Arkaim is a 2nd millennium BC archaeological site in Russia, although some date it to 7000 BC(c). The site was rediscovered in 1987 just as the locality was at risk of submersion due to a proposed nearby dam-building project. This was later put on hold.
It has been compared with Stonehenge(b), Troy Towns(d) and Plato’s Atlantis(a). It is also claimed as a psychic ‘hotspot’’(e) as well as a site of UFO activity!
The suggested Atlantis link is just fanciful and does not stand up to the most cursory examination. For example, there is no evidence that Arkaim was ever submerged as Atlantis was recorded to have been by Plato.
A 2014 article that compared Arkaim with Stonehenge commented that “It would seem that Arkaim is an even better astronomical observatory than its namesake.”(g)
Victoria Lepage, a purveyor of mystical twaddle has endeavoured to incorporate Arkaim into her pathetic view of world history(h).
Dale Drinnon’s website included an extensive entry on Arkaim in Feb. 2012(f).
August 2015 produced a report(i) that a 2,000-year-old skeleton of a female, with an elongated skull, had been unearthed in the vicinity of Arkaim. Apparently, this was the result of a local tradition of head-binding.
(c) Ajit Vadakayil: STONEHENGE OF ARKAIM RUSSIA – CAPT AJIT VADAKAYIL (archive.org)
(f) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20160123163418/https://frontiers-of-anthropology.blogspot.ie/search/label/Arkaim
(h) Arkaim: Russia’s Ancient City & the Arctic Origin of Civilisation | Truth Control (archive.org) *
(i) 2,000-Year-Old ‘Conehead’ Skeleton Unearthed At Russia’s Stonehenge – News Punch (archive.org)
(j) https://www.pravda-tv.com/2018/06/arkaim-das-russische-stonehenge-staerkste-anomaliezone-russlands-video/ (Ger)
Geodesy is usually defined as the measurement and mapping of the Earth.>James R. Smith, the author of Introduction to Geodesy  has conflated several definitions to produce “Geodesy, from the Greek, literally means dividing the earth, and as a first objective, the practice of geodesy should provide an accurate framework for the control of national topographical surveys. Thus geodesy is the science that determines the figure of the earth and the interrelation of selected points on its surface by either direct or indirect techniques. These characteristics further make it a branch of applied mathematics, one that must include observations that can be used to determine the size and shape of the earth and the definition of coordinate systems for threedimensional positioning; the variation of phenomena near to or on the surface, such as gravity, tides, earth rotation, crustal movement, and deflection of the plumb line; together with units of measurement and methods of representing the curved earth surface on a flat sheet of paper.”<
>Geodesy as a science can be traced back to Pythagoras (6th cent. BC), who was thought to be the first to propose the sphericity of the Earth. Aristotle & Archimedes were apparently the first the offer a figure for the diameter of the Earth, suggesting 400,000 and 300,000 stades respectively. The difference might be partly explained by the use of a different length of stade.<
Later, Eratosthenes (276 BC– 195 BC) offered another early attempt to determine the dimensions of our Earth and succeeded with remarkable accuracy.
A controversial aspect of modern geodesy is the claim that many ancient sites were deliberately established at locations that had a specific geodetic relationship to each other and/or the dimensions of the Earth. For example(a) in ancient Egypt, from Giza to the Equator is 1/12th the circumference of the Earth, Amarna to the Equator is 1/13th, Luxor 1/14th and Philae 1/15th! Graham Hancock in his Heaven’s Mirror pointed to similar relationships around the globe suggesting a possible world grid. This idea of a world grid has a number of supporters but is often classified as a ‘fringe’ interest due to the attempt by some to link gridlines with UFOs and their use of the grid as a power source(w).
Possibly related features may be the ley lines identified by Alfred Watkins in Britain(c)(g), the Alesia alignments in France discovered by Xavier Guichard(b) and/or the Heilige Linien of Germany claimed by Wilhelm Teudt(aa).
Heinz Kaminski claimed to have discovered a megalithic grid system that stretched from Stonehenge across Europe with an east-west and north-south orientation and referred to as the Stonehenge/Wormbach System(h).
Even more exotic is the ancient Raetiastone navigation system rediscovered by Gerhard Pirchl (1942-2013) and outlined in a book by  Thomas Walli(ae).
Ashley Cowie has published a paper(ac) related to Alesia and the work of Guichard and others, as well as his own investigations.
I should also point out that Marcel Mestdagh also identified a form of a road system, laid out in giant ovals with radials in France. At the centre of these ovals was the ancient city of Sens. Philip Coppens informs us [1275.184] that a further strange discovery by Mestdagh was that this ancient road network, centred on Sens, was mirrored by a similar network of roads in England centred on Nottingham!
‘The Way of Virachoca’ in the Andes which runs through Tiwanaku and is oriented exactly 45° west of true north and runs for over 1000 miles, has been studied by Maria Scholten d’Ebneth  in the 1970s and expanded on by a number of Spanish speaking commentators and is now the subject of an article by Dave Truman(x).
In 1973, three Russians, engineers Valery Makarov and Vyacheslav Morozov along with Nikolay Goncharov, an artist, published in Russian an article with the eye-catching title of Is the Earth a Giant Crystal? (y) This was probably the earliest presentation of an earth grid based on ancient historical sites. A brief history of the earth grid theories that emerged around this time is available online(z). There is now a Russian geodesy website with an English translation(ab).
David Hatcher Childress published his Anti-Gravity and the World Grid  in 1993, with the modest claim that he “proves that the earth is surrounded by an intricate electronic grid network offering free energy.” Obviously, Childress’ understanding of ‘proof’ is different to mine, as the only proof required is the production of some of this free energy, which he has not done.
Tom Brooks entered the fray with a study of 1500 prehistoric sites and his conclusion that the inhabitants of ancient Britain had designed a navigation system based on a grid of isosceles triangles(i). Brooks has gone a step further and speculatively claimed that the accuracy of this geometry-based system could only have been designed through “extraterrestrial intervention”(r). This concept is explored more fully in his latest book, Seeing Around Corners: Geometry in Stone Age Britain  and in a series of video clips(s). A more critical view of Brooks’ ideas is also available on the Internet(j).
Some years ago a former employee of a NASA sub-contractor, Maurice Chatelain claimed that within a 450-mile radius of the Aegean island of Delos that 13 mystical sites, when connected by straight lines formed a perfect Maltese Cross(u)!
Others such as Livio Stecchini(d) and Jim Alison(e) using geodetic calculations have identified São Tomé and Cape Verde respectively as the location of Atlantis. I must also include Hugo Kennes, a Belgian researcher with a passionate interest in global grids and sacred geometry(l). Kennes has also informed me of a new Facebook group(q) dealing with all aspects of the subject, as well as another(v) that includes submerged cities and other features.
Anyone interested in pursuing a study of this subject might like to look over James Q. Jacobs’ archaeogeodesy website(f) as well as the BioGeometry website (m).
If you have pursued all the links so far, you can pamper yourself further with a paper(k) by William Becker and Beth Hagens(n). Another researcher in this field is Dan Shaw whose website(o) gives a good overview of the subject.
Jean-Pierre Lacroix added his weight to the debate with his 1998 paper entitled The Mapmakers from the Ice Age(t).
A global network of sacred sites was also put forward by Rand Flem-Ath & Colin Wilson in The Atlantis Blueprint . This book was intended as a sequel to When the Sky Fell , but generally wandered off into other areas after the first couple of chapters.
I am somewhat sceptical about certain aspects of geodesy, particularly some of the claims of a world grid. However, it does raise many questions that require further study and explanation. In this connection, I would recommend John Sase’s Curious Alignments  as a good starting point. He confirms the work of Guichard and also offers a range of his own discoveries in the Great Lakes region.
In February 2020, Frank Maglione Nicholson, Ken Phungrasamee & David Grimason, collectively known as The Nazca Group(ad), published The Nazca Great Circle Map Hypothesis. Their claim is that “The lines and geoglyphs carved into the Nazca plateau represent a map of the Earth. The map is a Great Circle Map: a gnomonic projection with the center of the Earth as its cartographic viewpoint. Each line on the Nazca Plateau represents a great circle of navigation centred at the centre of the Earth and encircling the entire planet. The majority of the lines on the Nazca Plateau radiate from five loci of origin called radial centres.” I found this rather esoteric proposition difficult to absorb.
Arturo Villamarin has published many books  and papers(af)(ag) in which the geometry and astronomy of archaeological monuments; Göbekli Tepe, Stonehenge, Teotihuacán and Mohenjo Daro, among others, are discussed.
(d) http://www.metrum.org/mapping/atlantis.htm (link broken Dec. 2020)
(i) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20160628154229/https://www.prehistoric-geometry.co.uk/
(l) https://web.archive.org/web/20210518205346/http://users.telenet.be/kenneshugo/alternative history sciences.htm *
(n) Bethe Hagens – Geometry, Anthropology anf the Arts of Consciousness (archive.org)
(r) https://www.prehistoric-geometry.co.uk/ [See (i)]
(ac) Solstice Axis Of The Ancient Gauls — ASHLEY COWIE (archive.org)
(ad) The Nazca Solution – The final solution to what the Nazca Lines represent (archive.org)
(af) (99+) (PDF) THE GEOMETRY AND ASTRONOMY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS | Arturo Villamarin – Academia.edu
(ag) (99+) (PDF) THE GEOMETRY AND ASTRONOMY OF GOBEKLI TEPE | Arturo Villamarin – Academia.edu
Corsini, Marco Guido
Marco Guido Corsini (1954- ) is an Italian researcher who has produced yet another interpretation of the Phaistos Disk(a) as well as a number of online papers(b) (all in Italian) regarding the search for Atlantis. He identifies the Atlanteans(d) as the ‘Nordic’ Sea Peoples, a la Spanuth, and yet in another place he refers to Rome as the capital of Atlantis, which is interesting as Plato described the Atlantean domain extending as far a Tyrhennia(c), whose territory began just north of what was later known as Rome.
Corsini’s websites are in Italian only and when translated by Google they are not the easiest to read. Unfortunately, Italians seem to rarely use paragraphs and Corsini has a rambling style, making lots of assertions, but offering little evidence to support them.
Corsini ventures into strange territory when he claims that the now ‘missing’ Tulli Papyrus(e) describes a UFO sighting by ancient Egyptians(f) and also that he would like to find the Loch Ness Monster(g)!
A further insight into Corsini’s personality was provided in a recent email that he sent to me, which I include here in its entirety:
“ You are a stupid man. Do not know italian and misinterpret my works. Finish to mention me and my works. You are stupid.”
My only comment is that I would prefer to be stupid than boorish.
(c) Timaeus 25b & Critias 114c
Fringe-ology is a term used to describe, the study of such disparate subject as UFOS, pyramids, psychics, crop circles(c), lost civilisations, the Illuminati etc., etc., as well as the frequent attempts to link some or all of these in some grand theory of everything. Fringeology is also the name of a website(a), as well as a book(b) by American journalist, Steve Volk, who urges open-minded scepticism.
Roger Elefant is a French writer who has written (only in French)
on a range of ‘New Age’ subjects – Mu, hollow earth, UFO’s, the Ica Stones etc., etc(a). His books appear to be mainly a mish-mash of other writers ideas with Robert Charroux and Edgar Cayce figuring prominently. His ideas on Atlantis are just echoes of Cayce’s ‘visions’ and like Cayce the few references to Plato are usually only encountered en passant. I found little originality in Elefant’s work except when I read his claim that Tiwanaku had been built by the Vikings _ D’autre part, Tiahuanaco, aussi incroyable que cela paraisse, aurait été construite par les Vikings, sur (et avec) les ruines de la ville antique d’origine ! (Oui, j’écris bien les Vikings.)(b).
[On the other hand, Tiahuanaco, incredible as it may seem, was built by the Vikings on (and with) the ruins of the ancient city of origin! (Yes, I write out the Vikings …)]
*Elefant has also expressed support for the theories of James Churchward and his claims relating to Mu(d).*
In a more recent offering(c) Elefant claimed that the Basques are descendants of migrants from Atlantis.
Le Poer Trench, Brinsley
Brinsley Le Poer Trench (1911-1995) was a member of both British and Dutch nobility with the titles of 8th Earl of Clancarty and 7th Marquess of Heusden and had a seat in the British House of Lords. He held a number of extreme opinions regarding extraterrestrial visitors, UFO’s and the Hollow Earth Theory and wrote a number of books in support of them.
With regard to Atlantis he placed it in the Atlantic with the Azores as its remnants and claims that those who survived its destruction became what we know as Basques, Berbers and the Celts of Britain and Ireland. He goes further and links Atlantis with Egypt together with its Sphinx and pyramids. Not content with that, he also ventures to associate the Glastonbury Zodiac with Atlantis calling it the Temple of the Stars, the title of one of his books.
While his location theory is fairly standard fare he obviously forgot what he had written,
when eight years later he produced Finding Lost Atlantis Inside the Hollow Earth!!
Mandaeans are a religious grouping that in recent years was centred in Iraq until the war there dispersed them across the world, leaving just a few thousands in their original homeland. Efforts to resettle them as a single group have failed, putting the continued existence of this religious minority seriously at risk.
Their place in this work is mainly due to the views of the prolific Italian writer, Mario Pincherle, who has advocated the radical view that the Mandaeans are the last remnants of the Atlanteans . One website(a) goes even further suggesting that the Mandaeans have some knowledge of the secret behind the UFO mystery. A more recent article studies this in greater depth(b).
>(a) https://forum.davidicke.com/showthread.php?t=72447 (Link broken March 2020)<
Steiger, Brad *
Brad Steiger was born as Eugene Olson(b) in Fort Dodge, Iowa in 1936. He is the author of over 150 books and thousands of articles on a variety of subjects, such as crime, spirituality, UFO’s and other unexplained phenomena. He has written three books related to Atlantis, but in the main they are re-workings of old and sometimes questionable material. Steiger subscribed to the ancient astronaut theory and concluded that Atlantis can only be found at the bottom of the sea. His book, Atlantis Rising was republished in 2007.
He reiterated his belief in the ‘Sky People’ in a December 2012 interview(a).
In March 2016, it was announced by Nick Redfern that Steiger’s 1974 book, Mysteries of Time and Space, was to be re-released, which prompted Jason Colavito to write a brief but scathing review(c) of Steiger’s work. This prompted online exchanges between Colavito and Redfern.
Brad Steiger died May 6th 2018(d).
Leonard, R. Cedric
R. Cedric Leonard (1934- ) is from Oklahoma and has worked as an electronic technician, initially in the U.S. Navy and later in private industry, from which he retired in 1990. He has studied Comparative Religion, Sanskrit and Classical Greek and has a B.A. in Anthropology from the University of Oklahoma. He is also self-taught in Egyptian, Canaanite and Phoenician inscriptions. He has also speculated on the possibility of the Phoenician alphabet having its origins in Atlantis and possibility of a connection with the Glozel Tablets(c).
His Sanskrit studies led him to investigate stories of the vimanas or ancient Hindu flying machines. He has produced several booksand scientific papers on the subject of Atlantis and ancient India. He has also written on the existence of UFO’s in ancient Egypt(d), Mesopotamia(h) and the Bible, particularly the Book of Ezekiel(e). He has also produced a paper(f) about archaeological mysteries in general.
However, in his 1979 book, Quest for Atlantis, Leonard has suggested that the Kings of Atlantis were human-alien hybrids and that humans are the result of alien genetic experiments!!
Although retired, he still maintains his very interesting Atlantis website(a), which covers a range of subjects including connections between Cro-Magnon Man and ancient Egypt with Atlantis. Unfortunately, his website has now (2019) gone offline.
He locates Atlantis along The Mid-Atlantic Ridge and offers geological, mythological, linguistic and paleontological evidence to support this idea and for its destruction following worldwide catastrophes around 10000 BC. He has also written a paper(g) on the asteroid/comet impact around the same time, which created the Carolina Bays and its possible connection with the destruction of Atlantis. This encounter was brought to the notice of a wide audience by Richard Firestone and his colleagues by their book, The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes.
>Before retirement, Leonard supported Posnansky’s early date for Tiwanaku citing a number of astronomers who endorsed his chronology. “Between 1927 and 1930 Prof. Posnansky’s conclusions were studied intensively by a number of authorities. Dr. Hans Ludendorff (Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Potsdam), Friedrich Becker of the Specula Vaticana, Prof. Arnold Kohlschutter (astronomer at Bonn University), and Rolf Müller (astronomer of the Institute of Astrophysics at Potsdam) verified the accuracy of Posnansky’s calculations and vouched for the reliability of his conclusions.
The conventional practice of dating Tiahuanacu as beginning c. 200 A.D. and collapsing c. 1000 A.D. started with Wendell Bennett’s excavations, which turned up numerous examples of pottery, small statues and other artifacts. Since it is common for later arrivals to be awed by massive ruins (sometimes attributing their origin to supernatural beings, thus replicating the “sacred” images on their own pottery and textiles), I think it is a mistake to fuse the two cultures into one, implying that the later arrivals were the same people who built the original ruins. I believe Bennett and his successors are all guilty of such an error” (i).<
Leonard himself recognised that his belief in prehistoric flying machines may lead some readers to dismiss his carefully thought-out theory on Atlantis, but he is adamant that both existed. Nevertheless, it is fair to say that Leonard is one of the few writers on the subject who has produced original material to support the idea of Atlantis’ existence.
Some of Leonard’s work can be found plagiarised on the Internet, most blatantly by the artist, Charles Alexander Moffat(b).
(a) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20161212202011/https://www.atlantisquest.com/index.html
b)Atlantis Forgotten – The Search for Atlantis and Eden – The Religion eZine (archive.org)
(d) See related site: The Arrival of the Sky Gods: Ancient Egyptian Papyrus details mass UFO sighting | Ancient Code (archive.org)*
(e) See: https://pathwaytoascension.wordpress.com/2013/01/22/the-wheels-of-ezekiel-was-it-a-space-ship-r-cedric-leonard-ph-d/
(g) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20170113112302/https://www.atlantisquest.com/Asteroid.html
(h) See: Archive 2881
Hepke, Karl Jürgen
Karl Jürgen Hepke was born in 1933 and is a graduate engineer. For over twenty years he has been researching early history. He is the author, in German, of The History of Atlantis with an English translation online(f).
Hepke maintains two websites(a)(b) that have a good portion of their content in English and cover a range of Atlantis-related subjects. However, in an overview(d) of his work, he moves into the area of UFOs and alien intervention, which for me is a ‘turn off’’. Hepke does not consider these extraterrestrials to have been ‘gods’ but were culture bearers(g)!
Hepke follows the opinion of Lewis Spence who was probably the earliest to postulate the idea of ‘two Atlantises‘. The first was located in the North Atlantic and was flooded by rising sea levels following an impact with a comet or asteroid. He believes that this impact was responsible for some axial displacement of the earth. The second was the Atlantis described by Plato and in the opinion of Hepke was centred in Tartessos, the Tarshish of the Bible, in Andalusia, Spain. He specifies the present Puerto de Santa Maria(e), immediately north of Cadiz, as the site of Tarshish, where recent excavations, have revealed Phoenician remains and a very ancient racecourse.
Hepke agrees with the idea that Plato’s 9,000 ‘years’ were actually lunar cycles and should be accepted as 692 solar years, which when added to the date of Solon’s visit to Sais would give a date of 1192 BC for the demise of Atlantis. Hepke points out that current understanding indicates a date of 1250 BC for the catastrophic impact that led to the destruction of Atlantis and that 1190 BC was the date of the first battle between the Egyptians and the Sea Peoples. However, any slight date discrepancies could be explained by the fact that the 9,000 ‘years’ referred to are highly unlikely to have been intended as exact. In the same way that people of today will casually speak of an event in the 18th century as having occurred ‘a couple of hundred’ years ago, with an accepted accuracy that could be 50 years out.
What is strange is that if Hepke is equating the Sea Peoples with the Atlanteans, this conflicts with Plato’s story, which suggests that the Egyptians did not have to fight the Atlanteans, who were engaged in a war with the Athenians diverting their forces away from Egypt.
Hepke delivered a paper(c) to the 2011 Atlantis Conference on Santorini. He outlined his Atlantis theory locating it on the plain of the River Guadalete which runs into the Bay of Cádiz near Puerto de Santa Maria.
>Hepke’s Atlantis location theory has received support from Hans Joachim Hess in a paper on the Atlantisforschung.de website.<
Hepke has also added some links to video clips to his websites.
(a) Tolos Homepage (archive.org)
(b) Tolos Homepage (archive.org)
(e) See (c)
(f) The History of Atlantis (archive.org)
(g) Jürgen Hepke – Atlantisforschung.de
(h) Alle Wege führen nach Atlantis – Atlantisforschung.de *