An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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    NEWS September 2023

    September 2023. Hi Atlantipedes, At present I am in Sardinia for a short visit. Later we move to Sicily and Malta. The trip is purely vacational. Unfortunately, I am writing this in a dreadful apartment, sitting on a bed, with access to just one useable socket and a small Notebook. Consequently, I possibly will not […]Read More »
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    Joining The Dots

    I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato’s own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.Read More »
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Cro-Magnon

Woods, Anthony

 Anthony Woods is the author of Atlantis Ireland, published under the auspices of the unaccredited Keystone University(a) in Dublin, with Woods listed as CEO(b). To be blunt, for me as an Irishman, in spite of such an interesting title, I was greatly disappointed. In fact, I was by turn uncertain whether I should laugh or cry.

Woods engages in a generous level of speculation, which was certainly attention seeking. He selectively uses some mythological stories as if history whenever it suits his purpose [p.71]. The content is irritatingly repetitious throughout, references should have been numbered, which along with a few typos, all cry out for an editor.

His core contention is that Stone Age Ireland was a cultural hyperdiffusionist centre. He claims that megalith building, language and religion, all spread globally from Ireland, also known as Atlantis!

Among his many outlandish claims are that:

1.The ancient Irish language is the oldest in the world and is the most extensive with almost a million words [p.142], which is completely wrong by about a factor of six!

2.Irish megaliths are the most spectacular – obviously Woods has never heard of Brittany!

3.Megalith construction spread from Ireland to the world. However respected archaeologists such Aubrey Burl, Mike Parker Pearson and Robert Hensey [1766.6] burst that particular bubble with the their shared view that megalith building originated in France.

According to Woods, “the high concentration of megaliths on the west cost of Britain and France proves that Ireland was the fountainhead, the source of the megalithic mother culture.” The ‘logic’ here eludes me!

4.For some reason Woods thinks islands are ideal for evolution(p139), and that Cro-Magnon Man evolved in Ireland[p.103]!

5.Although Ireland was the island of Atlantis, the city of Atlantis (Cerne) was in Mauritania and is known today as the Richat Structure!

6.The Celts didn’t come to Ireland, they came from Ireland![p.99]

7.Woods makes the modest claim that the Irish visited America thousands of years before Columbus. Which may or may not be true, but what has that to do with Atlantis? [p.93]

In all, this book is not just an Hibernocentric rant. Woods also offers a lengthy diatribe against British imperialism and Vatican political interference, which, although probably justifiable, has also nothing to do with Atlantis

He introduces a range of subjects such as giants, Machu Picchu, Gobekli Tepe and the Garden of Eden, all with Woods’ imagined connection with ancient Ireland!

Apart all the nonsense about ancient Ireland, he barely touches on Plato’s dialogues, except to rubbish his narrative with “It’s clear that Plato’s legend is useful but unreliable, that it combined two separate related places, a lot of exaggeration and several historical errors.”[p.13] and twice patronisingly refers to Plato’s account as “useful but unreliable.”[p.50]

Woods did quote from Ulf  Erlingsson, who made a more valliant attempt to link Ireland with Atlantis some years. Erlingsson matched the dimensions of 2000 x 3000 stadia (340 x 227 miles) given by Plato with the diagonal dimensions of Ireland [319.16]. Unfortunately, Erlingsson got it very wrong and Woods copied his error. Plato’s figures were the dimensions of the Plain of Atlantis, while the Central Plain of Ireland is just a fraction of its size(c), being very roughly 150 x 100 miles in extent. Now, who’s unreliable?

At which point, I could take no more and gave up.

(a) https://www.keystone.ie     

(b) https://ie.linkedin.com/in/anthonymwoods

(c) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Ireland

Carnac

Carnac is arguably Europe’s most visually remarkable megalithic site. It is situated near the town of the same name in Brittany. Many will have seen images of the rows of standing stones there, often unaware that there are four main sets of them close to Carnac as well as cromlechs and solitary menhirs, including the largest, Le Grand Menhir Brisé, now broken, but originally 70 ft long and weighing around 300 tons. In their 1978 book [1771.180], Alexander Thom and his son, Archie, in the conclusion to their book, in spite of their extensive studies of the stone rows, agreed that “we do not know what these were for” and although various theories have been proposed since; we still don’t.

I always thought that the stone rows at Carnac were unique, until I saw an image of a similar arrangement of stones at Vibhuthihalli at Karnataka in India. It may be pure coincidence, but the similar sounds of Carnac and Karnataka is remarkable(f)(g).

Jean Markale presumed that there was a connection between Atlantis and the megalithic standing stones of Carnac in Brittany. Rather than solve these two mysteries, his book, Carnac et L’enigme de L’atlantide (Carnac and the Enigma of Atlantis) [0470]  would seem to deepen them.>Paul Johnson offered a review of Markale’s book in 1987(j).<

Helmut Tributsch suggested that the island of Gavrinis near Carnac in Brittany had been the capital of this Atlantean civilisation(h). He dated the destruction of Atlantis to 2200 BC, a date also favoured by Anton Mifsud.

Hans-Pény Hirmenech expressed the wild idea that the rows of standing stones at Carnac marked the tombs of Atlantean soldiers who fought in the Trojan War! Wikipedia notes that “A Christian myth associated with the stones held that they were pagan soldiers in pursuit of Pope Cornelius when he turned them to stone.”(a)

Hank Harrison supports the idea of a megalithic Atlantis with its centre of power, probably located in the Morbihan area of Brittany.

Based on the picture and the data present, Schulz Paulsson believes that the megaliths were first constructed by dwellers of northwest France during the second half of the fifth millennium BC.”(b) Mike Parker Pearson, Stonehenge’s leading authority, has endorsed this idea of a French origin for megalith building(c).

Neil L. Thomas in a 2021 paper(d) has studied three sites near Carnac that hold long rows of standing stones whose purpose was uncertain. Thomas concluded that they had a calendrical function relating to the sun and moon. I cannot help wondering why such extensive and labour-intensive structures were needed to achieve this relatively simple objective.

R. Cedric Leonard has published an interesting overview of the Carnac mystery, suggesting that the erection of the three rows of standing stones may have been originally connected. He further proposes that the builders of the monuments were possibly a Cro-Magnon people, namely, the Azilians.

In 2017, Arthur Faram published a short paper with the interesting title of The Carnac Stones Decoded. Frankly, I could not understand his theory at all(i).

(a) Carnac stones – Wikipedia

(b) https://www.smithsonianmag.com/articles/europe-megalithic-monuments-france-sea-routes-mediterranean-180971467/

(c) Stonehenge, other ancient rock structures may trace their origins to monuments like this | Request PDF (researchgate.net) 

(d) (99+) Academia.edu 

(e) https://atlantisquestscience.wordpress.com/science/the-stones-of-carnac/ 

(f)  (99+) Mystery of the Similarities of Indian, European and British Megaliths: a Consideration of Possible Influences in Antiquity | Subhashis Das – Academia.edu (Plate 9) 

(g) Stone Alignment of Vibhutihalli | PDF | Sunset | Neolithic (scribd.com) 

(h) Die gläsernen Türme von Atlantis: Erinnerungen an Megalith-EuropaDie gläsernen Türme von Atlantis: Erinnerungen an Megalith-EuropaDie gläsernen Türme von Atlantis: Erinnerungen an Megalith-Europa – Helmut Tributsch (archive.org)(German) *

(i)  Carnac Stones (thefaramfoundation.com) 

(j) https://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/world/anceur/eu-john.htm *

Nephilim, The

The Nephilim in the Old Testament were the offspring of the “sons of God” and the “daughters of men” before the Deluge, according to Genesis 6:1-4. Many early translations of the OT, as well as the King James version, preferred to translate the original Hebrew word as ‘giants’.

The World Heritage Encyclopedia offers a range of theories regarding the etymology of the word(a).  Wikipedia has further background information on the subject(c).

Jason Colavito has unearthed late 19th-century attempts to link the Cro-Magnons with the Nephilim(e).

Ignatius Donnelly implied that the antediluvian giant Nephilim of the Bible were Atlantean, while others such as Blavatsky were more explicit.

>In Gateway to Atlantis, Andrew Collins proposed that Valum Votan was the original homeland of the Mesoamerican peoples. He further suggested that Votan, the culture bearer, belonged to the Hebrew giant race known as Nephilim(g).<

In more recent times it was the work of the late Zechariah Sitchin that revived interest in the Nephilim, the Anunnaki and the existence of extraterrestrial visitors in ancient times. Unlike the more than dubious claims of Erich von Däniken, Sitchin’s ideas appeared to have a more reliable scientific foundation. However, this foundation was composed of Sitchin’s own interpretation of Sumerian texts, which has been heavily criticised(b).

>In late 2017 and early 2018, a two-part article(h)(i). by two young researchers, Jason Jarrell and Sarah Farmer added further criticism of Sitchin’s linguistic capabilities. In 2021, Jarrell & Farmer wrote a two-part article about the Anunnaki(j)(k)., in which they concluded “that rather than making the Anunnaki the equivalent of the “Elohim” who created man in the Book of Genesis; they should more properly be compared to the Nephilim and the fallen angels described in Genesis Chapter 6, 1 Enoch, and other extra-biblical texts.”<

In 2019, Ryan Pitterson, tried to revive the idea of a connection between Atlantis and the biblical Nephilim but failed miserably. He is the author of Judgement of the Nephilim [1620] which he claims to be “the first comprehensive biblical study of the Nephilim.” Jason Colavito disagreed(f). Promotional interviews for the book gave him his fifteen minutes of fame, which is more than this book deserves.

Petros Koutouplis has also published a paper on Graham Hancock’s website, in which he investigates the biblical origins of the Nephilim and the possibility that they were ‘giants’, based on the evidence of the language of the Bible(d).

(a)  https://self.gutenberg.org/articles/eng/Nephilim  (link broken)  

(b)  https://www.jasoncolavito.com/zecharia-sitchins-world.html

(c) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephilim

(d) https://grahamhancock.com/nephilim-origins-koutoupis/

(e) An Early Argument that Cro-Magnons Were the Nephilim – JASON COLAVITO 

(f) https://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/british-tabloid-uses-year-old-interview-with-nephilim-theorist-to-claim-atlantis-was-located-in-the-golan-heights 

(g) https://www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/cabrera.htm  *

(h) http://www.ancient-origins.net/unexplained-phenomena/anunnaki-revealed-who-were-these-beings-ancient-astronaut-theory-what-do-021716  *

(i) http://www.ancient-origins.net/human-origins-religions/zecharia-sitchin-and-mistranslation-sumerian-texts-009442  *

(j) Anunnaki Revealed: Who Were These Beings of Ancient Astronaut Theory? – Part I | Ancient Origins (ancient-origins.net) *

(k) Anunnaki Revealed: Finding the Nephilim in Myth, Giants Among Men– Part II | Ancient Origins (ancient-origins.net) *

Civilisation Collapse

Civilisation Collapse has occurred many times over the past millennia in all parts of the world. The American anthropologist, Joseph A. Tainter[1539] defines collapse as “a rapid shift to a lower level of complexity(a) .” Societal disintegration immediately brings to mind the Maya, the Indus Valley and in what are relatively more modern times, the Western Roman Empire.

The causes are usually a combination of factors, such as climate change, warfare, disease or excessive expansionism. Global catastrophes such as encounters with comets or asteroids are rare, while more local events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or tsunamis can also be thrown into the mix. These have all been encountered from time to time, but have rarely been blamed for the collapse of a society; full recovery from such limited regional events is usually possible.

The Mediterranean has seen its share of all these catastrophic events. A major tsunami on Sardinia, volcanic eruptions in Italy, and earthquakes in North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean. Close encounters with extraterrestrial bodies have also been proposed in that region.

Perhaps the best-documented civilisation collapse is that which occurred around 1200 BC and affected many societies, particularly in the Middle East(b) . Israel Finkelstein, a leading Israeli archaeologist, has attributed this event to climate change and is of the view that this disruption was global in extent.

Inevitably, Atlantis has been cited as an example of civilisation collapse, particularly among supporters of the Minoan Hypothesis, who link the 2nd millennium BC eruptions of Thera with the demise of the Minoans on Crete. Also popular is the idea that Atlantis had been a large island in the Atlantic Ocean destroyed by a cometary impact or the rising sea levels as the glaciers melted at the end of the last Ice Age.>However these Atlantic suggestions would appear to be ruled out by Plato’s clear statement that Atlantis was destroyed by an earthquake.<

A variety of other theories have associated Atlantis with the collapse of a civilisation. For example, Frank Joseph claims that 40,000 years ago “sudden sea-level rises triggers migration from Mu around. The Pacific motherlanders settle on a large, fertile island about 380 kilometers due west from the Straits of Gibraltar. There, the newcomers merge with the native Cro-Magnon inhabitants, resulting in a new, hybrid culture – Atlantis.”>Unsurprisingly, Joseph fails to explain why refugees from the Pacific would travel all the way from the Pacific to settle in the Atlantic when their previous homeland was surrounded by more accessible alternatives such as the Americas, Australia, Asia and Africa. He also fails to explain how the migrants had the seafaring ability to travel such a distance. Furthermore, since all the oceans are connected this sudden sea level rise would also have had a similar effect in the Atlantic generating mass migrations there also.

(a) Wayback Machine (archive.org)

(b) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Bronze_Age_collapse

Capsian Culture (t)

The Capsian Culture was the African counterpart of that of the Azilian people of Europe,*[dating from 8000 to 4500 BC.]*  They were among a number of groups included under the umbrella title of Cro-Magnon Man. They were originally centred in the region of the Tunisian and Algerian chotts (blue area on map), spreading later across North Africa and are generally accepted as the ancestors of today’s berbers, frequently suggested to be descendants of the Atlanteans.

Capsian culture

 

Charpentier, Louis *

Louis_CharpentierLouis Charpentier (1905-1979) was a French journalist with a fascination for the mysteries of ancient history. He has written books on the Basques and the Templars, the latter were considered by Charpentier to have built Chartres Cathedral as a repository for ancient wisdom. Tracy Boyd has written a related paper(b), in which she mentions that “Many of the labyrinths originally installed in cathedrals in France were later destroyed by the Church itself”!

In 1975, he produced a paper in which he speculated on the existence of Atlantis and concluded that it probably existed as a Cro-Magnon society on an island in the Atlantic that was destroyed by the Deluge. The text of the article is available on the Atlantisforschung.de website(a).

(a) http://atlantisforschung.de/index.php?title=Das_cromagnoide_Atlantis

(b) our lady of chartres (archive.org)  (Footnote 27) *

Pelasgians

Pelasgians or Pelasgi is the term applied to early populations of the Aegean, prior to the Flood of Deucalion and the subsequent arrival of the Hellenic peoples to the region. Pelasgian Greeks are recognised as having occupied Crete at the end of the 2nd millennium BC. It is unclear from classical sources(b) exactly what regions the Pelasgians occupied, not to mention when or where they originated.

Some writers such as Densusianu have postulated a Pelasgian Empire extending over a large stretch of central Europe.

Euripides stated that the Pelasgians were later called Danaans.

Spiro N. Konda believes that today’s Albanians are descendants of the Pelasgians and has written The Albanians and the Pelasgian Problem in support of this idea, unfortunately, it is in Albanian, but some of his arguments can be read, in English, online(a).

Oliver D. Smith in his book Atlantis in Greece identified “the Pelasgians with both the Atlanteans and prehistoric Athenians – as two regional tribes at war with each other”.

A more radical, highly speculative and quite incredible, alternative definition is offered by Marin, Minella and Schievenin[0972.471],  which is that Pelasgians were refugees from their homeland in Antarctica after its catastrophic destruction. They claim that these refugees were also known as Titans, Tyrrhenians and Atlanteans, among other names! They also propose that the Pelasgians arrived in Egypt in 10,500 BCE “led by Osiris/Menes, and joined the local people, who were indigenous Negroid such as the image engraved in the Sphinx.” They further claim that anthropology calls them Cro-Magnon!

James Bailey noted in The God-Kings & the Titans [149.158] that the Pelasgians were equated with the Peoples of the Sea in the Cambridge Ancient History(c).

>Lars Karlsson is Professor in Classical Archaeology and Ancient History at Uppsala University and in a 2023 paper(e)  he offered the theory “that the Pelasgians were ‘proto-Etruscans’, since the Pelasgian island of Lemnos has inscriptions in Etruscan.”

The degree of confusion surrounding the identity of the Pelasgians is clearly demonstrated in the Wikipedia article on the subject(d).<

(a) https://at001.wordpress.com/2011/04/09/the-etymology-of-the-names-of-pelasgian-gods-2/

(b) https://stoa.wordpress.com/2008/08/05/the-pelasgians-in-the-ancient-historians-texts/

(c) https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.283059/page/n33/mode/2up  (2nd. Edition, Vol. II, p.8)

(d) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelasgians *

(e) https://isvroma.org/en/2023/01/13/research-seminar-the-early-history-of-the-etruscans-2/ *

 

Leonard, R. Cedric

R. Cedric LeonardR. Cedric Leonard (1934-2022) was from Oklahoma and has worked as an electronic technician, initially in the U.S. Navy and later in private industry, from which he retired in 1990. He studied Comparative Religion, Sanskrit and Classical Greek and has a B.A. in Anthropology from the University of Oklahoma. He is also self-taught in Egyptian, Canaanite and Phoenician inscriptions. He has also speculated on the possibility of the Phoenician alphabet having its origins in Atlantis and the possibility of a connection with the Glozel Tablets(c).

His Sanskrit studies led him to investigate stories of the Vimanas or ancient Hindu flying machines. He has produced several books[130][131]and scientific papers on the subject of Atlantis and ancient India. He has also written on the existence of UFOs in ancient Egypt(d), Mesopotamia(h) and the Bible[132], particularly the Book of Ezekiel(e). He has also produced a paper(f) about archaeological mysteries in general.

However, in his 1979 book, Quest for Atlantis[0130], Leonard has suggested that the Kings of Atlantis were human-alien hybrids and that humans are the result of alien genetic experiments!!

He maintained a very interesting Atlantis website(a), which covered a range of subjects including connections between Cro-Magnon Man and ancient Egypt with Atlantis. 

He located Atlantis along The Mid-Atlantic Ridge and offered geological, mythological, linguistic as well as paleontological evidence to support this idea and for its destruction following worldwide catastrophes around 10,000 BC. He also wrote a paper(g) on the asteroid/comet impact around the same time, which created the Carolina Bays and its possible connection with the destruction of Atlantis. This encounter was brought to the notice of a wider audience by Richard Firestone and his colleagues in their book, The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes[0110].

Before retirement, Leonard supported Posnansky‘s early date for Tiwanaku citing a number of astronomers who endorsed his chronology. “Between 1927 and 1930 Prof. Posnansky’s conclusions were studied intensively by a number of authorities. Dr. Hans Ludendorff (Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Potsdam), Friedrich Becker of the Specula Vaticana, Prof. Arnold Kohlschutter (astronomer at Bonn University), and Rolf Müller (astronomer of the Institute of Astrophysics at Potsdam) verified the accuracy of Posnansky’s calculations and vouched for the reliability of his conclusions.

The conventional practice of dating Tiahuanacu as beginning c. 200 A.D. and collapsing c. 1000 A.D. started with Wendell Bennett’s excavations, which turned up numerous examples of pottery, small statues and other artifacts. Since it is common for later arrivals to be awed by massive ruins (sometimes attributing their origin to supernatural beings, thus replicating the “sacred” images on their own pottery and textiles), I think it is a mistake to fuse the two cultures into one, implying that the later arrivals were the same people who built the original ruins. I believe Bennett and his successors are all guilty of such an error” (i).

Leonard recognised that his belief in prehistoric flying machines may lead some readers to dismiss his carefully thought-out theory on Atlantis, but he is adamant that both existed. Nevertheless, it is fair to say that Leonard is one of the few writers on the subject who has produced original material to support the idea of Atlantis’ existence.

Some of Leonard’s work can be found plagiarised on the Internet, most blatantly by the artist, Charles Alexander Moffat(b).

I have only just discovered that Leonard died on Jan 17, 2022.

>A number of his articles are now available at a new address(j).<

 

(a) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20161212202011/https://www.atlantisquest.com/index.html

b)Atlantis Forgotten – The Search for Atlantis and Eden – The Religion eZine (archive.org)

(c) https://web.archive.org/web/20201001074421/http://s8int.com/articles/260/19/sophis26.html

(d) See related site: The Arrival of the Sky Gods: Ancient Egyptian Papyrus details mass UFO sighting | Ancient Code (archive.org)

(e) See: https://pathwaytoascension.wordpress.com/2013/01/22/the-wheels-of-ezekiel-was-it-a-space-ship-r-cedric-leonard-ph-d/

(f) https://nexusilluminati.blogspot.ie/2011/06/prehistoric-mysteries-perspective-on.html

(g) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20170113112302/https://www.atlantisquest.com/Asteroid.html

(h)  See: Archive 2881

(i) Tiahuanacu, The Mysterious City (archive.org) 

(j) https://atlantisquestscience.wordpress.com/

Guanches

Guanches and Canarios were the names given to the natives of the Canary Islands when conquered by the Spanish in the 15th century following a hundred-year campaign. They are generally considered to be of Cro-Magnon origin having fair or red hair and blue/grey eyes, characteristics that are still to be seen today. Many writers have been convinced that the Guanches were the remnants of the Atlantean civilisation, a belief noted by W.G. Wood-Martin over a century ago [388.1.212]+. Recent DNA studies(j) reveal a diversity of origins for the descendants of Guanches, comparable with the general Canarian population today.

However, a number of recent genetic studies(l)(m) have established a clear relationship with the Berbers of North Africa, probably mountain Berbers(z). Furthermore, it is claimed that the aboriginal language of the Guanches is related to one of the Berber dialects(n). Further evidence favouring a Berber connection was provided in 2017(o). A 2018 paper develops this further with particular reference to the Lybico-Berber script(p).

>A review of our current knowledge of the early Canarians was published in February 2024 on the science.org website(aa) “European archaeologists were fascinated with the early Canarians. The French thought the first settlers were Cro-Magnon, like prehistoric people in France; German archaeologists thought they must have been Aryan; the Spanish thought they were Stone Age relatives of the same North Africans who settled the Iberian Peninsula.

By analyzing ancient DNA from radiocarbon-dated bones, archaeologists in the past 15 to 20 years have found that the first islanders had the strongest genetic ties to the Amazigh cultures of northwestern Africa, also known as Berbers. Rock inscriptions on the islands also echo Amazigh alphabets.”<

Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, it is claimed that the population numbered over 20,000. It is not commonly known that in the 15th century many of the Guanches were abducted and brought to the Madeiras to work as slaves(g).

The Guanches were reported to have had no boats or maritime heritage. If they were all that was left following a catastrophic event, the Guanches were probably the descendants of mountain people who had no seagoing heritage. This view was queried by Henry Eichner who claims that this idea was generated by the faulty assumptions of one of the first Spaniards to visit the island, Nicoloso de Recceo. In 2013, Sergio Navio decided to disprove this notion with a practical demonstration. The plan is to use a basic raft-like boat, named ‘Ursa Minor’ to sail from Lanzarote to La Palma, a distance of 250 miles(f).      

The Spanish conquerors of the Canary Islands may have been able to shed more light on the subject, had they been more interested in history than in territory. According to these early explorers, the natives were surprised to learn that other people had survived the disaster that had flooded their world and submerged much of their homeland. They excitedly asked the conquistadors for help translating ancient inscriptions left by their ancestors that they could no longer read, but unfortunately – for the natives and for history – the Spanish exterminated their tribe before any more information was learned about their history and legends. Their inscriptions remain undeciphered.

The Guanches have been linked with both ancient Egypt and America on a number of grounds including similar methods of mummification(i) and the step pyramids found at both locations(d). In a 2020 documentary(y)and subsequent review(x) the mummification procedures of the Guanches was investigated in minute detail.

Perhaps the most radical idea to emerge in recent times from Jonah G. Lissner was the suggestion that the Guanches or more correctly their ancestors were the founders of predynastic Egypt(q). In a similar vein, Helene E. Hagan wrote The Shining Ones[660], in which she identified the Tamazigh, related to the Guanches, as the founders of Egyptian civilisation.

Reinhard Prahl has published a paper(k) on the Migration & Diffusion website in which he also highlights cultural similarities of the Guanches and ancient Egyptians.

In The Atlantis Encyclopedia [104.130], Frank Joseph wrote, “In 45 A.D., he (Marcellus) recorded that “the inhabitants of the Atlantic island of Poseidon preserve a tradition handed down to them by their ancestors of the existence of an Atlantic island of immense size, of not less than a thousand stadia [about 115 miles], which had really existed in those seas, and which, during a long period of time, governed all the islands of the Atlantic Ocean.” Pliny the Elder seconded Marcellus, writing that the Guanches were in fact the direct descendants of the disaster that sank Atlantis. Proclus reported that they still told the story of Atlantis in his day, circa 410 A.D.” Joseph expanded on some of this in an article in issue #34 of Atlantis Rising(u).

José Luis Concepción (1948- ), a Canarian, has written a number of books with a local theme including The Guanches, Survivors and their Descendant [825], a booklet providing a brief history of the islands. He concurs with the view that the Guanches have an African Cro-Magnon ancestry and are related to modern Berbers. The author also claims that the Guanches are still the dominant race on the Canaries. The booklet has been translated into a number of languages and includes an extensive Spanish bibliography.

A website(a) discussing the Guanches has some interesting if controversial suggestions regarding their origins. Another site highlights a possible connection with the Dravidians of Southern India(c). This Dravidian connection is supported by the late Edo Nyland(e) in his Linguistic Archaeology[1190]Some time ago, Arysio dos Santos wrote a paper, claiming that “we provide linguistic evidence that the Guanche language is very likely of Dravidian derivation, and not indeed Hamito-Semitic, as usually stated(v). The present article is intended to be read in connection with the one entitled: The Mysterious Origin of the Guanches(w).”

Two Russian writers, B.F. Dobrynin[347] and B. L. Bogaevsky[182] in the first quarter of the 20th century wrote articles that supported the idea that there were links between the Guanches and the original Atlanteans.

A 2020 article(t) on the BBC website reiterates the Guanche – Berber connection but adds that “They adapted caves and grottoes to be used as silos and temples. Some of those structures have been preserved to this day and indicate the Guanches’ sophisticated astronomical knowledge: holes on the caves’ walls allowed sunlight in at certain positions during different times of the year, marking solstices and equinoxes.”

[388.1.212]+ https://archive.org/details/traceselderfait00martgoog

(a) https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/esp_guanches_1.htm

(c) https://ositorojo.blogspot.com/2009/12/mystery-of-guanches.html

(d) https://www.google.ie/search?q=%22the+origin+of+the+guanches%22+prahl&rls=com.microsoft:en-gb:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLS_en

(e) https://web.archive.org/web/20190605101058/https://faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/bronze/guanche.htm

(f) https://www.abc.es/local-canarias/20131110/abci-navegar-guanches-lanzarote-lapalma-201311091742.html

(g) https://menceymacro.blogspot.ie/2013/08/la-punta-del-sol-la-historia-de-los.html (Spanish)

(i) See Archive 2617

(j) https://web.archive.org/web/20190620152221/https://www.nature.com/articles/5201075

(k) https://www.migration-diffusion.info/article.php?id=96

(l) https://phys.org/news/2017-10-guanches-north-africa-dna-study.html

(m) https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/10/171026135349.htm

(n) https://web.archive.org/web/20161028034438/https://www.aulaorientalis.org/AuOr%20escaneado/AuOr%206-1988/Volumen%20VI/N_2/4.pdf

(o) https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-evolution-human-origins/researchers-get-closer-finding-origins-enigmatic-guanches-and-no-they-021687

(p) https://journals.openedition.org/corpus/2641

(q) https://joe3998.tripod.com/guanches/ (link broken)

(r) The Mysterious Origin of the Guanches | Atlantis (archive.org)

(s) http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/39792/Abstract (Link Broken)

(t) https://www.bbc.com/travel/story/20200528-the-guanches-spains-mysterious-mummies

(u) Atlantis Rising magazine #34  http://pdfarchive.info/index.php?pages/At

(v) Guanche language derived from Dravida? | (archive.org)

(w) The Mysterious Origin of the Guanches | (archive.org)

(x) https://www.ancient-origins.net/history/guanche-mummies-0015257 

(y) “Las mumias guanches”, a documentary that reveals all the secrets of mummification in the Canary Islands – | Ministry of Culture and Sport (man.es)

(z) https://www.irishexaminer.com/opinion/columnists/arid-20228475.html

(aa)  How did humans survive alone for 1000 years on desert islands off Africa? | Science | AAAS *

 

Cro-Magnon Man *

CroMagnon Man, who emerged around 37,000 years ago and disappeared at the end of the Last Ice Age. He is often described as having a dome-shaped cranium and broad forehead and a brain capacity of 1,600 cc, which is greater than modern man. His skull has thick eyebrow projections and a bony protrusion at the back that is characteristic of both Neanderthal man and Homo erectus. Blavatsky(c), Sepehr(d) along with a number of investigators(e) have suggested that they may have been the original Atlanteans. They have pointed to the physical traits listed above together with blood grouping and linguistic similarities to be found in the same regions of Western Europe and North Africa.

Robert John Langdon also claims that Cro-Magnon/Atlanteans colonised America” based on a study of blood group distribution(b). R. Cedric Leonard is another supporter of the idea of Cro-Magnons in America(h), citing the work of Dennis Stanford & Bruce Bradley [1516]. Leonard offered a more complex view of Cro-Magnons on his now-closed website, but excerpts are available elsewhere(j).

Physical anthropology has identified the modern remnants of Cro-Magnon Man in the Berbers and Tuaregs of North Africa, the Basques of Northern Spain together with small population pockets in the Dordogne Valley and Brittany in France. The highest incidence of Rhesus-negative blood in the world is to be found among the Basques. Similar high levels of Rhesus-negative blood are to be found among the inhabitants of the Canaries and the Atlas Mountains of Morocco; areas where Cro-Magnons lived. This fact is seen as evidence for claiming that the Basques are directly descended from Cro-Magnon Man.

On the basis of skull shape, William Howells[268] and Bertil Lundman[269] have supported this view. The regions that were home to Cro-Magnon Man, in Upper Paleolithic times, were comparable with those occupied by their latter-day successors such as the now-extinct Guanches of the Canaries and the Basques.

R. Cedric Leonard is probably the best-known modern proponent of the Atlantean Cro-Magnon idea(f), he refers to the work of Oliviera Martins[270], who in the 1930s, pointed out that many of the Cro-Magnon people have given themselves distinguishing names with the suffix ’tani’ from the Mauritani of North Africa to the Bretani of Brittany and Britain. Leonard also insists that an analysis of the languages of these groups of people points to a relationship with each other while being quite different from the other languages of Europe or the Near East. He thinks that it is quite possible that these ancient languages date back to the cultures of the Ice Age. Leonard also refers to what he calls “an anomalous Cro-Magnon/Atlantis outpost” in northern Palestine(a).

Alexander Marshack (1918-2004) was an American journalist turned archaeologist, who, in the 1970s, offered evidence[1633] that markings on a number of bones from the Upper Paleolithic were used as lunar calendars to mark the passage of time. Similar markings have been identified on the painted walls of the famous Cro-Magnon Lascaux caves in France(g).

At the Paleolithic site at Little Salt Spring in Florida an antler incised with 28 notches was reported in 2011(i). Commenting on this, Caleb Everett has proposed [1776.30] that “In fact, the marks suggest that this piece of antler is the oldest known New World artifact used for calendrical purposes.” If confirmed, it will go some way towards vindicating the much-criticised theories of Marshack!

This combination of date, geographical spread, language and physical similarities offers a reasonable basis for postulating the idea of a coherent civilisation along the European and North African Atlantic seaboards and in the Atlantic itself, at the end of the last Ice Age that could be accommodated by one interpretation of Plato’s Atlantis. Lewis Spence was a supporter of this possibility.

Jason Colavito has unearthed late 19th-century attempts to link the Cro-Magnons with the Nephilim of the Bible(k).

Johan Nygren believes that Cro-Magnon man lived in Atlantis(c), which he claims had existed in the vicinity of Iceland(l), he also drew attention to the similarities between Greenland and the 17th-century map of Atlantis offered by Athanasius Kircher(m).

The possibility of a Cro-Magnon connection with Atlantis has inspired an American writer, Ernest Warner, to produce a number of novels based on this concept starting with The Cro-Magnon Archipelago: Atlantis Reborn, in 2021.

(a) https://www.atlantisquest.com/Outpost.html (offline March 2018) See Archive 2260

(b) The Post Glacial Flooding Hypothesis: Cro-Magnon/Atlanteans colonised America (archive.org)

(c) Cro Magnon Man And Atlantis – blavatsky.net (archive.org) *

(d) https://atlanteangardens.blogspot.ie/2014/04/the-cro-magnon-invasions.html

(e) https://differentpast.wordpress.com/2012/05/19/cro-magnon-and-atlantis/

(f) https://atlantisforschung.de/index.php?title=Atlantis_und_der_Cro-Magnon-Mensch

(g) https://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/975360.stm

(h) https://web.archive.org/web/20161126063206/https://www.atlantisquest.com/America.html

(i) Budget Cuts Close Florida’s Little Salt Spring – Archaeology Magazine 

(j) new illuminati: Atlantis and Cro-Magnon Man (nexusilluminati.blogspot.com) 

(k) An Early Argument that Cro-Magnons Were the Nephilim – JASON COLAVITO 

(l) https://steemit.com/atlantis/@johan-nygren/iceland-as-atlantis-2-0 

(m) https://steemit.com/geography/@johan-nygren/atlas-the-titan-the-atlas-vertebrae-and-atlantis-as-the-continent-that-carries-the-sky-or-the-earth