An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Joining The Dots


Joining The Dots

I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato's own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.


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Pleiades

Pleiades, The

The Pleiades in Greek mythology is the collective name for the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione, while in astronomy, it is one of the nearest star clusters to Earth and the most obvious to the naked eye in the Taurus constellation. They were identified among the famous prehistoric paintings on the walls of the Lascaux Cave (16,500 BC).

The Danish independent researcher, Ove Von Spaeth, has a wide-ranging article on cultural references to the Pleiades including the Nebra Sky Disc(a). He also touches on the subject of Atlantis.

David Zink in his search for Atlantis in the Bahamas used the services of psychic, Carol Huffstickler, who was happy to inform him that around 28,000 BC, the Gods came to Earth from the Pleiades(d)!

However, Jack Countryman has devoted his book, Atlantis and the Seven Stars[1312], to the idea that extraterrestrials from the Pleiades “had initiated human civilisation through Atlantis and the Mediterranean.” A comparable idea has been proposed by Semir Osmanagic, promoter of the Bosnian pyramids, who has suggested[0519] that the Maya were descendents of the Atlanteans who in turn arrived on Earth from the Pleiades(b)!

Frank Joseph claims that the Pleiades, ”like the kings (of Atlantis) listed by Plato, they correspond, through their individual myths, to actual places within the Atlantean sphere of influence, and thereby help to illustrate the story of that vanished empire.” Joseph, concludes by associating each with particular realms within that empire, including the Azores, Morocco. Troy, Yucatan, Italy and the Canaries.[104.227]

The Cherokee Indians also have have an oral tradition which tells of ‘star people’ coming to Earth from the Pleiades and settling on five islands in the Atlantic known as Elohi Mona. Following the destruction of these islands the survivors migrated to the Americas. A Cherokee contributor to a, now offline, forum related how he always understood Elohi Mona to be a reference to Atlantis. Another site offering further ‘insights’ into the Atlantean and Cherokee linkage to the Pleiades is available(c).

Edward Alexander, in a slight twist to the tale, also claims to have been reincarnated many times on Earth, over the past 9,000 years from his distant origins in the Pleiades.

*In 2018, Frederick Dodson revealed that he had encountered blue-skinned beings from the Pleiades in his book, The Pleiades and our Secret Destiny [1658] ! It would be interesting to hear Dodson and Alexander exchange notes.*

The Pleiades are known as Subaru in Japanese, giving its name to the car brand and inspiring their logo design.

(a) See: Archive 3363

(b) http://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/osmanagic/

(c) https://www.tokenrock.com/explain-pleiadians-138.html

(d) http://www.tulsaworld.com/archives/legend-of-atlantis-lives-in-bimini/article_d5552245-820b-510a-bb96-c295f7947300.html (June 2018-Not available in Europe because of the GDPR)

Countryman, Jack

Jack Countryman is the author of many books with Christian themes. He also wrote Atlantis and the Seven Stars[1312] in which he expressed qualified support for some of Ignatius Donnelly’s theories,*although, he identifies Atlantis as the biblical Tarshish.

However, for me, his book is marred by his promotion of the idea of genetic manipulation by extraterrestrials from the Pleiades (the seven stars in the book title).*

Cherokee Indians (L)

The Cherokee Indians of the southwestern states of America have an oral tradition which tells of ‘star people’ coming to earth from the Pleiades and settling on five islands in the Atlantic known as Elohi Mona. Following the destruction of these islands the survivors migrated to the Americas. A Cherokee contributor to an online forum relates(a) how he always understood Elohi Mona to be a reference to Atlantis.

I occurs to me that if the survivors were migrating after a catastrophe they would in all probability head for the nearest landmass, suggesting that Elohi Mona was located in the western Atlantic and could conceivably have been the then more extensive Caribbean lands that were flooded by the rising sea levels following the end of the last Ice Age.

Charla Jean Morris, a journalist of Cherokee and Choctaw extraction has written From the First Rising Sun[970] which deals with the traditions of the Cherokee people regarding their origins. They claim to have come to mainland America from those islands in the Atlantic off the coast of South America. Morris identifies these with Atlantis. She also discusses the Cherokee Flood Myths and compares them with the Genesis accounts.

(a) http://dir.groups.yahoo.com/group/Atlantis_Mysteries/message/940 (offline 1/8/14)

Zink, David Daniel

David Daniel Zink (1927-2008) was formerly an English professor at the USAF Academy in Colorado and Lamar University in Texas. Following a David zinkmeeting with J. Manson Valentine in the 1970’s he carried out extensive searches with funding from A.R.E. in the shallow waters off Bimini producing detailed maps of anomalous underwater features such as the ‘Bimini Road’. Zink published these findings in his 1978 offering, The Stones of Atlantis[178], described by the Los Angeles Times(a) as an “unintentionally hilarious compendium of pseudo-science”.

The following year Zink published a second book[588] that discussed megaliths in a more general manner. In 1990 he published a revised version of ‘Stones’, but it added very little new material.

However, it has transpired that Zink used the ‘services’ of psychics, including a well-known clairvoyant, Carol Huffstickler, during his Bimini investigations. One of Huffstickler’s contributions was to declare that Stonehenge was built around 16000BC! These psychic sources advised that highly evolved, loving extraterrestrial beings from the Pleiades arrived on earth around 30000 BC and joined the thriving commercial and religious community of Bimini and assisted with the construction of temples and buildings including the structures studied by Zink. The inclusion of this psychic ‘input’ did little to enhance the credibility of Zink as a serious investigator and led to the withdrawal of A.R.E. support.

Zink also warned us that a period of geological instability might be due in 2030, following the reversal of the poles. Perhaps it is noteworthy that had he lived, Zink would be 103 in 2030 and therefore conveniently unlikely to be affected by the projected catastrophe!

(a) http://articles.latimes.com/1990-07-29/books/bk-1283_1_david-zink

 

Maya

 

The Maya of ancient Mexico and Guatemala have generated much controversy regarding their origins. Recent studies indicate that the story of the development of this remarkable civilisation may be more complex than previously thought(k). The demise of the Mayan cultural (800-950 AD) has now been definitively shown to be the result of persistent drought, particularly in the southern lowlands(o).

maya_map

Maya Area of Occupation

Inevitably the Maya have been linked with Atlantis by a number of writers such as Lewis Spence and E.H. Thompson who claimed that the Maya were descendants of Atlanteans. The maverick, Augustus Le Plongeon was alone in identifying Atlantis as a colony of the Maya and that their language was in fact Greek!   Others, such as Jean-Frédérick Waldeck, included an Egyptian linkage as well. However, trumping all that is a recent claim that the Maya had contact with extraterrestrials and that a documentary providing evidence is planned(b). In a similar vein is the latest English language publication from Erich von Däniken entitled: Astronaut Gods of the Maya[1422].  Semir Osmanagic, of Bosnian pyramid fame, added a twist to this proposed linkage, when he claimed[0519]  that the Maya had come from Atlantis, which in turn had been founded by visitors from the Pleiades!

For some comic relief, I can suggest a 1976 book[833] by brothers Eric & Craig Umland which ‘reveals’ that the Maya ‘are remnants of space explorers whose attempts to colonise our solar system went awry more than 40,000 years ago.’ Nearly every page is full of hilarious nonsense and nearly worth the £0.01 currently quoted on Amazon.uk. A website(i) dealing with ‘unreason’ uses extracts from the Umlands as good examples! If you wish to read about the Maya in Antarctica, the Canaries as well as the Moon, this is the book for you.

July 2012 saw a report(j) on the discovery of the largest Mayan manmade dam at Tikal in Guatemala, which was 33ft high and 260ft long and included sand filters.

The Maya had a sophisticated writing system that occupied the attention of a number of 19th century writers including Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg and Le Plongeon. Unfortunately, de Bourbourg followed the work of the 16th century bishop of Yucatán, Diego de Landa whose interpretation was seriously erroneous.

A report in 2013(l) indicated that substantial progress has been made in the decipherment of any outstanding difficulties in the translation of the Mayan script through internet co-operation.

July 2012 saw a report(j) on the discovery of the largest Mayan man-made dam at Tikal in Guatemala, which was 33ft high and 260ft long and included sand filters.

James O’Kon, an engineer, has investigated Mayan technology for decades, including the discovery of a suspension bridge at the ancient Mayan city of Yaxchilan in Mexico in 1995, which is believed to be the longest bridge of the ancient world(r). This and other aspects of Mayan technology he explores in his book, The Lost Secrets of Maya Technology[1490].  More recently, Lorraine Stobbart has written Utopia: Fact or Fiction[0476], which suggests that the ‘Utopia’ of Sir Thomas More was inspired by the Mayan culture although his text was written before Mexico was ‘officially’ discovered. Stobbart recently revealed that she is now revising her views.

However, a more serious claim relates to the idea that Mayan inscriptions revealed that a global catastrophe was to occur in 2012. This nonsense(g) turned into a minor publishing industry.  Some even tried to link this daft idea to Atlantis. Fortunately, May 2012 saw evidence from excavations in Guatemala that shows the Mayan calendar extending well beyond 2012(h).

The late David H. Kelley, a Harvard-educated archaeologist and epigrapher at Canada’s University of Calgary, had been investigating ancient links between Asia and pre-Columbian America. In that regard he published a paper outlining similarities between the Mayan and ancient Chinese calendars that were apparently too numerous to be explained by independent development(p). A more sceptical view is offered(q) by Jason Colavito, who traces the idea back to Alexander von Humboldt.

The work of Teobert Maler at the end of the 19thcentury was invaluable in the advancement of Mayan studies. Subsequent researchers have seized upon his discovery of a frieze at Tikal, which he interpreted as a depiction of the destruction of Atlantis, as evidence of the existence of Atlantis in the Atlantic.  Apart from Maler’s conjectural ideas, no tangible link has been found between the Maya and Atlantis apart from the use in their glyphs of elephants, an animal that features in Plato’s narrative.

The authenticity of photo of the frieze has been called into question by Jason Colavito and his related blog(n) is worthy of consideration.

 Otto Muck overstated it somewhat when he wrote “If Atlantis had not existed there would be no way of explaining the origins of the Maya civilisation”[098.243]

In late 2011 controversy erupted when it was claimed that the Itza Maya had migrated to North America, more specifically Georgia(c)(d). It was also suggested that earthen pyramids in Georgia and Florida can be attributed to the Maya(e). Among their other accomplishments is the claim that the Maya were capable of predicting meteor showers(s).

Gene Matlock, the well-known advocate of Atlantis in Mexico, is certain that the Maya were originally Tamils from Sri Lanka(a)!

A recent article(f) gives an interesting firsthand account of encountering the important Mayan city of Calakmul deep in the Yucatan jungle. Potentially even more important are recent LIDAR surveys carried out in Guatemala that have revealed an astounding number of previously unknown Mayan structures.* The number of additional Mayan sites identified through the use of LIDAR continues to grow at an incredible rate(u).*

Muddying the waters further is an Islamic site that claims that the Maya were Atlantean(m).

(a) http://viewzone2.com/ancientturksx.html

(b) http://www.thewrap.com/movies/column-post/mayan-filmmakers-heres-proof-aliens-central-america-32168?page=0,0

(c) http://www.examiner.com/architecture-design-in-national/massive-1-100-year-old-maya-site-discovered-georgia-s-mountains?render=print#print

(d) http://www.examiner.com/architecture-design-in-national/mayas-the-usa-controversy-you-be-the-juror?cid=PROD-redesign-right-next

(e) http://www.mayainamerica.com/2012/01/pyramids-in-florida-and-georgia.html

(f) http://travel4wildlife.com/deep-jungle-puerta-calakmul-mexico/#.U5K8MpAU9to

(g) http://www.2012hoax.org/ (offline Oct. ’14)

(h) http://www.christianpost.com/news/earliest-mayan-mural-contradicts-dec-21-2012-doomsday-74788/

(i) http://www.jfk-online.com/exploring.html#top

(j) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120716191443.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ffossils_ruins%2Fancient_civilizations+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Fossils+%26+Ruins+News+–+Ancient+Civilizations%29

(k) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/04/130425142343.htm

(l) http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2013/may/28/maya-script-glyph-language-decoding?INTCMP=SRCH

(m) http://mashiyah.blogspot.ie/ (offline 1/8/14)

(n) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/1/post/2014/02/did-the-maya-depict-the-end-of-atlantis-at-tikal.html

(o) http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/spring-2015/article/new-findings-on-drought-and-the-ancient-maya-collapse

(p) http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/mayan-calendar-similar-ancient-chinese-early-contact-006612

(q) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/newly-published-articles-claim-mexican-calendar-derives-from-chinese-original

(r) http://www.theoldexplorer.com/index.php/the-lost-secrets-of-maya-technology

(s) http://mysteriousuniverse.org/2017/09/the-amazing-mayans-may-have-predicted-meteor-showers/

(t) https://arstechnica.com/science/2018/02/lasers-shed-some-light-on-the-maya-snake-kingdom/

*(u) https://news.artnet.com/art-world/technology-transforming-mayan-archaeology-1558456*

 

 

Atlantides

Atlantides, in Greek mythology was the collective name given to the seven beautiful daughters of Atlas, the founder of Atlantis. They were also known as Pleiades or Hesperides, after their mother Hesperis. As the Hesperides they were considered the protectors of the Seven Isles of the Blest, which contained the Gardens of Atlas, their father. The Garden of the Hesperides was located, according to Eustatius in the field of Atlas.

Hercules had to locate ‘the golden apples’ in the Garden of the Hesperides.  Jonas Bergman has identified the ‘golden apples’ as the oranges of Morocco, with a site near Lixus providing the Garden of the Hesperides. *[The late Michael Hübner who was also an advocate for a Moroccan site for Atlantis proposed that the fruit of the Argan tree found in the Souss-Massa region were the ‘golden apples.]*

If these interpretations are is correct, it implies that Hercules was familiar with apples but not oranges and hence he must have come from a more northerly climate; which raises a series of other questions not pertinent to this work.

Bosnia

Bosnia was dragged into the Atlantis debate in 2006 when a self-styled archaeologist, Semir Osmanagic, claimed that he had discovered five pyramids in his ancestral Bosnia near the town of Visoko. His claim received widespread media coverage and sparked a debate that continues today.bosnian_pyramid_sun_01

The Atlantis connection emerged from the belief of Osmanagic that the original ancestors of the Maya, Basques and other ancient peoples were descended from the peoples of Atlantis and Lemuria whose founders arrived on earth from the Pleiades. According to Osmanagic’s strange logic this gives the ‘pyramids’ of Bosnia an Atlantean pedigree.

Fortunately, Mark Rose, editor of Archaeology, who published a critical review(a) of Osmanagic’s weird ideas in Archaeology magazine, was also widely quoted, adding some balance to the debate. The same magazine carried a brief but highly critical review of Osmanagic’s theories from Zahi Hawass(h).

In 2006, Robert Schoch visited the Bosnian ‘pyramid’ and subsequently wrote a highly critical assessment of Osmanagic and his theories. However, some time later, Osmanagic responded with a scathing review(c) of Schoch’s work!

In September 2014 the Science Channel aired an episode of The Unexplained Files series in the US, which attempted to justify Osmanagic’s claims. However, Jason Colavito has highlighted the many flaws in the program’s content(d).

A more sober attempt to link the Bosnian region with Atlantis has been made by Fatih Hodzic(b). Part of his theory attempts to identify the thousands of stone blocks or ‘stecaks’, spread widely in Bosnia, as remnants of Atlantean buildings. His ideas are interesting but unconvincing.

In 2014, Paul A. LaViolette visited the Visko pyramid in Bosnia and published an extensive illustrated article in which he expressed his amazement at what he saw there and concluded(g) that he considers  “this to be one of the most important archaeological excavations going on at this time on our planet.” 

Philip Coppens has also defended the reality of Osmanagic’s pyramids in The Lost Civilization Enigma[1275.39],  nevertheless, the debate is still open as can be seen in a February 2016 blog(f), in which many reasonable questions relating to the construction of the ‘pyramids are still unresolved. For my part, I find Osmanagic’s personal credibility questionable, considering his previous claims regarding Atlantis and ancient aliens, which are not, in my view, the conclusions of a person with his critical faculties intact.

Another claim from Osmanagic emerged in April 2016, when he claimed that huge stone spheres that exist in Bosnia ‘prove’ the existence of an advanced civilisation more than 1,500 years ago(e)!

*Late 2018 saw the UK’s Express tabloid’s online edition entertain us with the headline(I) – Bosnian pyramid SHOCK: ancient civilisation received knowledge from SPACE.*

(a) http://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/osmanagic/

(b) http://en.atlantida.spletnestrani.com/atlantida/

(c) http://piramidasunca.ba/bs/component/k2/item/3120-how-many-times-has-dr-robert-schoch-been-wrong

(d) http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/review-of-the-unexplained-files-segment-on-the-so-called-bosnian-pyramids

(e) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/04/11/mysterious-giant-sphere-unearthed-in-forest-divides-opinion/

*(f) https://archyfantasies.com/2016/02/22/the-pyramids-that-are-not-the-bosnian-pyramids/ (link broken Jan. 2019) See: Archive 3187*

(g)  http://www.sarajevotimes.com/?p=72522

(h) http://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/osmanagic/zahi_hawass.pdf

*(I) https://www.express.co.uk/news/weird/1062080/Bosnia-pyramid-shock-theory-ancient-civilisation-space-spt*

Alexander, Edward

Edward Alexander (1981- ) is a Norwegian researcher currently living in Argentina. He is edward-maggador-alexanderendeavouring to promote the idea of a Latin American Atlantis. His thoughts on the subject can be read on his American Atlantis Research website (a).

His former website had a number of interesting ideas and focussed on similarities between structures in Egypt and the New World. However, he does not offer any substantial evidence that might identify any particular location as the site of Plato’s Atlantean capital or the date of its demise. He also fails to offer any explanation for an invasion from South America of the most distant part of the Mediterranean or evidence that any indigenous civilisation had a maritime culture capable of such a strange venture. I’m sorry, but young Edward Alexander, or Maggador IX-777  as he sometimes calls himself, does not convince me.

Alexander is a conspiracy theorist, and occultist, who claims to have been reincarnated on earth many times, over the past nine thousand years(b) since his distant origins in the Pleiades.

While a belief in a life before birth is just as questionable as belief in a life after death, I will let that pass. However, his Pleiadian ancestry should be dismissed as New Age twaddle.

Since the above was written, Alexander had developed a new website(c), which includes an image of himself that is eerily reminiscent of Augustus le Plongeon.

*(a) http://American Atlantis.blogspot.com/*

(b) http://www.pleiadiantalk.com/2009/05/background-of-maggador-ix-777.html (offline May 2017)

(c) http://www.maggador.com/ (offline May 2015)