (S1 E3). Jason Colavito wrote a highly critical review of the episode(k), while an even more extensive critique can be found on the Archyfantasies.com website(l).

Ilias D. Mariolakos is a Professor Emeritus of Geology and Paleontology at the University of Athens. In 2010 he presented a paper to the 12th International Congress of the Geological Society of Greece stating that the prehistoric Greeks were familiar with the Atlantic Ocean and its Gulf Stream. He also claims that they exploited the Michigan copper mines to meet the needs of their bronze industry.

David Hatcher Childress, who is consistently generous with his speculations has proposed that the Hittites were responsible for the Michigan copper mining [620.65].

Peter Marsh has suggested(u) that the Michigan copper mining was the work of Berbers and Phoenicians!

>Additionally, the late Bernhard Beier published two articles(v)(w) on the debate surrounding the astounding quantity of copper apparently mined in Michigan. It is clear that he, like Peter Marsh and others, was sympathetic to the idea that Old World miners were involved, who were possibly Phoenicians, Berbers or Egyptians.<

So far, we have on offer, Native Americans, Red Paint People, Sea Peoples, Greeks, Minoans, Hittites, Atlanteans, Berbers and Phoenicians all allegedly involved in the ancient exploitation of the Michigan copper. Take your pick, but base your choice on evidence, if any, rather than speculation.

It is claimed that the local Indians have folk memories of the mines being worked by ‘light-skinned’ men, suggesting a possible European or Mediterranean connection. Frank Joseph implies that these natives had little interest in copper although one of the cultures in the Great Lakes region was known as the Old Copper Indian because of their extensive use of copper for weapons, tools and ornaments(h). Furthermore as early as 1585 British settlers on Roanoke Island noted that the indigenous people there put a high value on copper.

A more conventional analysis of the Michigan copper mining mystery is presented by local archaeologists. They point out that the views of commentators such as Frank Joseph are very generous with speculation but somewhat mean with evidence. Dr Susan R. Martin of Michigan Technological University has published a point-by-point refutation(a) of the many wild claims that have been made about the Michigan mines in The Michigan Archaeologist [41 (2-3) p119-138. June-September 1995].

Even more extreme was the suggestion made by Reinoud M. de Jonge in a 2009 paper(e) where he boldly claimed “that during the whole period of the (Michigan) copper trade, America was part of the Egyptian Empire” and during the Old Kingdom “this huge empire was known as Atlantis”! De Jonge expanded on this in a 2012 paper, justifying his claims with an incredibly detailed interpretation of the Phaistos Disk, which appears to be highly speculative(p).

In the eastern Mediterranean, Cyprus, taking its name from copper, provided much of that metal, which enabled the development of the Bronze Age there. In the central and Western Mediterranean ancient copper mines have been identified in Iberia, Morocco and Sardinia as well as sources of tin. However, a 1982 paper(f) claimed that Laurion in Attica, Greece was equally as important as Cyprus as a source of Bronze Age copper.

The earliest known metal mine in the British Isles was on Ross Island, near Killarney in Ireland. Copper was mined there from 2400 BC until 1900 BC(d) and the site is thought to have been the principal source of the metal for the two islands at that time.

Supporters of an earlier date for Atlantis can point to evidence of worked metal around 9000 BC discovered in Anatolia, Turkey. More recently there were metal beads discovered in Bulgaria tentatively dated to 6000 BC.

(a) See Archive 2547

(b) https://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2013/01/review-of-america-unearthed-s01e03-great-lakes-copper-heist.html

(c)  See: Archive 3597

(d) https://web.archive.org/web/20181007004331/https://www.culturalheritageireland.ie/index.php/irelands-top-100-heritage-discoveries/81-irelands-top-100-heritage-discoveries/151-heritage-discoveries-the-copper-mines-at-ross-island-co-Kerry

(e) https://megalithicresearch.blogspot.com/2009/12/copper-trade-with-old-world-poverty.html

(f) https://www.academia.edu/954316/Bronze_Age_copper_sources_in_the_Mediterranean_a_new_approach

(g)  See Archive 2724

(h) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Copper_Complex

(i)  See Archive 3389

(j) https://web.archive.org/web/20200528040507/https://ancientamerica.com/poverty-point-the-manufacturing-of-copper-oxhides-for-the-atlantic-copper-trade/

(k) https://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/review-of-America-unearthed-s01e03-great-lakes-copper-heist

(l) https://archyfantasies.com/mysterious-minoan-miners-and-the-missing-michigan-minerals-america-unearthed-s-1-ep-3/

(m) https://aimehq.org/programs/award/bio/t-rickard-deceased-1953

(n) https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2843810.pdf

(o) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Copper_Complex

(p) https://www.academia.edu/3894415/COPPER_AND_TIN_FROM_AMERICA_c.2500-1200_BC_

(q) https://grahamhancock.com/wakefieldjs1/

(r) Ancient Native Americans were among the world’s first coppersmiths | Science | AAAS (sciencemag.org)

(s) https://www.nps.gov/kewe/learn/historyculture/copper-mining-timeline.htm

(t) https://archive.org/details/PerroneAtlantide 

(u) https://web.archive.org/web/20190922053225/http:/www.polynesian-prehistory.com/ (chapter 10)

(v) Prähistorischer Kupferbergbau in Nordamerika und eine frühe Transatlantik-Connection (I) – Atlantisforschung.de (atlantisforschung-de.translate.goog) *

(w) Prähistorischer Kupferbergbau in Nordamerika und eine frühe Transatlantik-Connection (II) – Atlantisforschung.de (atlantisforschung-de.translate.goog)  *

Horn, Roland M.

Roland M. Horn was born in 1963 and is the author of several books on a variety of subjects, such as Edgar Cayce, The Bible, Atlantis and latterly 2012. Horn is a keen supporter of the theory of Otto Muck, who postulated the idea of a cometary impact Roland hornin the Atlantic that led to the destruction of Atlantis, which had been located there. He has a new website(a), in  English, outlining his views on the location of Atlantis(c) and promoting his books. He has produced three books, in German, on the subject of Atlantis. In 1997 he published the first [402] of these, Das Erbe von Atlantis, which he revised and republished in 2001. The second [676], deals with Edgar Cayce’s contribution to the Atlantis question. The third volume endeavours to support the idea that Atlantis was the cradle of civilisation [677].

On October 1st 2010, Horn and his colleague, the late Bernhard Beier, launch an important website, Atlantisforchung.de(b), which has an extensive range of Atlantis-related articles.

>In 2016 Horn published Atlantis: Ancient Myths, New Evidence in German. His close friend, the late Bernhard Beier had the unenviable task of writing a review of it for Atlantisforschung(e).<

Horn has written extensively on a range of ‘fringe’ subjects, UFOs, Mars, reincarnation, Freemasonry etc, etc. A flavour of his ideas can be gleaned from an interview he gave in March 2021(d). An English translation is available here.

However, for me, his most outlandish claims relate to Mars, where he has proposed that an ancient human civilisation has already been there! This suggestion is explored in his book, Die Rückkehr zum Mars (The  Return to Mars). He is also endeavouring to revive interest in the ‘Mars Face’.

(a) www.roland-m-horn.com.

(b) www.atlantisforschung.de

(chttps://www.roland-m-horn.com/atlantis.php

(d) Interview with Roland M. Horn: “We have been on Mars before in ancient times!” (fischinger-blog.de)

(e) Atlantis: Alter Mythos – Neue Beweise – Atlantisforschung.de (German) *