An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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  • NEWS September 2023

    NEWS September 2023

    September 2023. Hi Atlantipedes, At present I am in Sardinia for a short visit. Later we move to Sicily and Malta. The trip is purely vacational. Unfortunately, I am writing this in a dreadful apartment, sitting on a bed, with access to just one useable socket and a small Notebook. Consequently, I possibly will not […]Read More »
  • Joining The Dots

    Joining The Dots

    I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato’s own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.Read More »
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Quetzalcoatl

David, Gary, A.

Gary A. David is an independent American researcher and author dealing with archaeological ruins and rock art of the American Southwest.  His focus is on the Hopi tribe of northern Arizona and its archaeo-astronomy. Although he has not written directly about Atlantis, he has contributed a number of interesting papers relating to subjects peripheral to our study here. Most of these are available on the Academia.edu  website(a).

David has also written about the Orion Correlation Theory (OCT) of Bauval & Gilbert, which claims that the alignment of the three stars in Orion’s ‘belt’ is reflected in the layout of the three principal pyramids at Giza.

David has expanded on the OCT of Bauval & Gilbert identifying important sites throughout Egypt that he believes constituted a more extensive reference with other heavenly bodies in what he calls the Egyptian Stellar Template(e).

He goes further and claims that he “stumbled across an Orion Correlation that the ancestral Hopi Indians constructed in Arizona from about 1050–1300 AD. In this case, every major star in the constellation corresponds to a specific masonry village site. The terrestrial replication of the celestial pattern is simply uncanny.” (b)

David has published an informative paper(c) on the Maltese Cross and its variants as found around the world. He pointed out its use in the Americas by the ancient Olmecs and has laid great emphasis on its place in the inherited culture of the Hopi people.

>David has also proposed that Votan was a diffusionist deity with counterparts known by other names such as Kukulkan, Quetzalcoatl or Viracocha in different pre-Columbian American civilisations. However, he goes further placing Votan’s origins in the Old World suggesting that he may have been Phoenician or Hebrew, citing Adrian Gilbert and Andrew Collins in support of this(f).<

Additionally, he has also highlighted the use of the swastika in a more benign way by the Hopi of northern Arizona along with its innocent use in other cultures including the Minoans, as well as in 20th century USA(d).

(a) https://colorado.academia.edu/GaryADavid

(b) (99+) (PDF) Orion’s Global Legacy—A Celestial Plan | Gary David – Academia.edu

(c) https://www.academia.edu/8661701/The_Maltese_Cross_Hopi_Indian_Version_of_a_Knights_Templar_Symbol

(d) https://www.academia.edu/8661508/The_Four_Arms_of_Destiny_Swastikas_in_the_Hopi_World_and_Beyond

(e) https://www.academia.edu/8635347/The_Blazing_Star_of_the_Nile_Egyptian_Stellar_Template

(f) http://www.viewzone.com/votanx.html *

Honoré, Pierre

Pierre Honoré was the author of In Quest of the White God[956], which explored the legends that persisted among the natives of Central and South America of white pre-Columbian visitors, revered as gods, that had come from the east. Individual ‘gods’ were remembered as Kukulcan by the Maya and Quetzalcoatl by the Toltecs and Aztecs. Honoré proposed that these ‘deities’ had come from Crete and brought their script with them and since the use of Linear A & B ceased around 1400 BC, the transatlantic visits must have taken place before that date.

Honoré’s book was later republished as In Search of Quetzalcoatl, which can be read online(a).   Unfortunately, Honoré’s work has been seen as racist and is often used now by white extremists.

Jason Colavito has delivered a characteristically harsh review of the ‘White Gods’ school of thought.(b)

(a) https://books.google.ie/books?id=mNv4ofH2Mk8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Pierre+Honor%C3%A9&hl=en&ei=Hpz3TcXcMIe38gORoJTHCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

(b) https://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2014/02/the-1960s-search-for-ancient-white-gods-in-the-americas.html

Quetzalcoatl

QuetzalcoatlQuetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity, whose name in the local Nahuatl language means ‘feathered serpent’. To the Aztecs he was a creator god and also had a parallel in Mayan culture to whom he was known as Kukulcan or Gucumatz.

For some centuries it has been generally thought that the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II initially believed that Hernán Cortés’ arrival to be the anticipated return of their deity Quetzalcoatl. The veracity of this story has come under increased attack, exemplified by a paper from Jordan Baker(b).

It is a commonly held belief among Mormons that Quetzalcoatl was Jesus Christ!

More widespread and a little less contentious is the idea that St. Thomas the Apostle was Quetzalcoatl(e). Within two decades of the Conquest, Quetzalcoatl was identified with St. Thomas, the wandering apostle. Since that time Quetzalcoatl has been described as a Viking, a Chinese Explorer, an extraterrestrial, Moses, and Jesus Christ. Similarly, most Mormons assume that the legends of Quetzalcoatl were simply distorted reminiscences of the visit of Christ to the New World as detailed in the Book of Mormon”(f).

An Indian website vehemently disputes the association of St. Thomas with Quetzalcoatl and for good measure also argues against the idea of St. Thomas in India!(g)

Harold T. Wilkins claimed [363.97] that Quetzalcoatl was from Atlantean Brazil.

Pierre Honoré claimed[0956] that these white gods had come from the region of Crete and had brought with them their script. As Linear A & B had both ceased being used by 1400 BC, Honoré surmised that visits of these deities had taken place before that date.

Lewis Spence also claimed an Atlantis connection for Quetzalcoatl, identifying the Mesoamerican deity as Atlas.

Daniel Fleck had some interesting thoughts on Quetzalcoatl(c).

Christian O’Brien has proposed that Quetzalcoatl had been one of the Sages who originated in Sumeria and travelled the world spreading advanced knowledge, including astronomy and megalith building [1797.117]!

>In 1900 Peter de Roo concluded, “that Quetzalcoatl was a Christian prelate who landed in America, accompanied by several inferior missionaries and a number of people from some part of Christian Europe, and that he established a settlement in the territories of the Mexican empire or, perhaps, on the eastern coasts of our United States, from whence they eventually extended their race and religion along the Mexican Gulf.” [890+.1.582]<

These ideas are just pure conjecture but are relatively tame compared with the wilder speculations of writers such as Peter Kolosimo, who claimed that the legends actually describe a race of white men who were born in spaceships and migrated to Atlantis; then after Atlantis was destroyed, they moved to the Americas to be treated as “white gods” by the “primitive earth-dwellers.”(a)

[890.1.]https://archive.org/details/historyamericab02roogoog vol.1

(a) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_gods

(b) The Real Story of the ‘Bearded God’ Named Quetzalcoatl | Ancient Origins (ancient-origins.net)

(c) https://web.archive.org/web/20160903185759/http://www.atlantia.de/atlantis_english/myth/myth/atlantis_quetzalcoatl_columbus.htm *

(d) https://ishwarsharan.com/2019/09/17/how-st-thomas-quetzalcoatl-myth-was-manufactured-justified-and-continued-in-the-new-world-k-v-ramakrishna-rao/ 

(e) http://gnosis.org/thomasbook/ch20.html 

(f) https://sunstone.org/wp-content/uploads/sbi/articles/055-06-10.pdf

(g) https://ishwarsharan.com/2019/09/17/how-st-thomas-quetzalcoatl-myth-was-manufactured-justified-and-continued-in-the-new-world-k-v-ramakrishna-rao/ 

O’Brien, Christian

Christian O'BrienChristian O’Brien, (1915-2001) was a geologist and head of the Iranian oil industry until his retirement in 1970. He was convinced that Atlantis had been located in the Azores and has suggested a possible geographical outline of Atlantis based on the bathymetric data available for the region(c).

He has also written a number of books in collaboration with his wife Barbara Joy on a range of subjects[492][493].

The O’Briens supported hyperdiffusion and proposed that ‘the Shining Ones’ better known as the Elohim(d) in the Bible were responsible for the sudden development of agriculture, city-states and monumental building sometime before 8000 BC. Eventually, they developed colonies, spreading their knowledge which in due course was responsible for the great civilisations of Egypt, Asia and America.

In The Megalithic Odyssey [1797] O’Brien offers an overview of the many megalithic stone circles and cairns on Cornwall’s Bodmin Moor. However, from chapter 6 until the end, he takes his hobby-horse for a ride, offering a convoluted account involving an order of Sumerian ‘Sages’ who brought advanced knowledge to Egypt, Britain and Ireland and further afield. Along the way, they or their leaders are remembered by different names, Osiris, Tuatha dé Danann, Druids or in Mexico as Quetzalcoatl. O’Brien attributes the megaliths of Bodmin Moor to the influence of some of these Sages, probably the Tuatha dé Danann on their way to or from Ireland!

Included in O’Brien’s contention was the idea that the biblical Garden of Eden, designated by him as ‘Kharsag’, had been located in what is now the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon. A paper(b) outlining this idea includes criticism of Zechariah Sitchin’s translation of Sumerian texts.

The Cretan Phaistos Disk was also studied by O’Brien, who concluded that the pictograms had been derived from ancient Sumerian scripts, which enabled him to offer a complete translation of the Disk(e).

One would have thought that O’Brien has ruffled enough feathers with his range of controversial issues, but went further with his support for the claim that Jesus and Mary Magdalene had been married and blessed with three children(f).

O’Brien’s work is now carried on by Edmund Marriage, his nephew, through an extensive website(a).

(a) Index Main Subjects (archive.org)*

(b) Christian O’Brien v Zecharia Sitchin Comparing Historical Records (archive.org)*

(c) Survey of Atlantis (archive.org)*

(d) Alternative Genesis 1:1 (goldenageproject.org.uk)

(e) The enigma of the Phaistos Disc – a question of language (goldenageproject.org.uk)

(f) Press Release of further comments on the content of The Genius of the Few (goldenageproject.org.uk)

Kukulcan

Kukulcan was the ‘feathered serpent’ god of the Mayan religion. He also had a human form that kukulcanclosely matches a description of a tall Caucasian, white-skinned, blue-eyed with blonde or silver hair. This similarity led to the European invaders being initially greeted as ‘gods’. There have been frequent suggestions that the original Kukulcan was a survivor of the demise of Atlantis, who managed to escape to Mesoamerica bringing the knowledge of the lost city to the Americas. However, it must be stressed that this is only conjecture. The Aztecs and Toltecs had a similar god, Quetzalcoatl, who had a matching description.

Pierre Honoré claimed that these ‘deities’ had arrived from Crete bringing with them their script. As the use of the Cretan Linear A & B had ceased by 1400 BC Honoré surmised that these transatlantic trips took place before that date!

Cuchulainn, an Achilles type hero in Irish mythology, has also been speculatively linked with Kukulcan because of the name similarity, an idea that has never had any scholarly support.>So it was no surprise that the unreliable Xavier Séguin supported this silly idea(a). Even Philip Gardiner seems to have been seduced by this linkage, noting in The Serpent Grail “that the Irish have a Celtic god-hero named Cuchulainn, which is too similar to the Mayan Kukulcan to be mere coincidence.”<

(a) https://www.irishcentral.com/roots/history/irish-hero-cu-chulainn-was-a-mayan-god *

Brazil

Brazil was arguably (re)discovered by the Pinzon brothers, before Columbus first reached the West Indies according to Steven Sora(g). However, it is more generally accepted, particularly by Brazilians, that the Portuguese navigator Pedro Alvares Cabral was the first European to discover Brazil in 1500.

Brazil has had few serious investigators propose it as the location of Atlantis. Although, in 1947 Harold T. Wilkins claimed[0363.97] that Quetzalcoatl was from Atlantean Brazil. Earlier in the 20th century, Col. P.H. Fawcett, the famous explorer, disappeared while searching in the Brazilian rain forest for a ‘lost city’ that he called ‘Z’. A 2009 book by David Grann about Fawcett’s searches in Brazil, entitled The Lost City of Z [0772] was the basis for a film released in 2016. Sprague de Camp listed[0194.329] a George Lynch supporting a Brazilian Atlantis in 1925. In fact, Lynch was a fund-raiser for Fawcett. However, the Atlantisforschung website is adamant that there is no evidence that Lynch favoured Brazil as the location of Atlantis(i)!

However, although there is growing evidence of ancient roads, plazas and bridges in Brazil’s vast tropical forests, further data is needed before we can attempt to fit these structures into any specific culture or chronology.

An article(e) in the August 2017 edition of Antiquity offers evidence that humans lived in Brazil more than 20,000 years ago, which is many millennia before the Clovis people arrived in North America.Americo Huari Román is a Peruvian electrical engineer who was born in the former Inca capital of Cuzco. He is the author of La Atlantida y el Imperio de los Incas (Atlantis and the Empire of the Incas) [1448]. Before the Great Deluge, Huari claims that most of central Brazil had been a huge inland sea and that Atlanteans and Arawacs lived around this lake and that the one artefact left by them is the enormous carved Ingá Stone(j).

The possibility of Phoenician contact with Brazil has a number of supporters and a range of websites supports this controversial view(a). One such advocate, Ronald Barney, maintains[1185] that they concentrated their influence in the northeastern region of the country citing the work of Ludwig Schwennhagen[1550] and Apollinaire Frot(f).

There would appear to be evidence for 3rd century AD Roman contact with Brazil(h). The 1982 discovery of Roman amphorae in a shipwreck in Guanabara Bay near Rio de Janeiro, 15 miles offshore in 100 feet of water. This was badly received locally as it dispensed with the claim for Pedro Alvares Cabral having been the first European to land in Brazil(k)(l). The large number of amphorae found in the wreck would seem to indicate that their cargo had not been offloaded and as it was located 15 miles offshore, we have no reason to think that the ship ever reached land. I would speculate that the Guanabara wreck was simply blown of course while on a trading mission.

Whether other Roman vessels reached America with greater success is a more contentious matter. A variety of Roman artifacts have been discovered since the early nineteenth century, at various locations in America, inciting what was often furious debate(m)(n)(o). If the Romans had established links with the Americas, I find it hard to accept that they would not have broadcast the fact, if only to inflate their imperial ego!

fotomapaMay 2013 saw a flurry of media interest when a Japanese submersible found evidence in the form of granite suggesting of a previously unknown continental mass that sank about 900 miles off the coast of Rio de Janeiro. Members of the expedition have played down any attempt to link this discovery with Atlantis(b)(c).

This reminiscent of the reaction in 1931 when two islands were reported to have emerged from the sea off Brazil and within a short time, claims that they were a returning Atlantis were widely quoted(d).

Any suggestion that the land of Hy-Brasil in Irish mythology has any connection with Brazil or Atlantis is just wild speculation.

(a) https://phoenicia.org/brazil.html

(b) https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/07/brazilian-atlantis-japanese-submersible-atlantic-ocean_n_3231437.html?utm_hp_ref=world

(c) https://www.counselheal.com/articles/5276/20130507/scientists-found-atlantis-coast-brazil.htm

(d) https://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/98134066?searchTerm=Atlantis&searchLimits=

(e) https://www.sciencenews.org/blog/science-ticker/stone-age-people-brazil-20000-years-ago

(f) https://web.archive.org/web/20200430123023/https://faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/biados/texts/brazilph.htm

(g) See: Archive 3480

(h) The Mysterious Ancient Underwater Roman Relics of Brazil | Mysterious Universe (archive.org) *

(i) George Lynch – Atlantisforschung.de (atlantisforschung-de.translate.goog)

(j) http://www.messagetoeagle.com/unsolved-enigma-of-the-inga-stone-and-its-mysterious-ancient-undeciphered-signs/ 

(k) Guanabara Bay Evidence: Did the Romans Reach the New World Before Columbus? | Ancient Origins (ancient-origins.net)

(l)  ‘Roman’ jars found in Guanabara Bay could re-write Brazil’s history | indy100

(m) Did Ancient Romans Reach The Americas Long Before Columbus? – Ancient Pages

(n) An Expert Doubts Roman Coins Found in U.S. Are Sea?Link Clue – The New York Times (nytimes.com)

(o) Mysterious jars found in Brazil offer world-changing version of history (msn.com) *

Atlas

Atlas was the first king of Atlantis and was the son of Poseidon according to the story of Atlantis from Plato. However, in traditionalatlas, Atlas was the son of the Titan, Iapetus, often identified with the biblical Japheth, and the nymph Clymene. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the fact that the name Atlas is applied to more than one figure in Greek legends.

Atlas is usually portrayed kneeling with the world on his shoulders. However, the earliest known statue of Atlas, the 2nd century Farnese Atlas(c), which is a Roman copy of an older Greek statue, has the sky is represented as a sphere with a map of the stars and constellations known to the Ancient Greeks, which they represented as objects, animals and mythological creatures and characters. 16th century cartographers assumed that the globe represented the Earth, not the sky and since then it has been depicted accordingly.

Edwin Björkman noted the opinion that the name Atlas does not have a Greek root but is generally thought to have a Semitic origin. He also suggested the possibility that the name may have been derived from one of the Greek words for sea, thalassa.

However, Peter James points out[047.190] the name has a clear etymology in the Greek root ‘tlaô’ which can mean ‘to bear’, ‘to endure’ or ‘to dare’.>Tantalis, the capital of ancient Lydia, was apparently named after the legendary King Tantalus, its first king, who shared remarkable similarities with Atlas, the first king of Atlantis; they were both Titans, supported the heavens and had mountains named after them(f).<

Atlas has also been identified with both the Egyptian god Shu and the biblical Enoch, the latter being a more controversial concept. Lewis Spence went further and identified the Meso-American deity, Quetzalcoatl, with Atlas!

A somewhat more conventional view was offered by Thorwald Franke who has written a convincing paper(a) identifying Atlas with king Italos of the Sicels, who gave their name to Sicily and were one of the earliest groups to inhabit the island.

A more radical view has been put forward by Brit-Am writer John R.Salverda, who claims that the biblical Adam is the Atlas of Plato’s Atlantis narrative. A similar theory was proposed by Roger M. Pearlman in a 2018 booklet [1596]. In this small, difficult to read, book the author suggests, a linkage between the destruction of Sodom & Gomorrah and Atlantis, places Atlantis in the Jordan Valley and equates Abraham with Atlas – If Atlas as described in Plato’s work was based on a historic figure, Abraham alone meets key criteria.”In a more recent paper(d), Pearlman also suggested that Göbekli Tepe was founded by Noah (Noach) and his sons!

Moving further east, the Hittites had an equivalent if not an original version of Atlas in the form of Tantalus. The Hittites in turn may have developed the identity from the Hurrian god Ubelleris. It was this Anatolian figure that led Peter James to his conclusion that Atlantis had been located in Turkey. Tantalus had a son Pelops, whom some consider Phrygian and according to Herodotus the Phrygians were the oldest race on earth.

Diego Ratti claims “that Atlantis was Avaris, capital of the Hyksos Kingdom and that king Atlas was Shamshi-Shu I: the Amorite Prince of Ugarit who in 1646 BC led a coalition of Foreign Kings to conquer Egypt starting the XV Dynasty of the ‘Hyksos’.”(e)

An even more extreme idea has been proposed by Sean Griffin that the yogic concept of ‘Kundalini’ is contained within part of Plato’s Atlantis story(b). Griffin begins his explanation by pointing out that Atlas is the medical term for the 33rd vertebra of the human spine!

(a) https://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis_italos.htm

(b) https://www.scribd.com/doc/211332861/Atlantis-and-Kundalini

(c) https://www.dioi.org/ggg.htm

(d) https://www.academia.edu/38664571/Gobekli_Tepe_founded_by_Noah_and_sons

(e) Atletenu | Atletenu (archive.org) 

(f) https://www.jstor.org/stable/262536?seq=2#page_scan_tab_contents *

Wilkins, Harold Tom

Harold Tom Wilkins (1891-1959) wrote on a range of controversial subjects, from hidden treasure to UFOs [0361][0362] to Atlantis [0363]+ [0364]+. He was of the opinion that if the Americas had not been the home of Atlantis it had at least been populated by refugees from there, but offers little hard evidence to support this contention. Wilkins gives a lot of attention to the inscriptions in a variety of unidentified scripts that have been found in both North and South America.

He covers a lot of familiar ground including lost cities, sunken kingdoms and extensive underground tunnel systems. Wilkins includes[363.p80] a fascinating tale of an isolated Andean tribe in North-Western Argentina speaking ‘pure’ Gaelic and more pertinent to this work a white tribe known as the Paria who lived in a village called Atlan located in the forest between the Orinoco and the Rio Apure. He also claimed that Quetzalcoatl, the ‘white god’ of the Aztecs was from Atlantis. Recently, Jason Colavito revealed(a) that Wilkins had lifted passages from Blavatsky’s Secret Doctrine in his Secret Cities of Old South America[364]. If true, it could be that he also borrowed some material from a book published earlier by Richard O. Marsh entitled White Indians of Darien [1551] in which he recounted his meeting with ‘white Indians’ in the remote jungles of Panama!

In 1948, in the first issue of Egerton SykesAtlantis magazine, Wilkins wrote an interesting article on the Oera Linda Book giving its authenticity his support.

Wilkins reported in his book[363] that on column 8 of the Great Hall of Ramses at Karnak there is an inscription referring to the loss of a drowned continent in the Western Ocean. I can find no corroboration of this claim. Even R. Cedric Leonard, who quotes Wilkins and is familiar with Egyptian hieroglyphics, has, surprisingly, not verified this inscription for himself.>Many of Wilkins’ claims were widely criticised as pseudohistory(b) and fabrications.<

[0363]+ https://archive.org/details/mysteriesofancie035488mbp/mode/2up *

[0364]+ https://books.google.tt/books?id=hkRHSzwIU2oC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_atb#v=onepage&q&f=false *

(a) https://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/the-giants-of-thera-a-case-of-repeated-copying

(b) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_T._Wilkins *